Morbidity and health care resource utilization in HIV-infected children after antiretroviral therapy initiation in Cote d'Ivoire, 2004-2009.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:We describe severe morbidity and health care resource utilization (HCRU) among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS:All HIV-infected children enrolled in an HIV-care program (2004-2009) were eligible for ART initiation until database closeout, death, ART interruption, or loss to follow-up. We calculated incidence rates (IRs) of density per 100 child-years (CYs) for severe morbidity, HCRU (outpatient care and inpatient care), and associated factors using frailty models with a Weibull distribution. RESULTS:Of 332 children with a median age of 5.7 years and median follow-up of 2.5 years, 65.4% were severely immunodeficient by World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, and all received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. We recorded 464 clinical events in 228 children; the overall IR was 57.6/100 CYs [95% confidence interval (CI): 52.1 to 62.5]. Severe morbidity was more frequent in children on protease inhibitor (PI)-based ART compared to those on other regimens [adjusted hazards ratio (aHR): 1.83; 95% CI: 1.35 to 2.47] and to those moderately/severely immunodeficient compared to those not (aHR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.18 and aHR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.81 to 3.55, respectively). Of the 464 events, 371 (80%) led to outpatient care (IR: 45.6/100 CYs) and 164 (35%) to inpatient care (IR: 20.2/100 CYs). In adjusted analyses, outpatient care was significantly less frequent in children older than 10 years compared with children younger than 2 years (aHR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.78) and in those living furthest from clinics compared with those living closest (aHR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.90). Both inpatient and outpatient HCRU were negatively associated with cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS:Despite ART, HIV-infected children still require substantial utilization of health care services.
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children globally. The aims of this study were to determine the mortality rate and to identify the predictors of mortality among TB/HIV co-infected children at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital.A retrospective follow-up study was conducted among TB/HIV co-infected children from February 2005 to March 2017. A Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate the median survival time. Bivariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to identify the predictors of mortality.A total of 271 TB/HIV co-infected children were included in the analysis. Of these, 38(14.02%) children were died during the follow-up period. This gives a total of 1167.67 child-years of observations. The overall mortality rate was 3.27(95%CI: 2.3-4.5) per 100 child-years. The independent predictors of time to death were age 1-5 years (as compared to age <1 year) (AHR = 0.3; 95%CI:0.09-0.98)), being anemic (AHR = 2.6; 95%CI:1.24-5.3), cotrimoxazole preventive therapy(CPT) non-users (AHR = 4.1; 95%CI:1.4-16.75), isoniazid preventive therapy(IPT) non-users (AHR = 2.95; 95%CI:1.16-7.5), having extra pulmonary tuberculosis(EPTB) (AHR = 2.43; 95%CI:1.1-5.3)) and fair or poor adherence to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART)(AHR = 3.5; 95%CI:1.7-7.5).Mortality rate among TB/HIV co-infected children was high at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Age, extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, anemia, adherence, CPT and IPT were the independent predictors of mortality.
Project description:Paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines have been updated several times in recent years. We assessed implementation of ART guidelines among under-five children to inform the transition to universal paediatric ART in Tanzania.We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of infants (0 to 11 months) and children (12 to 59 months) enrolled between 2010 and 2012 using routinely collected data. Infants and children were initiated on ART according to the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations/2009 Tanzania guidelines (universal ART for infants). Cumulative ART initiation incidence and correlates of ART initiation were examined using competing risk methods accounting for attrition (death or loss to follow-up). Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression models were used to examine attrition on ART and its correlates.A total of 1679 children were enrolled at 69 clinics: 469 (28%) infants and 1210 (74%) children. Infant cumulative ART initiation incidence was 59.6, 71.3 and 78.0% at one, three and six months of follow-up. Infants were more likely to start ART if enrolled in 2012 [adjusted sub-hazard ratio (AsHR)=2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7 to 2.8] or 2011 (AsHR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.4 to 2.3) compared to 2010; they were more likely to start ART from prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (AsHR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.1) and inpatient wards (AsHR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 2.0) versus being enrolled from voluntary counselling and testing centres. Attrition at 12 months on ART was 33.9% and was more likely among infants with WHO Stage 4 [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=3.1. 95% CI: 1.8 to 5.2] and severe malnutrition (AHR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.0 to 1.9).Among 599 children eligible for ART at enrollment, cumulative ART initiation incidence was 51.8, 68.6 and 76.1% at one, three, and six months. Children were more likely to start ART if enrolled in 2012 (AsHR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.4 to 2.3) or 2011 (AsHR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 1.8) compared to 2010; they were more likely to start ART at primary health facilities (AsHR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.0) and less likely at urban facilities (AsHR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.5 to 0.9) and facilities without CD4 testing on site (AsHR=0.7, 95% CI: 0.5 to 0.9). Attrition at 12 months on ART was 23.1% and was more likely with severe malnutrition (AHR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.1 to 3.0), WHO Stage 4 (AHR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.0 to 8.5) and outpatient enrolees (AHR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.7).Our findings suggest the gradual adoption of guidelines over calendar time. Interventions to expedite ART initiation and support retention on ART are needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cotrimoxazole (CTX) preventive therapy (CPT) reduces opportunistic infections and malaria in HIV-infected patients. In Africa, policies on sustained CPT during antiretroviral therapy (ART) differ between countries. We assessed the safety of discontinuing CPT in stable patients on ART in Uganda. METHODS:COSTOP was a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Patients aged ?18 years, on CPT, and stable on ART (CD4 counts ?250 cells/?L); were randomised to daily oral placebo (PLC group) or cotrimoxazole 960 mg/tablet (CTX group). Co-primary outcomes were: (i) time to first cotrimoxazole-preventable infection, with non- inferiority of PLC defined as the upper one-sided 95% confidence limit of the adjusted hazard ratio(aHR) ?1.25; and (ii) time to first grade 3/4 haematological adverse event. FINDINGS:2180 subjects (1091 PLC; 1089 CTX) were enrolled. 932 PLC and 943 CTX completed the trial after 12 months minimum follow up. Ninety-eight participants (59 PLC; 39 CTX) experienced 120 cotrimoxazole- preventable events, mainly bacterial pneumonia (72 events, 4 deaths PLC); (48 events, 2 deaths CTX). The aHR for time to first event was 1.57 (upper one-sided 95% confidence limit 2.21) in per protocol population (similar results in ITT population). 551 participants (318 CTX; 233 PLC) experienced 1043 haematological adverse events (616 CTX; 427 PLC). Time to the first adverse event, mainly neutropenia, was shorter in the CTX group (aHR 0.70 95%CI 0.59-0.82; log-rank ?2 = 18.08; P<0.0001). 362 (276 PLC, 86 CTX) participants experienced at least one episode of confirmed clinical malaria (P<0.0001). INTERPRETATION:In ART stable patients with CD4 counts ?250 cells/?L, continued CPT significantly reduces risk of severe bacterial infections and protects against malaria, while discontinuing CPT reduces haematological adverse events.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To access the costs of care for Ivoirian children before and after initiating LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) before the age of two.<h4>Methods</h4>We assessed the direct costs of care for all HIV-infected children over the first 12 months on LPV/r-based ART initiated <2 years of age in Abidjan. We recorded all drug prescriptions, ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis delivery, medical analyses/examinations and hospital admissions. We compared these costs to those accrued in the month prior to ART initiation. Costs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated per child-month, according to severe morbidity.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 114 children screened, 99 initiated LPV/r-based ART at a median age of 13.5 months (IQR: 6.8-18.6); 45% had reached World Health Organization stage 3 or 4. During the first 12 months on ART, 5% died and 3% were lost to follow-up. In the month before ART initiation, the mean cost of care per child-month reached $123.39 (95%CI:$121.02-$125.74). After ART initiation, it was $42.53 (95%CI:$42.15-$42.91); 50% were ART costs. The remaining costs were non-antiretroviral drugs (18%) and medical analyses/examinations (14%). Mean costs were significantly higher within the first three months on ART ($48.76, 95%CI:$47.95-$49.56) and in children experiencing severe morbidity ($49.76, 95%CI:$48.61-50.90).<h4>Conclusion</h4>ART reduces the overall monthly cost of care of HIV-infected children < 2 years. Because children were treated at an advanced HIV disease stage, the additional costs of treating severe morbidity on ART remain substantial. Strategies for treating HIV-infected children as early as possible must remain a priority in Côte d'Ivoire.
Project description:Loss to follow-up (LTFU) challenges the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up among pediatric patients. Little is known about children who drop out of care. We aim to analyze risk factors for LTFU among children on ART, find their true outcomes through tracing, and investigate their final outcomes after resuming ART.This is a descriptive, retrospective, cohort study of children on ART between April 2006 and December 2010 in 2 clinics in urban Malawi. Routine data from an electronic data system were used and matched with information obtained through routine tracing procedures.Of 985 children (1999 child-years) on ART, 251 were LTFU: 12.6/100 child-years. At ART initiation, wasting [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.58 and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02 to 2.44] was independently associated with higher risk of LTFU. Of 201 LTFU children traced, 79% were found: 11% died, 25% stopped, 26% transferred-out, and 37% were still on ART. Median time between last visit and first tracing was 84 days (interquartile range: 64-101 days). Tracing reduced risk of LTFU by 38% (AHR 0.62 and 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.91) and decreased LTFU from 23.2% to 8.5%. Additional outcomes of stop, death, and transfer-out increased 4.4-fold, 1.8-fold, and 1.3-fold, respectively. Traced children with gaps in ART intake who resumed ART had higher risk of stopping (AHR 4.92 and 95% CI: 1.67 to 14.5) and transfer out (AHR 2.70 and 95% CI: 1.75 to 4.17) as final outcome.Early tracing substantially reduces LTFU; approximately one-third presumed LTFU was found to be still on ART. Children with wasting at initiation and those traced and found to have irregular ART intake require targeted interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) significantly improves the survival status and quality of life among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children, loss to follow-up (LTFU) from HIV-care profoundly affecting the treatment outcomes of this vulnerable population. For better interventions, up-to-date information concerning LTFU among HIV-infected children on ART is vital. However, only a few studies have been conducted in Ethiopia to address this concern. Thus, this study aims to identify the predictors of LTFU among HIV-infected children receiving ART at Debre Markos Referral Hospital. METHODS:An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was done among 408 HIV-infected children receiving ART at Debre Markos Referral Hospital between 2005 and March 15, 2019. Data were abstracted from the medical records of HIV-infected children using a standardized data abstracted checklist. We used Epi-Data Version 3.1 for data entry and Stata Version 14 for statistical analysis. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to estimate the survival time. A generalized log-rank test was used to compare the survival curves of different categorical variables. Finally, both bi-variable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to identify the predictors of LTFU. RESULTS:Of 408 HIV-infected children included in the final analysis, 70 (17.1%) children were LTFU at the end of the study. The overall incidence rate of LTFU among HIV-infected children was found to be 4.5 (95%CI: 3.5-5.7) per 100-child years of observation. HIV-infected children living in rural areas (AHR: 3.2, 95%CI: 2.0-5.3), having fair or poor ART drug adherence (AHR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.4-3.7), children started ART through test and treat approach (AHR: 2.7, 95%CI: 1.4-5.5), and children started protease inhibiter (PI)-based ART regimens (AHR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.1-4.4) were at higher risk of LTFU. CONCLUSION:This study found that one in every six HIV-infected children lost form ART follow-up. HIV-infected children living in rural areas, having fair or poor ART drug adherence, started ART based on test and treat approach, and taking PI-based ART regimens were at higher risk of LTFU.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Complete follow-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants (HEI) is crucial for a successful prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. This study analyzed the HEI follow-up and factors associated with loss to follow-up (LTFU) in southern Mozambique. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study used the data of HEI enrolled between June 2017 and June 2018, followed-up for 18 months. The outcomes were the proportion of infants with completed follow-up and a definitive diagnosis, and the presence of clinical events. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to calculate the cumulative probability of LTFU and of clinical events. Factors associated with LTFU and clinical events were analyzed using Cox regression to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and adjusted HR (AHR), with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and a significance cutoff of p<0.05. RESULTS:1413 infants were enrolled (49% males) at a median age of 32 days (IQR 31-41); the median follow-up time was 12 months (IQR 8.2-14.2); 1129 (80%) completed follow-up and had a definitive diagnosis, 58 (4%) were HIV-positive, 225 (16%) were LTFU; 266 (19%) presented a clinical event. Factors associated with LTFU were: age >2 months at entry (AHR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.12-2.23), non-exclusive breastfeeding (AHR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.01-2.06), poor cotrimoxazole adherence (AHR, 3.42; 95% CI, 1.59-7.35), and clinical events (AHR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.34-0.77). Factors associated with clinical events were: malnutrition (AHR, 10.06; 95% CI, 5.92-17.09), non-exclusive breastfeeding (AHR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.34-2.93), no nevirapine prophylaxis (AHR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.18-2.36), and poor cotrimoxazole adherence (AHR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.10-6.22). CONCLUSION:The high rate of HEI LTFU, associated with delayed linkage to postnatal care, poor prophylaxis adherence, non-exclusive breastfeeding, indicates the need to design a differentiated service delivery model that is tailored to the mothers' and infants' specific needs.
Project description:?The growth benefits of cotrimoxazole during early antiretroviral therapy (ART) are not well characterized.?Individuals enrolled in the Therapeutics Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database were included if they started ART at ages 1 month-14 years and had both height and weight measurements available at ART initiation (baseline). Generalized estimating equations were used to identify factors associated with change in height-for-age z-score (HAZ), follow-up HAZ ? -2, change in weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), and follow-up WAZ ? -2.?A total of 3217 children were eligible for analysis. The adjusted mean change in HAZ among cotrimoxazole and non-cotrimoxazole users did not differ significantly over the first 24 months of ART. In children who were stunted (HAZ < -2) at baseline, cotrimoxazole use was not associated with a follow-up HAZ ? -2. The adjusted mean change in WAZ among children with a baseline CD4 percentage (CD4%) >25% became significantly different between cotrimoxazole and non-cotrimoxazole users after 6 months of ART and remained significant after 24 months (overall P < .01). Similar changes in WAZ were observed in those with a baseline CD4% between 10% and 24% (overall P < .01). Cotrimoxazole use was not associated with a significant difference in follow-up WAZ in children with a baseline CD4% <10%. In those underweight (WAZ < -2) at baseline, cotrimoxazole use was associated with a follow-up WAZ ? -2 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.70 vs not using cotrimoxazole [95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.25], P < .01). This association was driven by children with a baseline CD4% ?10%.?Cotrimoxazole use is associated with benefits to WAZ but not HAZ during early ART in Asian children.
Project description:This study assessed the prevalence of concurrently wasted and stunted (WaSt) children, their characteristics, treatment outcomes and response; and factors associated with time to recovery among children aged 6-59 months admitted to Outpatient Therapeutic Care (OTC) in Karamoja, Uganda. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with data from January 2016 to October 2017 for children admitted to nine OTCs in Karamoja. We defined wasted, stunted and underweight as 2.0 Z-scores below the median per WHO growth standards and < 12.5 cm for low Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). WaSt was defined as concurrently wasted and stunted. Out of 788 eligible children included in the analysis; 48.7% (95% CI; 45.2-52.2) had WaSt. WaSt was common among males; 56.3% (95% CI; 51.3-61.3). Median age was 18 months in WaSt versus 12 months in non-WaSt children (p < 0.001). All WaSt children were underweight; and more severely wasted than non-WaSt children. During recovery, WaSt children gained weight more rapidly than non-WaSt children (2.2g/kg/day vs. 1.7g/kg/day). WaSt children had lower recovery rate (58.0% vs. 65.4%; p = 0.037). The difference in median time of recovery between WaSt and non-WaSt children (63 days vs. 56 days; p = 0.465) was not significant. Factors associated with time to recovery were children aged 24-59 months (aHR = 1.30; 95% CI;1.07-1.57;), children with MUAC 10.5-11.4 cm (aHR = 2.03; 95% CI; 1.55-2.66), MUAC ? 11.5 cm at admission (aHR = 3.31; 95% CI; 2.17-5.02) and living in Moroto (aHR = 3.34; 95% CI; 2.60-4.30) and Nakapiripirit (aHR = 1.95; 95% CI; 1.51-2.53) districts. The magnitude of children with WaSt in OTC shows that existing therapeutic feeding protocols could be used to detect and treat WaSt children. Further research is needed to identify and address the factors associated with sub-optimal recovery in WaSt children for effective OTC programming in Karamoja.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major public health concern globally, especially in sub-Saharan African countries. Even though determining the incidence of treatment failure and its predictor is a crucial step to reduce the problem, there is limited information indicating the incidence and predictors of treatment failure among children in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the incidence and predictors of treatment failure among children on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Amhara Region referral hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia.<h4>Methods</h4>An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was conducted from January 30, 2011, to January 30, 2018. A total of 402 children on first-line antiretroviral therapy were selected with a simple random sampling method in Amhara Region Referral Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia. Data were extracted by reviewing patients' ART intake and follow-up forms using pretested and structured checklists. The collected data were entered into Epidata Version 4.2 and analysis was done using STATA Version 13. Bivariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were fitted to identify predictors of treatment failure.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 402 records of children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) were reviewed and treatment failures rate within the follow-up period were 12.19% (95% CI: 8.5, 15.88). This study also found that the overall incidence density rate was 3.77% per 100 person-years observation. Virologic failure accounts 48.98% followed by immunologic (28.57%) and mixed failures (22.44%). Poor ART adherence (AHR: 4.6, 95%CI: 1.61, 13.20), drug regimens, AZT-3TC-NVP (AHR: 5.2, 95%CI: 1.9, 14.26), and AZT-3TC-EFV (AHR: 6.26, 95% CI: 1.88, 20.87), Children whose both parent were died (AHR: 2.8, 95%CI: 1.07, 7.37) and world health organization (WHO) clinical stage-4 (AHR: 2.95, 95%CI: 1.04, 8.366) were found to be predictors for treatment failure among children.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The proportion of treatment failure among children on first-line ART in Amhara Region referral hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia was found to be high. Nearly half of the children experienced Virologic failure. Poor ART adherence, children whose parents`died without parents, WHO clinical stage-4 at baseline and type of regimen patients took were found to be predictors of first-line ART treatment failure. Therefore, expanding access to routine viral load, CD4 and clinical monitoring is mandatory to detect and early intervene of treatment failures' to improve outcomes for children on ART. Patient caregivers or parents should strictly support children on medication adherence. Training to health professionals should be given time-based on revised guidelines, and follow up of treatment outcome should be monitored nationally to take the appropriate intervention.