Synthesis of heterocyclic triads by Pd-catalyzed cross-couplings and evaluation of their cell-specific toxicity profile.
ABSTRACT: Two complementary approaches for the preparation of linked 5-membered heterocycles were developed. The Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling with halogenated furan, thiophene, and selenophene led to higher overall yields, but C,H-bond activation was a more efficient strategy for the coupling at C(2) of oxazoles. Potency and selectivity of the final hydroxymethyl products in renal (A498), lung (NCI-H226), kidney (CAKI-1), and breast (MDA-MB-468, MCF7) carcinoma cell lines were determined.
Project description:A novel method for the synthesis of trisubstituted oxazoles via a one-pot oxazole synthesis/Suzuki-Miyaura coupling sequence has been developed. One-pot formation of 5-(triazinyloxy)oxazoles using carboxylic acids, amino acids and a dehydrative condensing reagent, DMT-MM, followed by Ni-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling with boronic acids provided the corresponding 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazoles in good yields.
Project description:Diethanolamine complexed heterocyclic boronic acids (DABO boronates) are air-stable reagents that can be used directly in Suzuki-Miyaura reactions in the presence of water or a protic co-solvent. Interestingly, heterocyclic DABO boronates can be stored for extended periods of time at room temperature with no noticeable degradation, unlike their boronic acid counterparts. Heterocyclic DABO boronates constitute an operationally simple and efficient alternative to other boronic acid derivatives as coupling partners in palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reactions under standard Suzuki-Miyaura conditions.
Project description:The nickel-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of aryl halides and phenol-derived substrates with aryl boronic acids using green solvents, such as 2-Me-THF and tert-amyl alcohol, is reported. This methodology employs the commercially available and air-stable precatalyst, NiCl2(PCy3)2, and gives biaryl products in synthetically useful to excellent yields. Using this protocol, bis(heterocyclic) frameworks can be assembled efficiently.
Project description:Two N-heterocyclic carbene ligands provide orthogonal chemoselectivity during the Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura (SM) cross-coupling of chloroaryl triflates. The use of SIPr [SIPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene] leads to selective cross-coupling at chloride, while the use of SIMes [SIMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene] provides selective coupling at triflate. With most chloroaryl triflates and arylboronic acids, ligand-controlled selectivity is high (?10:1). The scope of this methodology is significantly more general than previously reported methods for selective SM coupling of chloroaryl triflates using phosphine ligands. Density functional theory studies suggest that palladium's ligation state during oxidative addition is different with SIMes compared to SIPr.
Project description:Esters are valuable electrophiles for cross-coupling due to their ubiquity and ease of synthesis. However, harsh conditions are traditionally required for the effective cross-coupling of ester substrates. Utilizing a recently discovered precatalyst, Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura and Buchwald-Hartwig reactions involving cleavage of the C(acyl)-O bond of aryl esters that proceed under mild conditions are reported. The Pd(II) precatalyst is highly active because it is reduced to the Pd(0) active species more rapidly than previous precatalysts.
Project description:Using a recently discovered precatalyst, the first Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura reactions using aryl sulfamates that occur at room temperature are reported. In complementary work, it is demonstrated that a related precatalyst can facilitate the coupling of aryl silanolates, which are less toxic and reactive nucleophiles than boronic acids with aryl chlorides. By combining our results using modern electrophiles and nucleophiles, the first Hiyama-Denmark reactions using aryl sulfamates are reported.
Project description:We developed a strategy to harness alkyl amines as alkylating agents via C-N bond activation. This Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling of alkylpyridinium salts, readily formed from primary amines, is the first example of a metal-catalyzed cross coupling via C-N bond activation of an amine with an unactivated alkyl group. This reaction enjoys broad scope and functional group tolerance. Primary and secondary alkyl groups can be installed. Preliminary studies suggest a NiI/NiIII catalytic cycle.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous evidence demonstrated that restoration of wild type VHL in human renal cancer cells decreased in vitro NK susceptibility. To investigate on the role of tumoral VHL status versus NK capability in renal cancer patients, 51 RCC patients were characterized for VHL mutational status and NK function. METHODS:VHL mutational status was determined by direct DNA sequencing on tumor tissue. NK cytotoxicity was measured against specific target cells K562, VHL-wild type (CAKI-1) and VHL-mutated (A498) human renal cancer cells through externalization of CD107a and IFN-? production. Activating NK receptors, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, NKG2D, DNAM-1, NCAM-1 and Fc?RIIIa were evaluated through quantitative RT-PCR. RCC tumoral Tregs were characterized as CD4+CD25+CD127lowFoxp3+ and Treg function was evaluated as inhibition of T-effector proliferation. RESULTS:VHL mutations were detected in 26/55 (47%) RCC patients. IL-2 activated whole-blood samples (28 VHL-WT-RCC and 23 VHL-MUT-RCC) were evaluated for NK cytotoxicity toward human renal cancer cells A498, VHL-MUT and CAKI-1, VHL-WT. Efficient NK degranulation and increase in IFN-? production was detected when IL-2 activated whole-blood from VHL-MUT-RCC patients were tested toward A498 as compared to CAKI-1 cells (CD107a+NK: 7?±?2% vs 1?±?0.41%, p?=?0.015; IFN-?+NK: 6.26?±?3.4% vs 1.78?±?0.9% respectively). In addition, IL-2 activated NKs induced higher CD107a exposure in the presence of RCC autologous tumor cells or A498 as compared to SN12C (average CD107a+NK: 4.7 and 2.7% vs 0.3% respectively at 10E:1?T ratio). VHL-MUT-RCC tumors were NKp46+ cells infiltrated and expressed high NKp30 and NKp46 receptors as compared to VHL-WT-RCC tumors. A significant lower number of Tregs was detected in the tumor microenvironment of 13 VHL-MUT-RCC as compared to 13 VHL-WT-RCC tumors (1.84?±?0.36% vs 3.79?±?0.74% respectively, p?=?0.04). Tregs isolated from VHL-MUT-RCC patients were less suppressive of patients T effector proliferation compared to Tregs from VHL-WT-RCC patients (Teff proliferation: 6.7?±?3.9% vs 2.8?±?1.1%). CONCLUSIONS:VHL tumoral mutations improve NKs effectiveness in RCC patients and need to be considered in the evaluation of immune response. Moreover therapeutic strategies designed to target NK cells could be beneficial in VHL-mutated-RCCs alone or in association with immune checkpoints inhibitors.
Project description:A series of phosphine-ligated palladium precatalysts based on N-methyl- and N-phenyl-2-aminobiphenyl have been developed. Substitution at the nitrogen center prevents the presence of traces of aminobiphenyls that contain a free -NH2 group from contaminating cross-coupling products. These precatalysts produce N-substituted carbazoles upon activation, which cannot consume starting materials. These precatalysts were efficiently generated from 2-aminobiphenyl with minimal purification and found to be highly effective in Suzuki-Miyaura and C-N cross-coupling reactions.
Project description:Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions are promoted by Pd complexes ligated with C?-symmetric multi-dentate N-heterocyclic carbenes derived in situ from Pd(OAc)? and imidazolium salts. Good to excellent yields were obtained for aryl bromides as substrates. Turnover numbers of up to 10? could be achieved with 5 × 10?? mol% of Pd(OAc)?/1 × 10?³ mol% NHC precatalyst in 24 h.