Effect of low-level laser therapy on the expression of inflammatory mediators and on neutrophils and macrophages in acute joint inflammation.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Inflammation of the synovial membrane plays an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). The synovial tissue of patients with initial OA is characterized by infiltration of mononuclear cells and production of proinflammatory cytokines and other mediators of joint injury. The objective was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) operating at 50 mW and 100 mW on joint inflammation in rats induced by papain, through histopathological analysis, differential counts of inflammatory cells (macrophages and neutrophils), as well as gene expression of interleukin 1-beta and 6 (IL-1? and IL-6), and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?). METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n = 60) were randomly divided into four groups of 15 animals, namely: a negative control group; an inflammation injury positive control group; a 50 mW LLLT group, subjected to injury and treated with 50 mW LLLT; and a 100 mW LLLT group, subjected to injury and treated with 100 mW LLLT. The animals were subject to joint inflammation (papain solution, 4%) and then treated with LLLT (808 nm, 4 J, 142.4 J/cm(2), spot size 0.028 for both groups). On the day of euthanasia, articular lavage was collected and immediately centrifuged; the supernatant was saved for analysis of expression of TNF? protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expression of IL-1? and IL-6 mRNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction. A histologic examination of joint tissue was also performed. For the statistical analysis, analysis of variance with Tukey's post-hoc test was used for comparisons between each group. All data are expressed as mean values and standard deviation, with P < 0.05. RESULTS: Laser treatment with 50 mW was more efficient than 100 mW in reducing cellular inflammation, and decreased the expression of IL-1? and IL-6. However, the 100 mW treatment led to a higher reduction of TNF? compared with the 50 mW treatment. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT with 50 mW was more efficient in modulating inflammatory mediators (IL-1?, IL-6) and inflammatory cells (macrophages and neutrophils), which correlated with the histology that showed a reduction in the inflammatory process.
Project description:Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease that is commonly treated with surgical and nonsurgical techniques. However, both approaches have limitations. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been widely applied in reducing inflammatory reactions, and research indicates that LLLT induces an anti-inflammatory effect that may enhance periodontal disease therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of LLLT on human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) in an inflammatory environment and aimed to determine the possible mechanism of action. Cells were cultured and treated with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphryromonas gingivalis or Escherichia coli, followed by irradiation with a gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser (660 nm) at an energy density of 8 J/cm2. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions were used to assess the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and IL-8. The dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to examine nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) transcriptional activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to monitor the concentration of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Both LPS treatments significantly induced the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, LLLT inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and elevated intracellular levels of cAMP. The LLLT inhibitory effect may function by downregulating NF-?B transcriptional activity and by increasing the intracellular levels of cAMP. LLLT might inhibit LPS-induced inflammation in hPDLCs through cAMP/NF-?B regulation. These results should be further studied to improve periodontal therapy.
Project description:Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) is a progressive, degenerative response to joint injury, such as articular fracture. The pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin 1(IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), are acutely elevated following joint injury and remain elevated for prolonged periods post-injury. To investigate the role of local and systemic inflammation in the development of post-traumatic arthritis, we targeted both the initial acute local inflammatory response and a prolonged 4 week systemic inflammatory response by inhibiting IL-1 or TNF-? following articular fracture in the mouse knee.Anti-cytokine agents, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) or soluble TNF receptor II (sTNFRII), were administered either locally via an acute intra-articular injection or systemically for a prolonged 4 week period following articular fracture of the knee in C57BL/6 mice. The severity of arthritis was then assessed at 8 weeks post-injury in joint tissues via histology and micro computed tomography, and systemic and local biomarkers were assessed in serum and synovial fluid.Intra-articular inhibition of IL-1 significantly reduced cartilage degeneration, synovial inflammation, and did not alter bone morphology following articular fracture. However, systemic inhibition of IL-1, and local or systemic inhibition of TNF provided no benefit or conversely led to increased arthritic changes in the joint tissues.These results show that intra-articular IL-1, rather than TNF-?, plays a critical role in the acute inflammatory phase of joint injury and can be inhibited locally to reduce post-traumatic arthritis following a closed articular fracture. Targeted local inhibition of IL-1 following joint injury may represent a novel treatment option for PTA.
Project description:Chronic non-healing cutaneous wounds are often vulnerable in one or more repair phases that prevent normal healing and pose challenges to the use of conventional wound care modalities. In immunosuppressed subject, the sequential stages of healing get hampered, which may be the consequences of dysregulated or stagnant wound inflammation. Photobiomodulation (PBM) or low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) emerges as a promising drug-free, non-invasive biophysical approach for promoting wound healing, reduction of inflammation, pain and restoration of functions. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the photobiomodulatory effects of 810 nm diode laser (40 mW/cm2; 22.6 J/cm2) with pulsed (10 and 100 Hz, 50% duty cycle) and continuous wave on full-thickness excision-type dermal wound healing in hydrocortisone-induced immunosuppressed rats. Results clearly delineated that 810 nm PBM at 10 Hz was more effective over continuous and 100 Hz frequency in accelerating wound healing by attenuating the pro-inflammatory markers (NF-kB, TNF-?), augmenting wound contraction (?-SM actin), enhancing cellular proliferation, ECM deposition, neovascularization (HIF-1?, VEGF), re-epithelialization along with up-regulated protein expression of FGFR-1, Fibronectin, HSP-90 and TGF-?2 as compared to the non-irradiated controls. Additionally, 810 nm laser irradiation significantly increased CCO activity and cellular ATP contents. Overall, the findings from this study might broaden the current biological mechanism that could be responsible for photobiomodulatory effect mediated through pulsed NIR 810 nm laser (10 Hz) for promoting dermal wound healing in immunosuppressed subjects.
Project description:Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are vulnerable to physical injury of the intervertebral foramen, and chronic compression of the DRG (CCD) an result in nerve root damage with persistent morbidity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the DRG in a CCD model and to determine the mechanisms underlying these effects. CCD rats had L-shaped stainless-steel rods inserted into the fourth and fifth lumbar intervertebral foramen, and the rats were then subjected to 0 or 8 J/cm2 LLLT for 8 consecutive days following CCD surgery. Pain and heat stimuli were applied to test for hyperalgesia following CCD. The levels of TNF-?, IL-1? and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were measured via real-time PCR, and protein expression levels were analyzed through immunohistochemical analyses. Our data indicate that LLLT significantly decreased the tolerable sensitivity to pain and heat stimuli in the CCD groups. The expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-1? were increased following CCD, and we found that these increases could be reduced by the application of LLLT. Furthermore, the expression of GAP-43 was enhanced by LLLT. In conclusion, LLLT was able to enhance neural regeneration in rats following CCD and improve rat ambulatory behavior. The therapeutic effects of LLLT on the DRG during CCD may be exerted through suppression of the inflammatory response and induction of neuronal repair genes. These results suggest potential clinical applications for LLLT in the treatment of compression-induced neuronal disorders.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (i-I/R) is an insult associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Herein we evaluate the dose-response effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on lung inflammation induced by i-I/R. METHODS:Mice were subjected to mesenteric artery occlusion (45 min) and killed after clamp release and intestinal reperfusion (2h). Increasing doses (1, 3, 5 and 7,5 J/cm(2)) of laser irradiation (660 nm) was carried out on the mice skin over the upper bronchus for 5 min after initiating reperfusion. Neutrophils activation was determined by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The mRNA expression and protein concentration of inflammatory mediators IL-1?, IL-6, TNF and IL-10 in lung were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS:With exception of 1J/cm(2), LLLT reduced MPO activity as well as IL-1? levels in the lungs from inflamed mice. LLLT was also markedly effective in reducing both IL-6 and TNF expression and levels in the lungs from mice submitted to i-I/R in all laser doses studied. Otherwise, LLLT significantly increased the protein levels of IL-10 in inflamed mice by i-I/R; however only in the dose of 1J/cm(2). CONCLUSION:We conclude that the LLLT is able to control the neutrophils activation and proinflammatorycytokines release into the lungs in a model of i-I/R in mice.
Project description:Muscle wasting (MW) in catabolic conditions (e.g., burn injury [BI]) is a major risk factor affecting prognosis. Activation of interleukin-1? (IL-1?)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and/or forkhead box O transcriptional factor (FOXO)-mediated gene transcription pathways is the pivotal trigger of inflammatory response-induced protein catabolic processes in muscle. The ?7 acetylcholine receptors (?7AChRs) are upregulated in macrophages and peripheral tissues including skeletal muscle during MW conditions. Stimulation of ?7AChRs mitigates inflammatory responses. Hypothesis tested is that attenuation of inflammation by ?7AChR stimulation with specific ?7AChR agonist, GTS-21, will reverse BI-induced body mass and MW by modulating inflammatory and proteolytic signals.Body surface area (30%) BI or sham BI mice were treated with GTS-21 or saline. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle was harvested at 6?h, day 1 or 3 to examine inflammatory and proteolytic signals.GTS-21 significantly ameliorated the BI-induced increased expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1?, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (6?h), phosphorylated STAT3, and NF-?B (day 1) in TA muscle. GTS-21 also significantly inhibited BI-induced increase of MuRF1 and FOXO1 (day 1). Consistent with the cytokine and inflammatory mediator changes, BI-induced body weight and TA muscle mass loss at day 3 were mitigated by GTS-21 treatment. The beneficial effect of GTS-21 on BI changes was absent in methyllycaconitine (?7AChR antagonist)-treated wild-type and ?7AChR knockout mice.GTS-21 stimulation of ?7AChRs, by modulating multiple molecular signals related to inflammation and proteolysis, attenuates protein wasting, evidenced by maintenance of body weight and attenuation of distant muscle mass loss after BI. GTS-21 can be a novel, potent therapeutic option for reversal of BI-induced MW.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Photobiomodulation using low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been tested as a new technique to optimize recovery of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study is to evaluate inhibitory attentional control after 18 sessions of active LLLT and compare with the placebo group (sham LLLT). Our exploratory analysis will evaluate the efficacy of the active LLLT on verbal and visuospatial episodic memory, executive functions (working memory, verbal and visuospatial fluency, attentional processes), and anxiety and depressive symptoms compared to the sham group. METHODS/DESIGN:A randomized double-blinded trial will be made in 36 patients with moderate and severe TBI. The active LLLT will use an optical device composed of LEDs emitting 632 nm of radiation at the site with full potency of 830 mW. The cranial region with an area of 400 cm2 will be irradiated for 30 min, giving a total dose per session of 3.74 J/cm2. The sham LLLT group contains only an LED device with power?<?1 mW, only serving to simulate the irradiation. Each patient will be irradiated three times per week for six weeks, totaling 18 sessions. Neuropsychological assessments will be held one week before the beginning of the sessions, after one week, and three months after the end of LLLT sessions. Memory domain, attention, executive functioning, and visual construction will be evaluated, in addition to symptoms of depression, anxiety, and social demographics. DISCUSSION:LLLT has been demonstrated as a safe and effective technique in significantly improving the memory, attention, and mood performance in healthy and neurologic patients. We expect that our trial can complement previous finds, as an effective low-cost therapy to improve cognitive sequel after TBI. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02393079 . Registered on 20 February 2015.
Project description:Macrophages and resident microglia play an import role in the secondary neuroinflammation response following spinal cord injury. Reprogramming of macrophage/microglia polarization is an import strategy for spinal cord injury restoration. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a noninvasive treatment that has been widely used in neurotrauma and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the influence of low-level laser on polarization of macrophage/microglia following spinal cord injury remains unknown. The present study applied low-level laser therapy on a crush spinal cord injury rat model. Using immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, RT-qPCR, and western blot assays, we found that low-level laser therapy altered the polarization state to a M2 tendency. A greater number of neurons survived in the pare injury site, which was accompanied by higher BBB scores in the LLLT group. Furthermore, low-level laser therapy elevated expression of interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 13 (IL-13). Results from this study show that low-level laser therapy has the potential for reducing inflammation, regulating macrophage/microglia polarization, and promoting neuronal survival. These beneficial effects demonstrate that low-level laser therapy may be an effective candidate for clinical treatment of spinal cord injury.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Interleukin (IL)-17A has emerged as pivotal in driving tissue pathology in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. The role of IL-17F, sharing 50% sequence homology and overlapping biological function, remains less clear. We hypothesised that IL-17F, together with IL-17A, contributes to chronic tissue inflammation, and that dual neutralisation may lead to more profound suppression of inflammation than inhibition of IL-17A alone. METHODS:Preclinical experiments assessed the role of IL-17A and IL-17F in tissue inflammation using disease-relevant human cells. A placebo-controlled proof-of-concept (PoC) clinical trial randomised patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) to bimekizumab (n=39) or placebo (n=14). Safety, pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of multiple doses (weeks 0, 3, 6 (240 mg/160 mg/160 mg; 80 mg/40 mg/40 mg; 160 mg/80 mg/80 mg and 560 mg/320 mg/320 mg)) of bimekizumab, a humanised monoclonal IgG1 antibody neutralising both IL-17A and IL-17F, were investigated. RESULTS:IL-17F induced qualitatively similar inflammatory responses to IL-17A in skin and joint cells. Neutralisation of IL-17A and IL-17F with bimekizumab more effectively suppressed in vitro cytokine responses and neutrophil chemotaxis than inhibition of IL-17A or IL-17F alone. The PoC trial met both prespecified efficacy success criteria and showed rapid, profound responses in both joint and skin (pooled top three doses vs placebo at week 8: American College of Rheumatology 20% response criteria 80.0% vs 16.7% (posterior probability >99%); Psoriasis Area and Severity Index 100% response criteria 86.7% vs 0%), sustained to week 20, without unexpected safety signals. CONCLUSIONS:These data support IL-17F as a key driver of human chronic tissue inflammation and the rationale for dual neutralisation of IL-17A and IL-17F in PsA and related conditions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02141763; Results.
Project description:Because collagen type V (Col V) can be exposed in tissue injury, we hypothesized that oral administration of this collagen species modulates the inflammation and remodeling of experimental synovitis, avoiding joint destruction, and that the modulation may differ according to the temporal administration. Arthritis (IA, n = 20) was induced in Lewis rats by intraarticular (ia) injection of 500 ?g of methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) (10 ?l) followed by an intraarticular booster of mBSA (50 ?g) in saline (50 ?l) administered at 7 and 14 days. The control group received saline (50 ?l, ia). After the first intraarticular injection, ten IA animals were supplemented via gavage with Col V (500 ?g/300 ?l) daily for 30 days (IA/Suppl). The control group received saline (50 ?L) and Col V supplement in the same way (Suppl). Col V oral administration in IA/Suppl led to 1) inhibited edema and severe inflammatory cell infiltration, 2) decreased collagen fiber content, 3) decreased collagen type I, 4) inhibited lymphocyte subpopulations and macrophages, 5) inhibited IL-1?, IL-10, IL-17 and TNF-? production and 6) increased expression of caspase-9 in the synovial tissue. In conclusion, Col V supplementation decreased synovial inflammation and the fibrotic response, possibly by increased the apoptosis of inflammatory cells.