Cophylogenetic interactions between marine viruses and eukaryotic picophytoplankton.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated cospeciation (or cophylogeny) in various host-symbiont systems, and different patterns were inferred, from strict cospeciation where symbiont phylogeny mirrors host phylogeny, to complete absence of correspondence between trees. The degree of cospeciation is generally linked to the level of host specificity in the symbiont species and the opportunity they have to switch hosts. In this study, we investigated cophylogeny for the first time in a microalgae-virus association in the open sea, where symbionts are believed to be highly host-specific but have wide opportunities to switch hosts. We studied prasinovirus-Mamiellales associations using 51 different viral strains infecting 22 host strains, selected from the characterisation and experimental testing of the specificities of 313 virus strains on 26 host strains. RESULTS: All virus strains were restricted to their host genus, and most were species-specific, but some of them were able to infect different host species within a genus. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed for viruses and their hosts, and their congruence was assessed based on these trees and the specificity data using different cophylogenetic methods, a topology-based approach, Jane, and a global congruence method, ParaFit. We found significant congruence between virus and host trees, but with a putatively complex evolutionary history. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanisms other than true cospeciation, such as host-switching, might explain a part of the data. It has been observed in a previous study on the same taxa that the genomic divergence between host pairs is larger than between their viruses. It implies that if cospeciation predominates in this algae-virus system, this would support the hypothesis that prasinoviruses evolve more slowly than their microalgal hosts, whereas host switching would imply that these viruses speciated more recently than the divergence of their host genera.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Using phylogenetic approaches, the expectation that parallel cladogenesis should occur between parasites and hosts has been validated in some studies, but most others provided evidence for frequent host shifts. Here we examine the evolutionary history of the association between Microbotryum fungi that cause anther smut disease and their Caryophyllaceous hosts. We investigated the congruence between host and parasite phylogenies, inferred cospeciation events and host shifts, and assessed whether geography or plant ecology could have facilitated the putative host shifts identified. For cophylogeny analyses on microorganisms, parasite strains isolated from different host species are generally considered to represent independent evolutionary lineages, often without checking whether some strains actually belong to the same generalist species. Such an approach may mistake intraspecific nodes for speciation events and thus bias the results of cophylogeny analyses if generalist species are found on closely related hosts. A second aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the impact of species delimitation on the inferences of cospeciation. RESULTS:We inferred a multiple gene phylogeny of anther smut strains from 21 host plants from several geographic origins, complementing a previous study on the delimitation of fungal species and their host specificities. We also inferred a multi-gene phylogeny of their host plants, and the two phylogenies were compared. A significant level of cospeciation was found when each host species was considered to harbour a specific parasite strain, i.e. when generalist parasite species were not recognized as such. This approach overestimated the frequency of cocladogenesis because individual parasite species capable of infecting multiple host species (i.e. generalists) were found on closely related hosts. When generalist parasite species were appropriately delimited and only a single representative of each species was retained, cospeciation events were not more frequent than expected under a random distribution, and many host shifts were inferred.Current geographic distributions of host species seemed to be of little relevance for understanding the putative historical host shifts, because most fungal species had overlapping geographic ranges. We did detect some ecological similarities, including shared pollinators and habitat types, between host species that were diseased by closely related anther smut species. Overall, genetic similarity underlying the host-parasite interactions appeared to have the most important influence on specialization and host-shifts: generalist multi-host parasite species were found on closely related plant species, and related species in the Microbotryum phylogeny were associated with members of the same host clade. CONCLUSION:We showed here that Microbotryum species have evolved through frequent host shifts to moderately distant hosts, and we show further that accurate delimitation of parasite species is essential for interpreting cophylogeny studies.
Project description:Cophylogeny is the congruence of phylogenetic relationships between two different groups of organisms due to their long-term interaction. We investigated the use of tree shape distance measures to quantify the degree of cophylogeny. We implemented a reverse-time simulation model of pathogen phylogenies within a fixed host tree, given cospeciation probability, host switching, and pathogen speciation rates. We used this model to evaluate 18 distance measures between host and pathogen trees including two kernel distances that we developed for labeled and unlabeled trees, which use branch lengths and accommodate different size trees. Finally, we used these measures to revisit published cophylogenetic studies, where authors described the observed associations as representing a high or low degree of cophylogeny. Our simulations demonstrated that some measures are more informative than others with respect to specific coevolution parameters especially when these did not assume extreme values. For real datasets, trees' associations projection revealed clustering of high concordance studies suggesting that investigators are describing it in a consistent way. Our results support the hypothesis that measures can be useful for quantifying cophylogeny. This motivates their usage in the field of coevolution and supports the development of simulation-based methods, i.e., approximate Bayesian computation, to estimate the underlying coevolutionary parameters.
Project description:Influenza A virus subtypes are determined based on envelope proteins encoded by the hemagglutinin (HA) gene and the neuraminidase (NA) gene, which are involved in attachment to the host, pathogenicity, and progeny production. Here, we evaluated such differences through co-evolution analysis between the HA and NA genes based on subtype and host. Event-based cophylogeny analysis revealed that humans had higher cospeciation values than avian. In particular, the yearly ML phylogenetic trees for the H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in humans displayed similar topologies between the two genes in humans. Substitution analysis was verifying the strong positive correlation between the two genes in the H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in humans compared with those in avian and swine. These results provided a proof of principle for the further development of vaccines according to hosts and subtypes against Influenza A virus.
Project description:Cophylogenetic studies aim at testing specific hypotheses to understand the nature of coevolving associations between sets of organisms, such as host and parasites. Monogeneans and their hosts provide and interesting platform for these studies due to their high host specificity. In this context, the objective of the present study was to establish whether the relationship between Anacanthorus spp. with their hosts from the upper Paraná River and its tributaries can be explained by means of cospeciation processes. Nine fish species and 14 monogenean species, most of them host specific, were studied. Partial DNA sequences of the genes RAG1, 16S and COI of the fish hosts and of the genes ITS2, COI and 5.8S of the parasite species were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees of the host and parasite species were built and used for analyses of topological congruence with PACo and ParaFit. The program Jane was used to estimate the nature of cospeciation events. The comparison of the two phylogenies revealed high topological congruence between them. Both PACo and ParaFit supported the hypothesis of global cospeciation. Results from Jane pointed to duplications as the most frequent coevolutionary event, followed by cospeciation, whereas duplications followed by host-switching were the least common event in Anacanthorus spp. studied. Host-sharing (spreading) was also identified but only between congeneric host species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Emerging bacterial zoonoses in bats and rodents remain relatively understudied. We conduct the first comparative host-pathogen coevolutionary analyses of bacterial pathogens in these hosts, using Bartonella spp. and Leptospira spp. as a model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We used published genetic data for 51 Bartonella genotypes from 24 bat species, 129 Bartonella from 38 rodents, and 26 Leptospira from 20 bats. We generated maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies for hosts and bacteria, and tested for coevoutionary congruence using programs ParaFit, PACO, and Jane. Bartonella spp. and their bat hosts had a significant coevolutionary fit (ParaFitGlobal?=?1.9703, P?0.001; m2 global value?=?7.3320, P?0.0001). Bartonella spp. and rodent hosts also indicated strong overall patterns of cospeciation (ParaFitGlobal?=?102.4409, P?0.001; m2 global value?=?86.532, P?0.0001). In contrast, we were unable to reject independence of speciation events in Leptospira and bats (ParaFitGlobal?=?0.0042, P?=?0.84; m2 global value?=?4.6310, P?=?0.5629). Separate analyses of New World and Old World data subsets yielded results congruent with analysis from entire datasets. We also conducted event-based cophylogeny analyses to reconstruct likely evolutionary histories for each group of pathogens and hosts. Leptospira and bats had the greatest number of host switches per parasite (0.731), while Bartonella and rodents had the fewest (0.264). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:In both bat and rodent hosts, Bartonella exhibits significant coevolution with minimal host switching, while Leptospira in bats lacks evolutionary congruence with its host and has high number of host switches. Reasons underlying these variable coevolutionary patterns in host range are likely due to differences in disease-specific transmission and host ecology. Understanding the coevolutionary patterns and frequency of host-switching events between bacterial pathogens and their hosts will allow better prediction of spillover between mammal reservoirs, and ultimately to humans.
Project description:Species of Cosmospora are parasites of other fungi (mycoparasites), including species belonging to the Xylariales. Based on prior taxonomic work, these fungi were determined to be highly host specific. We suspected that the association of Cosmospora and their hosts could not be a result of random chance, and tested the cospeciation of Cosmospora and the their hosts with contemporary methods (e.g., ParaFit, PACo, and Jane). The cophylogeny of Cosmospora and their hosts was found to be congruent, but only host-parasite links in more recent evolutionary lineages of the host were determined as coevolutionary. Reconciliation reconstructions determined at least five host-switch events early in the evolution of Cosmospora. Additionally, the rates of evolution between Cosmospora and their hosts were unequal. This pattern is more likely to be explained by pseudocospeciation (i.e., host switches followed by cospeciation), which also produces congruent cophylogenies.
Project description:Coevolutionary processes that drive the patterns of host-parasite associations can be deduced through congruence analysis of their phylogenies. Feather lice and their avian hosts have previously been used as typical model systems for congruence analysis; however, such analyses are strongly biased toward nonpasserine hosts in the temperate zone. Further, in the Afrotropical region especially, cospeciation studies of lice and birds are entirely missing. This work supplements knowledge of host-parasite associations in lice using cospeciation analysis of feather lice (genus Myrsidea and the Brueelia complex) and their avian hosts in the tropical rainforests of Cameroon. Our analysis revealed a limited number of cospeciation events in both parasite groups. The parasite-host associations in both louse groups were predominantly shaped by host switching. Despite a general dissimilarity in phylogeny for the parasites and hosts, we found significant congruence in host-parasite distance matrices, mainly driven by associations between Brueelia lice and passerine species of the Waxbill (Estrildidae) family, and Myrsidea lice and their Bulbul (Pycnonotidae) host species. As such, our study supports the importance of complex biotic interactions in tropical environments.
Project description:Ribosomal gene sequences were obtained from bryozoans in the genus Bugula and their bacterial symbionts; analyses of host and symbiont phylogenetic trees did not support a history of strict cospeciation. Symbiont-derived compounds known to defend host larvae from predation were only detected in two out of four symbiotic Bugula species.
Project description:With the aim of deriving a definitive phylogenetic tree for as many mammalian and avian herpesvirus species as possible, alignments were made of amino acid sequences from eight conserved and ubiquitously present genes of herpesviruses, with 48 virus species each represented by at least one gene. Phylogenetic trees for both single-gene and concatenated alignments were evaluated thoroughly by maximum-likelihood methods, with each of the three herpesvirus subfamilies (the Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaherpesvirinae) examined independently. Composite trees were constructed starting with the top-scoring tree based on the broadest set of genes and supplemented by addition of virus species from trees based on narrower gene sets, to give finally a 46-species tree; branching order for three regions within the tree remained unresolved. Sublineages of the Alpha- and Betaherpesvirinae showed extensive cospeciation with host lineages by criteria of congruence in branching patterns and consistency in extent of divergence. The Gammaherpesvirinae presented a more complex picture, with both higher and lower substitution rates in different sublineages. The final tree obtained represents the most detailed view to date of phylogenetic relationships in any family of large-genome viruses.
Project description:The phylogenetic relationships of chemoautotrophic endosymbionts in the gutless marine oligochaete Inanidrilus leukodermatus to chemoautotrophic ecto- and endosymbionts from other host phyla and to free-living bacteria were determined by comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Fluorescent in situ hybridization confirmed that the 16S rRNA sequence obtained from these worms originated from the symbionts. The symbiont sequence is unique to I. leukodermatus. In phylogenetic trees inferred by both distance and parsimony methods, the oligochaete symbiont is peripherally associated with one of two clusters of chemoautotrophic symbionts that belong to the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The endosymbionts of this oligochaete form a monophyletic group with chemoautotrophic ectosymbionts of a marine nematode. The oligochaete and nematode symbionts are very closely related, although their hosts belong to separate, unrelated animal phyla. Thus, cospeciation between the nematode and oligochaete hosts and their symbionts could not have occurred. Instead, the similar geographic locations and habitats of the hosts may have influenced the establishment of these symbioses.