Isolation of maedi/visna virus from a sheep in Japan.
ABSTRACT: Maedi/visna (MV) is a lentiviral disease of sheep caused by the maedi/visna virus (MVV). Although MV is prevalent in many countries, it had not been reported in Japan. In 2011, however, three sheep in northern Japan were reported to be seropositive against the MVV antigen, indicating a persistent MVV infection. In the present study, we isolated MVV from one sheep to confirm MVV infection and conducted genomic classification of the virus. The co-culture of leukocytes from a seropositive sheep with fetal goat lung cells resulted in the formation of syncytial cells and the amplification of a long terminal repeat sequence of MVV by polymerase chain reaction. The isolate was confirmed as being MVV, rather than the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus based on phylogenetic analysis of the gag gene sequence. Although the sheep was asymptomatic, nonpurulent meningitis and demyelination were found in the spinal cord. These were considered to be early lesions associated with pathogenic MVV infection. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that MVV is distributed in Japan.
Project description:Maedi-Visna is an important slow viral disease of sheep leading to progressive pneumonia, encephalitis and mastitis. Udder is one of the organs affected by MVV. Despite the fact that in Iran Maedi-Visna is known since 2000, to the authors' knowledge correlation of subclinical mastitis and infection with MVV has not been assayed. In this study 50 milk samples from 10 flocks in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested. None of the animals exhibited any clinical signs of the disease. Forty samples were collected from CMT positive ewes and ten were taken from CMT negative ewes. Milk samples were analyzed using PCR targeting gag sequence. Presence of provirus DNA was detected in one sample from CMT negative and seven samples from CMT positive ewes. These data demonstrate that 16.5 % of sheep with subclinical mastitis were infected to MVV. Thus this virus can be considered one of the main pathogenic agents of mastitis and can be dramatically transmitted to lambs by milk.
Project description:A caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)/maedi-visna virus (MVV) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) was validated with samples from U.S. sheep and by the use of radioimmunoprecipitation as the standard for comparison. The sensitivity and the specificity were 86.0% (+ or - 5.8%) and 95.9% (+ or - 2.9%), respectively. The iELISA format and phylogenetic differences based on the MVV gag sequence contribute to the reduced sensitivity.
Project description:Maedi-visna (MV) is a complex lentiviral disease syndrome characterised by long immunological and clinical latencies and chronic progressive inflammatory pathology. Incurable at the individual level, it is widespread in most sheep-keeping countries, and is a cause of lost production and poor animal welfare. Culling seropositive animals is the main means of control, but it might be possible to manage virus transmission effectively if its epidemiology was better quantified. We derive a mathematical epidemiological model of the temporal distributions of seroconversion probabilities and estimate susceptibility, transmission rate and latencies in three serological datasets. We demonstrate the existence of epidemiological latency, which has not explicitly been recognised in the SRLV literaure. This time delay between infection and infectiousness apparently exceeds the delay between infection and seroconversion. Poor body condition was associated with more rapid seroconversion, but not with a higher probability of infection. We estimate transmission rates amongst housed sheep to be at about 1,000 times faster than when sheep were at grass, when transmission was negligible. Maternal transmission has only a small role in transmission, because lambs from infected ewes have a low probability of being infected directly by them, and only a small proportion of lambs need be retained to maintain flock size. Our results show that MV is overwhelmingly a disease of housing, where sheep are kept in close proximity. Prevalence of MV is likely to double each year from an initial low incidence in housed flocks penned in typically-sized groups of sheep (c. 50) for even a few days per year. Ewes kept entirely at grass are unlikely to experience transmission frequently enough for MV to persist, and pre-existing infection should die out as older ewes are replaced, thereby essentially curing the flock.
Project description:Background:Maedi-Visna (MV) is a progressive lymphoproliferative viral disease that affects multiple organs of small ruminants, including sheep and goats. The disease occurs primarily in the lung tissue and causes interstitial pneumonia. Aims:The aim of present study was to investigate the prevalence of ovine MV infection in Iranian sheep population through macroscopic, histopathological, serological, and molecular assays, as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Methods:Lung and blood samples of one-hundred female sheep (? 2 years old) referred to the Kermanshah slaughterhouse with respiratory symptoms were collected for histopathological and molecular evaluations. Corresponding serum samples were also collected for serological examination. Results:Histopathological study showed the Maedi-like pulmonary lesions in 85% of the affected lungs, which included the interstitial pneumonia, smooth muscle hypertrophy of alveolar septa and around the blood vessels, interstitial lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and lymphofollicular hyperplasia. Specific antibodies against MV virus were detected in 7% of serum samples. Long terminal repeat (LTR) region of MV provirus was amplified in three (3%) DNA samples, extracted from the suspected lungs. Sequencing analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive samples confirmed the presence of MV provirus in the genome. No amplification was observed, neither in the DNA samples extracted from the blood samples of suspected sheep nor the control group. Transmission electron microscopy also confirmed the presence of MV virions inside the cytoplasmic membrane of MV-infected macrophages. Conclusion:Although histopathology can provide a preliminary estimation of Maedi in populations, definitive diagnosis of the disease needs to be approved by more sensitive techniques such as serological examinations and molecular analysis.
Project description:We have characterized the properties of the maedi-visna virus (MVV) glycoprotein, which has a long cytoplasmic C-terminal domain, and of a panel of C-terminally truncated and C-terminally chimeric MVV-Env constructs. Cells expressing wild-type MVV glycoprotein form syncytia with target cells from many different species and tissues, demonstrating that the MVV-Env cellular receptor is widely distributed. Similar to the situation with other lentiviral glycoproteins, truncation of the C-terminal domain of MVV-Env significantly increases its membrane fusion capacity. However, despite their presence in a fusogenic form at the cell surface, neither the wild-type nor any of the C-terminally modified MVV-Env constructs, these latter lacking sterically inhibitory C termini, were able to successfully pseudotype murine leukemia virus- or human immunodeficiency virus-derived vector particles.
Project description:The restrictive properties of tripartite motif-containing 5 alpha (TRIM5?) from small ruminant species have not been explored. Here, we identify highly similar TRIM5? sequences in sheep and goats. Cells transduced with ovine TRIM5? effectively restricted the lentivirus visna/maedi virus DNA synthesis. Proteasome inhibition in cells transduced with ovine TRIM5? restored restricted viral DNA synthesis, suggesting a conserved mechanism of restriction. Identification of TRIM5? active molecular species may open new prophylactic strategies against lentiviral infections.
Project description:Maedi-visna, a disease caused by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), is present in sheep from many countries, also including Germany. An amino acid substitution (E/K) at position 35 of the transmembrane protein 154 (TMEM154) as well as a deletion in the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor type 5 gene (CCR5) were reported to be associated with the serological MV status and/or the SRLV provirus concentration in North American sheep populations. The aim of this study was to test if those two gene variants might be useful markers for MV susceptibility in Germany. For this purpose, more than 500 sheep from 17 serologically MV positive German sheep flocks with different breed backgrounds were genotyped applying PCR-based methods. Both, crosstab and non-parametric analyses showed significant associations of the amino acid substitution at position 35 of TMEM154 with the serological MV status (cut-off-based classification) and the median MV ELISA S/P value in all samples and in two of the four analyzed breed subsets. The deletion in the CCR5 promoter did not show a consistent association with serological MV status or median ELISA S/P value. It can be concluded that the amino acid substitution at position 35 of TMEM154 is a promising marker for breeding towards a lower number of serologically MV positive sheep in German flocks, at least in flocks of the Texel breed, while this remains questionable for the deletion in the CCR5 promoter. The findings of this study still need to be verified in additional sheep breeds.
Project description:BACKGROUND:All lentiviruses except equine infectious anemia virus (EIVA) antagonize antiviral family APOBEC3 (A3) proteins of the host through viral Vif proteins. The mechanism by which Vif of human, simian or feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV/SIV/FIV) suppresses the corresponding host A3s has been studied extensively. RESULTS:Here, we determined that bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) and maedi-visna virus (MVV) Vif proteins utilize the Cullin (Cul)-ElonginB (EloB)-ElonginC (EloC) complex (BIV Vif recruits Cul2, while MVV Vif recruits Cul5) to degrade Bos taurus (bt)A3Z2-Z3 and Ovis aries (oa)A3Z2-Z3, respectively, via a proteasome-dependent but a CBF-?-independent pathway. Mutation of the BC box in BIV and MVV Vif, C-terminal hydrophilic replacement of btEloC and oaEloC and dominant-negative mutants of btCul2 and oaCul5 could disrupt the activity of BIV and MVV Vif, respectively. While the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN could block BIV Vif-mediated degradation of btA3Z2-Z3, it had minimal effects on oaA3Z2-Z3 degradation induced by MVV Vif, indicating that Zn is important for the activity of BIV Vif but not MVV Vif. Furthermore, we identified a previously unreported zinc binding loop [C-x1-C-x1-H-x19-C] in the BIV Vif upstream BC box which is critical for its degradation activity. CONCLUSIONS:A novel zinc binding loop was identified in the BIV Vif protein that is important for the E3 ubiquination activity, suggesting that the degradation of btA3Z2-Z3 by BIV and that of oaA3Z2-Z3 by MVV Vif may need host factors other than CBF-?.
Project description:We investigated the role of the 5'-untranslated region between the primer binding site and the gag initiation codon in ovine lentivirus maedi-visna virus (MVV) genomic RNA encapsidation. We identified five computer-predicted stem-loops, three of which were highly conserved in primary sequence and structure. One stable 83-nucleotide (nt) stem-loop (SL4) was not conserved in the primary sequence, but phylogenetic analysis revealed several base pair covariations. The deletion of individual stem-loops did not markedly affect the relative encapsidation efficiency (REE). Only one mutant, carrying a disruption of a 31-nt stem-loop (SL5), had 58% REE in fetal ovine synovial (FOS) cells. A 168-nt deletion (Delta3MSD) downstream of the major splice donor (MSD) which removed three stem-loops, including SL5, resulted in 24% and 20% REE in FOS and 293T cells, respectively. A 100-nt deletion (Delta5MSD) upstream of the MSD resulted in 15-fold lower cellular genomic RNA levels than the wild-type levels in 293T cells. The Delta5MSD mutant and a double mutant (DM) (Delta5MSD and Delta3MSD) did not express detectable levels of virion proteins in 293T cells. In contrast, the region deleted in Delta5MSD was dispensable in FOS cells, and the DM had the same REE as the Delta3MSD virus. Thus, the region upstream of the MSD contains sequences critical for RNA and protein expression in a cell type-specific fashion. Our results indicate that MVV encapsidation determinants are located downstream of the MSD. These results provide comparative insight into lentiviral encapsidation and can be utilized in the design of MVV-based gene transfer vectors.
Project description:Recombination of different strains and subtypes is a hallmark of lentivirus infections, particularly for human immunodeficiency virus, and contributes significantly to viral diversity and evolution both within individual hosts and within populations. Recombinant viruses are generated in individuals coinfected or superinfected with more than one lentiviral strain or subtype. This, however, has never been described in vivo for the prototype lentivirus maedi-visna virus of sheep and its closely related caprine counterpart, the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Cross-species infections occur in animals living under natural conditions, which suggests that dual infections with small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) are possible. In this paper we describe the first documented case of coinfection and viral recombination in two naturally infected goats. DNA fragments encompassing a variable region of the envelope glycoprotein were obtained from these two animals by end-limiting dilution PCR of peripheral blood mononuclear cells or infected cocultures. Genetic analyses, including nucleotide sequencing and heteroduplex mobility assays, showed that these goats harbored two distinct populations of SRLVs. Phylogenetic analysis permitted us to assign these sequences to the maedi-visna virus group (SRLV group A) or the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus group (SRLV group B). SimPlot analysis showed clear evidence of A/B recombination within the env gene segment of a virus detected in one of the two goats. This case provides conclusive evidence that coinfection by different strains of SRLVs of groups A and B can indeed occur and that these viruses actually recombine in vivo.