Unique circovirus-like genome detected in pig feces.
ABSTRACT: Using a metagenomic approach and molecular cloning methods, we identified, cloned, and sequenced the complete genome of a novel circular DNA virus, porcine stool-associated virus (PoSCV4), from pig feces. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced replication initiator protein showed that PoSCV4 is most related to a fur seal feces-associated circular DNA virus.
Project description:Fur seal feces-associated circular ssDNA virus (FSfaCV) was discovered in a pig for the first time in Japan using a next-generation sequencer with duplex-specific nuclease. Full genome of the virus showed approximately 92% similarity to FSfaCVs from New Zealand fur seals. Furthermore, we investigated the prevalence of the ssDNA virus in 85 piglets in Japan, and 65 piglets were positive (76%) for the virus.
Project description:Porcine stool-associated circular virus 5 (PoSCV5) was detected in the feces of a pig with diarrhea. The complete 3,062-nucleotide genome contains two bidirectionally transcribed open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced replication initiator protein (Rep) places PoSCV5 alone on a deep branch among the small circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses.
Project description:Using metagenomics and molecular cloning methods, we characterized five novel small, circular viral genomes from pig feces that are distantly related to chimpanzee and porcine stool-associated circular viruses, (ChiSCV and PoSCV1). Phylogenetic analysis placed these viruses into a highly divergent clade of this rapidly growing new viral family. This new clade of viruses, provisionally named porcine stool-associated circular virus 2 and 3 (PoSCV2 and PoSCV3), encodes a stem-loop structure (presumably the origin of DNA replication) in the small intergenic region and a replication initiator protein commonly found in other biological systems that replicate their genomes via the rolling-circle mechanism. Furthermore, these viruses also exhibit three additional overlapping open reading frames in the large intergenic region between the capsid and replication initiator protein genes.
Project description:In some regions, little is known about exposure to viruses in coastal marine mammals. The present study aimed to detect viral RNA or DNA in 23 free-ranging fur seals on the northern coastline of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect nucleic acids of circoviruses, adenoviruses, morbilliviruses, vesiviruses, and coronaviruses in the feces from twenty-one South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis) and two Subantarctic fur seals (A. tropicalis). Adenovirus DNA fragments were detected in two South American fur seals; nucleotide sequences of these fragments revealed a high degree of similarity to human adenovirus type C. Circovirus DNA fragments were detected in six animals of the same species. Two were phylogenetically similar to the Circovirus genus, whereas the other four nucleotide fragments showed no similarity to any of the known genera within the family Circoviridae. RNA fragments indicating the presence of coronavirus, vesivirus, and morbillivirus were not detected. These findings suggest that adenoviruses and circoviruses are circulating in fur seal populations found along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.
Project description:Fur seal feces-associated circular DNA virus (FSfaCV) is a novel virus isolated from the fecal matter of New Zealand fur seals. FSfaCV has two main open reading frames in its 2,925-nucleotide (nt) genome. The replication-associated protein (Rep) of FSfaCV has similarity to Rep-like sequences in the Giardia intestinalis genome.
Project description:The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5) were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals.
Project description:A novel RNA virus was detected in a fecal sample collected from the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) in King George Island, Antarctica. The almost-complete genome sequence reveals two open reading frames and a dicistrovirus-like gene order.
Project description:The Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) is native to the Sonoran Desert. Metagenomic analyses of a Gila monster fecal sample revealed the presence of a small, circular, single-stranded DNA virus that is most closely related to a gemykrogvirus (family Genomoviridae) genome from caribou feces sharing 88% genome-wide pairwise identity.
Project description:Viral metagenomics of feces collected from 58 Peruvian children with unexplained diarrhea revealed several small circular ssDNA genomes. Two genomes related to sequences previously reported in feces from chimpanzees and other mammals and recently named smacoviruses were characterized and then detected by PCR in 1.7 % (1/58) and 19 % (11/58) of diarrheal samples, respectively. Another three genomes from a distinct small circular ssDNA viral group provisionally called pecoviruses encoded Cap and Rep proteins with <35 % identity to those in related genomes reported in human, seal, porcine and dromedary feces. Pecovirus DNA was detected in 15.5 % (9/58), 5.9 % (3/51) and 3 % (3/100) of fecal samples from unexplained diarrhea in Peru, Nicaragua and Chile, respectively. Feces containing these ssDNA genomes also contained known human enteric viral pathogens. The cellular origins of these circular ssDNA viruses, whether human cells, ingested plants, animals or fungal foods, or residents of the gut microbiome, are currently unknown.
Project description:In order to screen for new polyomaviruses in samples derived from various animal species, degenerated PCR primer pairs were constructed. By using a nested PCR protocol, the sensitive detection of nine different polyomavirus genomes was demonstrated. The screening of field samples revealed the presence of a new polyomavirus, tentatively designated chimpanzee polyomavirus (ChPyV), in the feces of a juvenile chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Analysis of the region encoding the major capsid protein VP1 revealed a unique insertion in the EF loop of the protein and showed that ChPyV is a distinct virus related to the monkey polyomavirus B-lymphotropic polyomavirus and the human polyomavirus JC polyomavirus.