Draft Genome Sequences of Six Strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Early Mortality Syndrome/Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease Shrimp in Thailand.
ABSTRACT: Some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus cause acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp. We sequenced 3 AHPND and 3 non-AHPND strains and found that all of them lacked the pathogenicity island relevant to human infection. A unique sequence encoding a type IV pilus/type IV secretion system was found in 3 AHPND strains.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a newly emerging shrimp disease that has severely damaged the global shrimp industry. AHPND is caused by toxic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that have acquired a "selfish plasmid" encoding the deadly binary toxins PirAvp/PirBvp To better understand the repertoire of virulence factors in AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus, we conducted a comparative analysis using the genome sequences of the clinical strain RIMD2210633 and of environmental non-AHPND and toxic AHPND isolates of V. parahaemolyticus Interestingly, we found that all of the AHPND strains, but none of the non-AHPND strains, harbor the antibacterial type VI secretion system 1 (T6SS1), which we previously identified and characterized in the clinical isolate RIMD2210633. This finding suggests that the acquisition of this T6SS might confer to AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus a fitness advantage over competing bacteria and facilitate shrimp infection. Additionally, we found highly dynamic effector loci in the T6SS1 of AHPND-causing strains, leading to diverse effector repertoires. Our discovery provides novel insights into AHPND-causing pathogens and reveals a potential target for disease control.IMPORTANCE Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a serious disease that has caused severe damage and significant financial losses to the global shrimp industry. To better understand and prevent this shrimp disease, it is essential to thoroughly characterize its causative agent, Vibrio parahaemolyticus Although the plasmid-encoded binary toxins PirAvp/PirBvp have been shown to be the primary cause of AHPND, it remains unknown whether other virulent factors are commonly present in V. parahaemolyticus and might play important roles during shrimp infection. Here, we analyzed the genome sequences of clinical, non-AHPND, and AHPND strains to characterize their repertoires of key virulence determinants. Our studies reveal that an antibacterial type VI secretion system is associated with the AHPND strains and differentiates them from non-AHPND strains, similar to what was seen with the PirA/PirB toxins. We propose that T6SS1 provides a selective advantage during shrimp infections.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has recently emerged as a serious disease of cultured shrimp. A total of 19 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from shrimp samples were characterized based on morphological characteristics, biochemical tests, sequencing analysis, and their ability to antagonize Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which causes AHPND in whiteleg shrimp. Results from the agar well diffusion method indicated that 3 out of 19 isolated LAB strains showed the highest antagonizing ability against AHPND V. parahaemolyticus strain with an inhibition zone diameter ranging from 18 to 20 mm. Experiments where shrimps were given feed supplemented with these LAB strains and challenged with AHPND strain showed high survival rates (approximately 80.0%), which were not significantly different as compared to those recorded in the negative control treatment (86.6%), but significantly different to those recorded in the positive control treatment (40.6%) after 16 days of the experiment. However, the histological images of shrimp hepatopancreas indicated that the infection rate significantly reduced from 60.0% to 11.1% in shrimps fed with LAB-supplemented feeds and challenged with AHPND V. parahaemolyticus strain as compared to those in the positive control treatment. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed the identification of LAB strain. These results can be applied in further experiments to investigate the ability of L. plantarum in preventing AHPND in intensively cultured whiteleg shrimp.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of shrimp is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates (VPAHPND isolates) that harbor a pVA plasmid encoding toxins PirA Vp and PirB Vp These are released from VPAHPND isolates that colonize the shrimp stomach and produce pathognomonic AHPND lesions (massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells). PCR results indicated that V. parahaemolyticus isolate XN87 lacked pirA Vp but carried pirB Vp Unexpectedly, Western blot analysis of proteins from the culture broth of XN87 revealed the absence of both toxins, and the lack of PirB Vp was further confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. However, shrimp immersion challenge with XN87 resulted in 47% mortality without AHPND lesions. Instead, lesions consisted of collapsed hepatopancreatic tubule epithelia. In contrast, control shrimp challenged with typical VPAHPND isolate 5HP gave 90% mortality, accompanied by AHPND lesions. Sequence analysis revealed that the pVA plasmid of XN87 contained a mutated pirA Vp gene interrupted by the out-of-frame insertion of a transposon gene fragment. The upstream region and the beginning of the original pirA Vp gene remained intact, but the insertion caused a 2-base reading frameshift in the remainder of the pirA Vp gene sequence and in the downstream pirB Vp gene sequence. Reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing of 5HP revealed a bicistronic pirAB Vp mRNA transcript that was not produced by XN87, explaining the absence of both toxins in its culture broth. However, the virulence of XN87 revealed that some V. parahaemolyticus isolates carrying mutant pVA plasmids that produce no Pir Vp toxins can cause mortality in shrimp in ponds experiencing an outbreak of early mortality syndrome (EMS) but may not have been previously recognized to be AHPND related because they did not cause pathognomonic AHPND lesions.IMPORTANCE Shrimp acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates (VPAHPND isolates) that harbor the pVA1 plasmid encoding toxins PirA Vp and PirB Vp The toxins are produced in the shrimp stomach but cause death by massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells (pathognomonic AHPND lesions). V. parahaemolyticus isolate XN87 harbors a mutant pVA plasmid that produces no Pir toxins and does not cause AHPND lesions but still causes ?50% shrimp mortality. Such isolates may cause a portion of the mortality in ponds experiencing an outbreak of EMS that is not ascribed to VPAHPND Thus, they pose to shrimp farmers an additional threat that would be missed by current testing for VPAHPND Moribund shrimp from ponds experiencing an outbreak of EMS that exhibit collapsed hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells can serve as indicators for the possible presence of such isolates, which can then be confirmed by additional PCR tests for the presence of a pVA plasmid.
Project description:A strain of Vibrio (KC13.17.5) causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp in northern Vietnam was isolated. Normally, AHPND is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, but the genomic sequence of the strain indicated that it belonged to Vibrio harveyi. The sequence data included plasmid-like sequences and putative virulence genes.
Project description:The Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative bacterium, which is responsible for acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp and has various virulent factors. So, to intensify the knowledge on pathogenic mechanism, the heterogeneous V.parahaemolyticus strains genome are indeed. Here, genome of seven V.parahaemolyticus strains, which are virulent to shrimps were sequenced by PacBio platform and the virulence was confirmed through the presence of plasmid (?69 Kb) with binary toxin genes (i.e., pirA and pirB) with PCR method.
Project description:Unique isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND) have previously been identified as the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp. AHPND is characterized by massive sloughing of tubule epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas (HP), proposed to be induced by soluble toxins released from VPAHPND that colonize the shrimp stomach. Since these toxins (produced in broth culture) have been reported to cause AHPND pathology in reverse gavage bioassays with shrimp, we used ammonium sulfate precipitation to prepare protein fractions from broth cultures of VPAHPND isolates for screening by reverse gavage assays. The dialyzed 60% ammonium sulfate fraction caused high mortality within 24-48 hours post-administration, and histological analysis of the moribund shrimp showed typical massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells characteristic of AHPND. Analysis of the active fraction by SDS-PAGE revealed two major bands at marker levels of approximately 16 kDa (ToxA) and 50 kDa (ToxB). Mass spectrometry analysis followed by MASCOT analysis revealed that both proteins had similarity to hypothetical proteins of V. parahaemolyticus M0605 (contig034 GenBank accession no. JALL01000066.1) and similarity to known binary insecticidal toxins called 'Photorhabdus insect related' proteins A and B (Pir-A and Pir-B), respectively, produced by the symbiotic, nematode bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. In in vivo tests, it was shown that recombinant ToxA and ToxB were both required in a dose dependent manner to cause AHPND pathology, indicating further similarity to Pir-A and -B. A single-step PCR method was designed for detection of the ToxA gene and was validated using 104 bacterial isolates consisting of 51 VPAHPND isolates, 34 non-AHPND VP isolates and 19 other isolates of bacteria commonly found in shrimp ponds (including other species of Vibrio and Photobacterium). The results showed 100% specificity and sensitivity for detection of VPAHPND isolates in the test set.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), caused by marine bacteria Vibrio Parahaemolyticus, is a huge problem in shrimp farms. The V. parahaemolyticus infecting material is contained in a plasmid which encodes for the lethal toxins PirABVp, whose primary target tissue is the hepatopancreas, causing sloughing of epithelial cells, necrosis, and massive hemocyte infiltration. To get a better understanding of the hepatopancreas response during AHPND, juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were infected by immersion with V. parahaemolyticus. We performed transcriptomic mRNA sequencing of infected shrimp hepatopancreas, at 24 hours post-infection, to identify novel differentially expressed genes a total of 174,098 transcripts were examined of which 915 transcripts were found differentially expressed after comparative transcriptomic analysis: 442 up-regulated and 473 down-regulated transcripts. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis for up-regulated transcripts includes metabolic process, regulation of programmed cell death, carbohydrate metabolic process, and biological adhesion, whereas for down-regulated transcripts include, microtubule-based process, cell activation, and chitin metabolic process. The analysis of protein- protein network between up and down-regulated genes indicates that the first gene interactions are connected to oxidation-processes and sarcomere organization. Additionally, protein-protein networks analysis identified 20-top highly connected hub nodes. Based on their immunological or metabolic function, ten candidate transcripts were selected to measure their mRNA relative expression levels in AHPND infected shrimp hepatopancreas by RT-qPCR. Our results indicate a close connection between the immune and metabolism systems during AHPND infection. Our RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR data provide the possible immunological and physiological scenario as well as the molecular pathways that take place in the shrimp hepatopancreas in response to an infectious disease.
Project description:Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying binary toxin genes, pirAB, is one of the etiological agents causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp. This disease has emerged recently as a major threat to shrimp aquaculture worldwide. During a routine PCR screening of AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus strains, an isolate tested PCR positive for pirB (R13) and another isolate tested positive for both the pirA and pirB (R14) genes. To evaluate the pathogenicity of these isolates, specific pathogen-free (SPF) Penaeus vannamei were experimentally challenged. For both R13 and R14 isolates, the final survival rate was 100% at termination of the challenge, whereas the final survival with the AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus was 0%. The nucleotide sequence of the plasmid DNA carrying the binary toxin genes revealed that R13 contains a deletion of the entire pirA gene whereas R14 contains the entire coding regions of both pirA and pirB genes. However, R14 possesses an insertion upstream of the pirA gene. In R14, mRNA for both pirA and pirB genes could be detected but no cognate proteins. This shows that the genome of AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus is highly plastic and, therefore, detection of the pirA and pirB genes alone by DNA-PCR is insufficient as a diagnostic test for AHPND.
Project description:The acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of Penaeus vannamei shrimp is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying toxin genes, pirA and pirB We report the complete genome sequence of the novel V. parahaemolyticus strain R14, which did not display AHPND symptoms in P. vannamei despite containing the binary toxin genes.
Project description:The 69 kb plasmid pVPA3-1 was identified in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain 13?028/A3 that can cause acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). This disease is responsible for mass mortalities in farmed penaeid shrimp and is referred to as early mortality syndrome (EMS). The plasmid has a GC content of 45.9% with a copy number of 37 per bacterial cell as determined by comparative quantitative PCR analyses. It consists of 92 open reading frames that encode mobilization proteins, replication enzymes, transposases, virulence-associated proteins, and proteins similar to Photorhabdus insect-related (Pir) toxins. In V. parahaemolyticus, these Pir toxin-like proteins are encoded by 2 genes (pirA- and pirB-like) located within a 3.5 kb fragment flanked with inverted repeats of a transposase-coding sequence (1 kb). The GC content of these 2 genes is only 38.2%, substantially lower than that of the rest of the plasmid, which suggests that these genes were recently acquired. Based on a proteomic analysis, the pirA-like (336 bp) and pirB-like (1317 bp) genes encode for 13 and 50 kDa proteins, respectively. In laboratory cultures of V. parahaemolyticus 13-028/A3, both proteins were secreted into the culture medium. We developed a duplex PCR diagnostic method, with a detection limit of 10(5) CFU ml(-1) and targeting pirA- and pirB-like genes in this strain of V. parahaemolyticus. This PCR protocol can reliably detect AHPND-causing strains of V. parahaemolyticus and does not cross react with non-pathogenic strains or with other species of Vibrio isolated from shrimp ponds.