All-trans-retinoic acid antagonizes the Hedgehog pathway by inducing patched.
ABSTRACT: Male germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a model for a curable solid tumor. GCTs can differentiate into mature teratomas. Embryonal carcinomas (ECs) represent the stem cell compartment of GCTs and are the malignant counterpart to embryonic stem (ES) cells. GCTs and EC cells are useful to investigate differentiation therapy and chemotherapy response. This study explored mechanistic interactions between all-trans-retinoic acid (RA), which induces differentiation of EC and ES cells, and the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway, a regulator of self-renewal and proliferation. RA was found to induce mRNA and protein expression of Patched 1 (Ptch1), the Hh ligand receptor and negative regulator of this pathway. PTCH1 is also a target gene of Hh signaling through Smoothened (Smo) activation. Yet, this observed RA-mediated Ptch1 induction was independent of Smo. It occurred despite co-treatment with RA and Smo inhibitors. Retinoid induction of Ptch1 also occurred in other RA-responsive cancer cell lines and in normal ES cells. Notably, this enhanced Ptch1 expression was preceded by induction of the homeobox transcription factor Meis1, a direct RA target. Direct interaction between Meis1 and Ptch1 was confirmed using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. To establish the translational relevance of this work, Ptch1 expression was shown to be deregulated in human ECs relative to mature teratoma and the normal seminiferous tubule. Taken together, these findings reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism through which RA can inhibit the Hh pathway via Ptch1 induction. Engaging this pathway is a new way to repress the Hh pathway that can be translated into the cancer clinic.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cartilage damage is a crucial step in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease progress while its molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we investigated the expression of hedgehog (Hh) signal pathway in articular cartilage of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats and its possible pathological role in cartilage damage. METHODS:30 rats were divided into sham and AIA group (n?=?15). Complete Freund's adjuvant was used to induce AIA. Secondary paw swelling was measured on day 10, 14, 18, 22 and 26 after induction. Rats were sacrificed on day 26 and knee joints and cartilage tissues were collected. Paw swelling, cartilage histopathologic changes and OARSI scores were used to evaluate AIA in rats. The protein expression of Hh signal related genes (Shh, Ptch1, Smo and Gli1) in cartilage were assayed by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of Shh, Ptch1, Smo, Gli1, type-II collagen (COII) and aggrecan in cartilage were assayed by real-time PCR. In vitro study, cultured AIA chondrocytes were treated with cyclopamine (a specific inhibitor of Hh signal) and the mRNA levels of Hh signal and ECM components (COII and aggrecan) were measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS:Immunohistochemical results revealed that Shh, Ptch1, Smo and Gli1 proteins showed higher expression in the articular cartilage of AIA rats than those of sham rats. Real-time PCR results confirmed that Shh, Ptch1, Smo and Gli1 mRNA levels in cartilage tissues of AIA rats were significantly increased compared with those of sham rats (1.6, 1.4, 1.6, 2.0 fold, respectively). The mRNA levels of Shh, Ptch1, Smo, and Gli1 were associated with the severity of cartilage damage (indicated by OARSI scores, COII and aggrecan mRNA levels in cartilage). In vitro, cyclopamine effectively decreased the mRNA levels of Shh, Ptch1, Smo and Gli1, and increased the mRNA levels of COII and aggrecan in AIA chondrocytes, suggesting Hh signal inhibition might directly promote ECM production. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings present certain experimental evidence that Hh signal pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of cartilage damage in RA.
Project description:Hedgehog (Hh) signalling is mediated through the Patched-1 (Ptch1) receptor. Hh-binding to Ptch1 blocks the inhibitory effects of Ptch1 on the activity of the transmembrane protein, Smoothened (Smo), resulting induction of target genes by the Gli-family of transcription factors. We demonstrate here that Hh-binding to Ptch1 stimulates activation of Erk1/2. This activation is insensitive to the small molecule Smo antagonists and occurs in a cell line that does not express Smo. Specifically, the C-terminus of Ptch1 harbours motifs encoding Class I and II SH3-binding sites. SH3-domain binding activity was verified using GST-c-src(SH3), -Grb2(SH3) and -p85beta(SH3) fusion-proteins. Ectopically expressed Grb2 or p85beta could also be co-immunoprecipitated with the Ptch1 C-terminus. Addition of Shh to serum-starved human mammary epithelial cells and Shh Light II fibroblasts stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2. Erk1/2 activation was observed in cells where Smo activity had been inhibited using cyclopamine and in the breast epithelial cell line, MCF10A, that does not express Smo. These data reveal novel binding activities for the C-terminal region of Ptch1 and define a signalling pathway stimulated by the Hh-ligands operating independently of pathways requiring Smo.
Project description:The developmentally important hedgehog (Hh) pathway is activated by binding of Hh to patched (Ptch1), releasing smoothened (Smo) and the downstream transcription factor glioma associated (Gli) from inhibition. The mechanism behind Ptch1-dependent Smo inhibition remains unresolved. We now show that by mixing Ptch1-transfected and Ptch1 small interfering RNA-transfected cells with Gli reporter cells, Ptch1 is capable of non-cell autonomous repression of Smo. The magnitude of this non-cell autonomous repression of Smo activity was comparable to the fusion of Ptch1-transfected cell lines and Gli reporter cell lines, suggesting that it is the predominant mode of action. CHOD-PAP analysis of medium conditioned by Ptch1-transfected cells showed an elevated 3beta-hydroxysteroid content, which we hypothesized to mediate the Smo inhibition. Indeed, the inhibition of 3beta-hydroxysteroid synthesis impaired Ptch1 action on Smo, whereas adding the 3beta-hydroxysteroid (pro-)vitamin D3 to the medium effectively inhibited Gli activity. Vitamin D3 bound to Smo with high affinity in a cyclopamine-sensitive manner. Treating zebrafish embryos with vitamin D3 mimicked the smo(-/-) phenotype, confirming the inhibitory action in vivo. Hh activates its signalling cascade by inhibiting Ptch1-dependent secretion of the 3beta-hydroxysteroid (pro-)vitamin D3. This action not only explains the seemingly contradictory cause of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), but also establishes Hh as a unique morphogen, because binding of Hh on one cell is capable of activating Hh-dependent signalling cascades on other cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is critical for embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Recent studies have identified regulatory roles for this pathway in certain cancers with mutations in the HH pathway genes. The extent to which mutations of the HH pathway genes are involved in the pathogenesis of malignant mesothelioma (MMe) is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Real-time PCR analysis of HH pathway genes PTCH1, GLI1 and GLI2 were performed on 7 human MMe cell lines. Exon sequencing of 13 HH pathway genes was also performed in cell lines and human MMe tumors. In silico programs were used to predict the likelihood that an amino-acid substitution would have a functional effect. GLI1, GLI2 and PTCH1 were highly expressed in MMe cells, indicative of active HH signaling. PTCH1, SMO and SUFU mutations were found in 2 of 11 MMe cell lines examined. A non-synonymous missense SUFU mutation (p.T411M) was identified in LO68 cells. In silico characterization of the SUFU mutant suggested that the p.T411M mutation might alter protein function. However, we were unable to demonstrate any functional effect of this mutation on Gli activity. Deletion of exons of the PTCH1 gene was found in JU77 cells, resulting in loss of one of two extracellular loops implicated in HH ligand binding and the intracellular C-terminal domain. A 3-bp insertion (69_70insCTG) in SMO, predicting an additional leucine residue in the signal peptide segment of SMO protein was also identified in LO68 cells and a MMe tumour. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified the first novel mutations in PTCH1, SUFU and SMO associated with MMe. Although HH pathway mutations are relatively rare in MMe, these data suggest a possible role for dysfunctional HH pathway in the pathogenesis of a subgroup of MMe and help rationalize the exploration of HH pathway inhibitors for MMe therapy.
Project description:Regulation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway relies on an interaction of two receptors. In the absence of Hh, Patched1 (Ptch1) inhibits the pathway. Binding of the ligand Hh to Ptch1 stimulates the localization of the activating receptor Smoothened (Smo) to the primary cilium, which is required for the transcriptional Hh response. Hh can also induce chemotaxis through a nontranscriptional pathway. We assessed the effects of defective ciliary localization of Smo on its subcellular trafficking and ability to mediate chemotactic signaling. Cells expressing mutants of Smo that could not localize to the primary cilium or cells lacking the primary cilium showed altered intracellular trafficking of Smo and, in response to Hh or Smo agonists, decreased transcriptional signaling and enhanced chemotactic responsiveness. Thus, the ciliary localization machinery appears to transport Smo to subcellular sites where it can mediate transcriptional signaling and away from locations where it can mediate chemotactic signaling. The subcellular localization of Smo is thus a crucial determinant of its signaling characteristics and implies the existence of a pool of Smo dedicated to chemotaxis.
Project description:The Hedgehog (HH) signalling pathway is a cell-cell communication system that controls the patterning of multiple tissues during embryogenesis in metazoans. In adults, HH signals regulate tissue stem cells and regenerative responses. Abnormal signalling can cause birth defects and cancer. The HH signal is received on target cells by Patched (PTCH1), the receptor for HH ligands, and then transmitted across the plasma membrane by Smoothened (SMO). Recent structural and biochemical studies have pointed to a sterol lipid, likely cholesterol itself, as the elusive second messenger that communicates the HH signal between PTCH1 and SMO, thus linking ligand reception to transmembrane signalling.
Project description:Patched1 (PTCH1) is a human tumour suppressor that acts as an HH (Hedgehog) receptor protein and is important for embryonic patterning. PTCH1 mediates its effects through SMO (Smoothened) and represses the expression of HH target genes such as the transcription factor GLI1 (glioma 1) as well as PTCH1. Up-regulation of these genes has been observed in several cancer forms, including basal cell carcinoma, digestive track tumours and small cell lung cancer. The fact that PTCH1 down-regulates its own expression via 'negative feedback' is an important feature in HH signalling, as it keeps the balance between HH and PTCH1 activities that are essential for normal development. In the present study, we provide evidence that a novel mechanism allowing PTCH1 to maintain this balance may also exist. We show that gene activation by GLI1, the transcriptional effector of the pathway, can be down-regulated by PTCH1 without involvement of the canonical cascade of HH signalling events. Specifically, the SMO antagonist cyclopamine has no appreciable effects in blocking this PTCH1-mediated inhibition. Moreover, the negative GLI1 regulator SUFU (Suppressor of Fused) was also found to be dispensable. Additionally, deletion mapping of PTCH1 has revealed that the domains encompassed by amino acids 180-786 and 1058-1210 are of highest significance in inhibiting GLI1 gene activation. This contrasts with the importance of the PTCH1 C-terminal domain for HH signalling.
Project description:The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is a highly conserved signaling cascade crucial for cell fate determination during embryogenesis. Response to the Hh ligands is mediated by the receptor Patched-1 (Ptch1), a 12-pass transmembrane glycoprotein. Despite its essential role in Hh signaling and its activity as a tumor suppressor, Ptch1 remains largely uncharacterized. We demonstrate here that Ptch1 binds to itself to form oligomeric structures. Oligomerization is mediated by two distinct, structurally disordered, intracellular domains spanning amino acids 584-734 ("middle loop") and 1162-1432 (C terminus). However, oligomerization is not required for Ptch1-dependent regulation of the canonical Hh pathway operating through Smo. Expression of a mutant protein that deletes both regions represses the Hh pathway and responds to the addition of Hh ligand independent of its inability to bind other factors such as Smurf2. Additionally, deletion of the cytoplasmic middle loop domain generates a Ptch1 mutant that, despite binding to Hh ligand, constitutively suppresses Hh signaling and increases the length of primary cilia. Constitutive activity because of deletion of this region is reversed by further deletion of specific sequences in the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain. These data reveal an interaction between the cytoplasmic domains of Ptch1 and that these domains modulate Ptch1 activity but are not essential for regulation of the Hh pathway.
Project description:Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCC), mainly caused by PTCH1 gene mutations. Our current study aimed to establish (1) PTCH1 germinal and somatic mutational status, (2) component and Hedgehog (HH) pathway targets gene expression patterns, and (3) profile variations according to the genetic background in BCC and normal surrounding skin (NSS). We collected 23 blood and 20 BCC patient samples and analyzed the PTCH1 gene using bidirectional sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Quantitative PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression levels of PTCH1, SMO, GLI3, and CCND1 in paired samples of BCC and NSS from 20 patients and four non-NBCCS skin controls (C). Our analyses identified 12 germline and five somatic sequence variants in PTCH1. mRNA levels of PTCH1, SMO, and GLI3 were higher in NSS compared to C samples, reaching maximum values in BCC samples (p < 0.05). NSS with PTCH1 germline mutations had modified SMO, PTCH1, and GLI3 mRNA levels compared to samples without mutation (p < 0.01). Two PTCH1 mutations in BCC led to an increase in PTCH1, SMO, and GLI3, and a decrease in CCND1 mRNA levels (p < 0.01 vs. BCC with germline mutation only). These results indicate that besides PTCH1, other genes are responsible for NBCCS and BCC development in a population exposed to high UV radiation. Additionally, the mutational events caused increased expression of HH-related genes, even in phenotypically normal skin.
Project description:Sebaceous carcinoma (SC) is a clinical masquerader of benign conditions resulting in significant eye morbidity, sometimes leading to extensive surgical treatment including exenteration, and even mortality. Little is known about the genetic or molecular basis of SC. This study identifies the involvement of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in periocular SC.Fifteen patients with periocular SC patients were compared to 15 patients with eyelid nodular basal cell carcinoma (nBCC; a known Hh tumor), alongside four normal individuals as a control for physiological Hh expression. Expression of Patched 1 (PTCH1), Smoothened (SMO), and glioma-associated zinc transcription factors (Gli1 and Gli2) were assessed in histological sections using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence (IF) techniques. Antibody specificity was verified using Western-blot analysis of a Gli1 over-expressed cancer cell line, LNCaP-Gli1. Semi-quantification compared tumors and control tissue using IF analysis by ImageJ software.Expression of the Hh pathway was observed in SC for all four major components of the pathway. PTCH1, SMO, and Gli2 were more significantly upregulated in SC (P?<?0.01) compared to nBCC. Stromal expression of PTCH1 and Gli2 was observed in SC (P?<?0.01). In contrast, stromal expression of these proteins in nBCC was similar or down-regulated compared to physiological Hh controls.The Hh signaling pathway is significantly more upregulated in periocular SC compared to nBCC, a known aberrant Hh pathway tumor. Furthermore, the stroma of the SC demonstrated Hh upregulation, in particular Gli2, compared to nBCC. Targeting of this pathway may be a potential treatment strategy for SC.