Pelo is required for high efficiency viral replication.
ABSTRACT: Viruses hijack host factors for their high speed protein synthesis, but information about these factors is largely unknown. In searching for genes that are involved in viral replication, we carried out a forward genetic screen for Drosophila mutants that are more resistant or sensitive to Drosophila C virus (DCV) infection-caused death, and found a virus-resistant line in which the expression of pelo gene was deficient. Our mechanistic studies excluded the viral resistance of pelo deficient flies resulting from the known Drosophila anti-viral pathways, and revealed that pelo deficiency limits the high level synthesis of the DCV capsid proteins but has no or very little effect on the expression of some other viral proteins, bulk cellular proteins, and transfected exogenous genes. The restriction of replication of other types of viruses in pelo deficient flies was also observed, suggesting pelo is required for high level production of capsids of all kinds of viruses. We show that both pelo deficiency and high level DCV protein synthesis increase aberrant 80S ribosomes, and propose that the preferential requirement of pelo for high level synthesis of viral capsids is at least partly due to the role of pelo in dissociation of stalled 80S ribosomes and clearance of aberrant viral RNA and proteins. Our data demonstrated that pelo is a host factor that is required for high efficiency translation of viral capsids and targeting pelo could be a strategy for general inhibition of viral infection.
Project description:Viral internal ribosomes entry site (IRES) elements coordinate the recruitment of the host translation machinery to direct the initiation of viral protein synthesis. Within hepatitis C virus (HCV)-like IRES elements, the sub-domain IIId(1) is crucial for recruiting the 40S ribosomal subunit. However, some HCV-like IRES elements possess an additional sub-domain, termed IIId2, whose function remains unclear. Herein, we show that IIId2 sub-domains from divergent viruses have different functions. The IIId2 sub-domain present in Seneca valley virus (SVV), a picornavirus, is dispensable for IRES activity, while the IIId2 sub-domains of two pestiviruses, classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and border disease virus (BDV), are required for 80S ribosomes assembly and IRES activity. Unlike in SVV, the deletion of IIId2 from the CSFV and BDV IRES elements impairs initiation of translation by inhibiting the assembly of 80S ribosomes. Consequently, this negatively affects the replication of CSFV and BDV. Finally, we show that the SVV IIId2 sub-domain is required for efficient viral RNA synthesis and growth of SVV, but not for IRES function. This study sheds light on the molecular evolution of viruses by clearly demonstrating that conserved RNA structures, within distantly related RNA viruses, have acquired different roles in the virus life cycles.
Project description:Insect viruses have evolved strategies to control the host RNAi antiviral defense mechanism. In nature, Drosophila melanogaster C virus (DCV) infection causes low mortality and persistent infection, whereas the closely related cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) causes a lethal infection. We show that these viruses use different strategies to modulate the host RNAi defense machinery. The DCV RNAi suppressor (DCV-1A) binds to long double-stranded RNA and prevents processing by Dicer2. In contrast, the CrPV suppressor (CrPV-1A) interacts with the endonuclease Argonaute 2 (Ago2) and inhibits its activity without affecting the microRNA (miRNA)-Ago1-mediated silencing. We examined the link between viral RNAi suppressors and the outcome of infection using recombinant Sindbis viruses encoding either CrPV-1A or DCV-1A. Flies infected with Sindbis virus expressing CrPV-1A showed a marked increase in virus production, spread and mortality. In contrast, Sindbis pathogenesis was only modestly increased by expression of DCV- 1A. We conclude that RNAi suppressors function as virulence factors in insects and can target the Drosophila RNAi pathway at different points.
Project description:Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus (DCV) was added to the sample as a control. Two-thirds of reads in the infected sample had DCV as the best BLAST hit, suggesting that the protocol developed is highly sensitive. In addition to the DCV hits, several sequences had Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, as a best BLAST hit. The virus associated with these sequences was termed Drosophila innubila Nudivirus (DiNV). PCR screens of natural populations showed that DiNV was both common and widespread taxonomically and geographically. Electron microscopy confirms the presence of virions in fly fecal material similar in structure to other described Nudiviruses. In 2 species, D. innubila and D. falleni, the virus is associated with a severe (?80-90%) loss of fecundity and significantly decreased lifespan.
Project description:The DEAD-box helicase DDX3 has suggested functions in innate immunity, mRNA translocation and translation, and it participates in the propagation of assorted viruses. Exploring initially the role of DDX3 in the life cycle of hepatitis C virus, we observed the protein to be involved in translation directed by different viral internal ribosomal entry sites. Extension of these studies revealed a general supportive role of DDX3 in translation initiation. DDX3 was found to interact in an RNA-independent manner with defined components of the translational pre-initiation complex and to specifically associate with newly assembling 80S ribosomes. DDX3 knock down and in vitro reconstitution experiments revealed a significant function of the protein in the formation of 80S translation initiation complexes. Our study implies that DDX3 assists the 60S subunit joining process to assemble functional 80S ribosomes.
Project description:Drosophila C virus (DCV) is a positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Dicistroviridae family. This natural pathogen of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster is commonly used to investigate antiviral host defense in flies, which involves both RNA interference and inducible responses. Although lethality is used routinely as a readout for the efficiency of the antiviral immune response in these studies, virus-induced pathologies in flies still are poorly understood. Here, we characterize the pathogenesis associated with systemic DCV infection. Comparison of the transcriptome of flies infected with DCV or two other positive-sense RNA viruses, Flock House virus and Sindbis virus, reveals that DCV infection, unlike those of the other two viruses, represses the expression of a large number of genes. Several of these genes are expressed specifically in the midgut and also are repressed by starvation. We show that systemic DCV infection triggers a nutritional stress in Drosophila which results from intestinal obstruction with the accumulation of peritrophic matrix at the entry of the midgut and the accumulation of the food ingested in the crop, a blind muscular food storage organ. The related virus cricket paralysis virus (CrPV), which efficiently grows in Drosophila, does not trigger this pathology. We show that DCV, but not CrPV, infects the smooth muscles surrounding the crop, causing extensive cytopathology and strongly reducing the rate of contractions. We conclude that the pathogenesis associated with systemic DCV infection results from the tropism of the virus for an important organ within the foregut of dipteran insects, the crop.DCV is one of the few identified natural viral pathogens affecting the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. As such, it is an important virus for the deciphering of host-virus interactions in insects. We characterize here the pathogenesis associated with DCV infection in flies and show that it results from the tropism of the virus for an essential but poorly characterized organ in the digestive tract, the crop. Our results may have relevance for other members of the Dicistroviridae, some of which are pathogenic to beneficial or pest insect species.
Project description:The endosymbiont Wolbachia is known to block replication of several important arboviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), in the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. So far, the exact mechanism of this viral inhibition is not fully understood. A recent study in Drosophila melanogaster has demonstrated an interaction between the pelo gene and Drosophila C virus. In this study, we explored the possible involvement of the pelo protein, that is involved in protein translation, in Wolbachia-mediated antiviral response and mosquito-DENV interaction. We found that pelo is upregulated during DENV replication and its silencing leads to reduced DENV virion production suggesting that it facilities DENV replication. However, in the presence of Wolbachia, specifically in female mosquitoes, the pelo protein is downregulated and its subcellular localization is altered, which could contribute to reduction in DENV replication in Ae. aegypti. In addition, we show that the microRNA aae-miR-2940-5p, whose abundance is highly enriched in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes, might mediate regulation of pelo. Our data reveals identification of pelo as a host factor that is positively involved in DENV replication, and its suppression in the presence of Wolbachia may contribute to virus blocking exhibited by the endosymbiont.
Project description:Cycloheximide at concentrations of 0.1-100mum stimulated chlorophyll synthesis when dark-grown cells of Euglena were illuminated. Chloramphenicol (1-4mm) inhibited chlorophyll synthesis. The effect of cycloheximide on the incorporation of [(14)C]leucine into material insoluble in trichloroacetic acid, and its failure to affect the incorporation of [(32)P]orthophosphate into such material in short incubations, are interpreted as evidence that cycloheximide specifically inhibits protein synthesis by 80S ribosomes. Since the inhibitory effect of chloramphenicol on chlorophyll synthesis is counteracted by the presence of cycloheximide, it is suggested that chlorophyll synthesis is subject to control by a cytoplasmic repressor synthesized on 80S ribosomes, and to a de-repressor synthesized on 70S ribosomes.
Project description:In order to establish productive infection and dissemination, viruses usually evolve a number of strategies to hijack and/or subvert the host defense systems. However, host factors utilized by the virus to facilitate infection remain poorly characterized. In this work, we found that Drosophila melanogaster deficient in budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1 (bub1), a highly conserved subunit of the kinetochore complex regulating chromosome congression (1), became resistant to Drosophila C virus (DCV) infection, evidenced in increased survival rates and reduced viral loads, compared to the wild-type control. Mechanistic analysis further showed that Bub1 also functioned in the cytoplasm and was essentially involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis of DCV and other pathogens, thus limiting pathogen entry. DCV infection potentially had strengthened the interaction between Bub1 and the clathrin adaptor on the cell membrane. Furthermore, the conserved function of Bub1 was also verified in a mammalian cell line. Thus, our data demonstrated a previously unknown function of Bub1 that could be hijacked by pathogens to facilitate their infection and spread.IMPORTANCE In this work, we identify for the first time that the nuclear protein Bub1 (budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1), a highly conserved subunit of the kinetochore complex regulating chromosome congression, has a novel and important function on the cell membrane to facilitate the virus to enter host cells. Bub1 deficiency empowers the host to have the ability to resist viral infection in Drosophila and a human cell line. Bub1 is involved in the virus entry step through regulating endocytosis. The DCV capsid protein can recruit Bub1, and DCV infection can strengthen the interaction between Bub1 and a clathrin-dependent endocytosis component. The restricted entry of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Listeria monocytogenes in bub1-deficient flies and cell lines was also observed. Therefore, our data implicate a previously unknown function of Bub1 that can be hijacked by pathogens to facilitate their entry, and Bub1 may serve as a potential antiviral therapy target for limiting viral entry.
Project description:Variation in susceptibility to infectious disease often has a substantial genetic component in animal and plant populations. We have used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Drosophila melanogaster to identify the genetic basis of variation in susceptibility to viral infection. We found that there is substantially more genetic variation in susceptibility to two viruses that naturally infect D. melanogaster (DCV and DMelSV) than to two viruses isolated from other insects (FHV and DAffSV). Furthermore, this increased variation is caused by a small number of common polymorphisms that have a major effect on resistance and can individually explain up to 47% of the heritability in disease susceptibility. For two of these polymorphisms, it has previously been shown that they have been driven to a high frequency by natural selection. An advantage of GWAS in Drosophila is that the results can be confirmed experimentally. We verified that a gene called pastrel--which was previously not known to have an antiviral function--is associated with DCV-resistance by knocking down its expression by RNAi. Our data suggest that selection for resistance to infectious disease can increase genetic variation by increasing the frequency of major-effect alleles, and this has resulted in a simple genetic basis to variation in virus resistance.
Project description:The distribution of assembled, and potentially translating, ribosomes within cells can be visualised in Drosophila by using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) to monitor the interaction between tagged pairs of 40S and 60S ribosomal proteins (RPs) that are close neighbours across inter-subunit junctions in the assembled 80S ribosome. Here we describe transgenes expressing two novel RP pairs tagged with Venus-based BiFC fragments that considerably increase the sensitivity of this technique we termed Ribo-BiFC. This improved method should provide a convenient way of monitoring the local distribution of ribosomes in most Drosophila cells and we suggest that it could be implemented in other organisms. We visualised 80S ribosomes in different neurons, particularly photoreceptors in the larva, pupa and adult brain. Assembled ribosomes are most abundant in the various neuronal cell bodies, but they are also present along the full length of axons. They are concentrated in growth cones of developing photoreceptors and are apparent at the terminals of mature larval photoreceptors targeting the larval optical neuropil. Surprisingly, there is relatively less puromycin incorporation in the distal portion of axons in the larval optic stalk, suggesting that some of the ribosomes that have initiated translation may not be engaged in elongation in growing axons.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.