Bisphenol AF-induced endogenous transcription is mediated by ER? and ERK1/2 activation in human breast cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: Bisphenol AF (BPAF)-induced transcriptional activity has been evaluated by luciferase reporter assay. However, the molecular mechanism of BPAF-induced endogenous transcription in human breast cancer cells has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of BPAF-induced endogenous transcription detected by real-time PCR in human breast cancer cells. We found that BPAF stimulated transcription of estrogen responsive genes, such as trefoil factor 1 (TFF1), growth regulation by estrogen in breast cancer 1 (GREB1) and cathepsin D (CTSD), through dose-dependent and time-dependent manners in T47D and MCF7 cells. Gene-silencing of ER?, ER? and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) by small interfering RNA revealed that BPAF-induced endogenous transcription was dependent on ER? and GPER, implying both genomic and nongenomic pathways might be involved in the endogenous transcription induced by BPAF. ER?-mediated gene transcription was further confirmed by inhibition of ER activity using ICI 182780 in ER?-positive T47D and MCF7 cells as well as overexpression of ER? in ER?-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Moreover, we utilized Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2 and two MEK inhibitors PD98059 and U0126 to elucidate the rapid nongenomic activation of Src/MEK/ERK1/2 cascade on endogenous transcription. Our data showed that BPAF-induced transcription could be significantly blocked by PP2, PD98059 and U0126, suggesting activation of ERK1/2 was also required to regulate endogenous transcription. Taken together, these results indicate that BPAF-induced endogenous transcription of estrogen responsive genes is mediated through both genomic and nongenomic pathways involving the ER? and ERK1/2 activation in human breast cancer cells.
Project description:Accumulating evidence suggested that an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)30, mediates nongenomic responses to estrogen. The present study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying GPR30 function. We found that knockdown of GPR30 expression in breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells down-regulated the expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha36, a variant of ER-alpha. Introduction of a GPR30 expression vector into GPR30 nonexpressing cells induced endogenous ER-alpha36 expression, and cotransfection assay demonstrated that GPR30 activated the promoter activity of ER-alpha36 via an activator protein 1 binding site. Both 17beta-estradiol (E2) and G1, a compound reported to be a selective GPR30 agonist, increased the phosphorylation levels of the MAPK/ERK1/2 in SK-BR-3 cells, which could be blocked by an anti-ER-alpha36-specific antibody against its ligand-binding domain. G1 induced activities mediated by ER-alpha36, such as transcription activation activity of a VP16-ER-alpha36 fusion protein and activation of the MAPK/ERK1/2 in ER-alpha36-expressing cells. ER-alpha36-expressing cells, but not the nonexpressing cells, displayed high-affinity, specific E2 and G1 binding, and E2- and G1-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization only in ER-alpha36 expressing cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that previously reported activities of GPR30 in response to estrogen were through its ability to induce ER-alpha36 expression. The selective G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)30 agonist G1 actually interacts with ER-alpha36. Thus, the ER-alpha variant ER-alpha36, not GPR30, is involved in nongenomic estrogen signaling.
Project description:The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) mediates both the genomic and nongenomic effects of estrogen and has been implicated in breast cancer development. Here, we compared GPER expression in cancerous tissue and adjacent normal tissue in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast and determined that GPER is highly upregulated in cancerous cells. Additionally, our studies revealed that GPER stimulation activates yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with a PDZ-binding domain (TAZ), 2 homologous transcription coactivators and key effectors of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, via the G?q-11, PLC?/PKC, and Rho/ROCK signaling pathways. TAZ was required for GPER-induced gene transcription, breast cancer cell proliferation and migration, and tumor growth. Moreover, TAZ expression positively correlated with GPER expression in human IDC specimens. Together, our results suggest that the Hippo/YAP/TAZ pathway is a key downstream signaling branch of GPER and plays a critical role in breast tumorigenesis.
Project description:Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous environmental metal that is reported to be a "metalloestrogen." Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are estrogen-responsive gynecologic neoplasms that can be the target of xenoestrogens. Previous epidemiology studies have suggested Cd may be associated with fibroids. We have shown that Cd can stimulate proliferation of human uterine leiomyoma (ht-UtLM) cells, but not through classical estrogen receptor (ER) binding. Whether nongenomic ER pathways are involved in Cd-induced proliferation is unknown. In the present study, by evaluating G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), ER?36, and phospho-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in human tissues, we found that GPER, ER?36 and phospho-EGFR were all highly expressed in fibroids compared to patient-matched myometrial tissues. In ht-UtLM cells, cell proliferation was increased by low doses of Cd (0.1 µM and 10 µM), and this effect could be inhibited by GPER-specific antagonist (G15) pretreatment, or silencing (si) GPER, but not by siER?36. Cd-activated MAPK was dependent on GPER/EGFR transactivation, through significantly increased phospho-Src, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and MMP9, and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) expression/activation. Also, phospho-Src could interact directly to phosphorylate EGFR. Overall, Cd-induced proliferation of human fibroid cells was through a nongenomic GPER/p-src/EGFR/MAPK signaling pathway that did not directly involve ER?36. This suggests that Cd may be a risk factor for uterine fibroids through cross talk between hormone and growth factor receptor pathways.
Project description:Soybean isoflavones, such as genistein, daidzein, and its metabolite, S-equol, are widely known as phytoestrogens. Their biological actions are thought to be exerted <i>via</i> the estrogen signal transduction pathway. Estrogens, such as 17?-estradiol (E2), play a crucial role in the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system. E2 bind to the nuclear estrogen receptor (ER) and regulates morphogenesis, migration, functional maturation, and intracellular metabolism of neurons and glial cells. In addition to binding to nuclear ER, E2 also binds to the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) and activates the nongenomic estrogen signaling pathway. Soybean isoflavones also bind to the ER and GPER. However, the effect of soybean isoflavone on brain development, particularly glial cell function, remains unclear. We examined the effects of soybean isoflavones using an astrocyte-enriched culture and astrocyte-derived C6 clonal cells. Isoflavones increased glial cell migration. This augmentation was suppressed by co-exposure with G15, a selective GPER antagonist, or knockdown of GPER expression using RNA interference. Isoflavones also activated actin cytoskeleton arrangement <i>via</i> increased actin polymerization and cortical actin, resulting in an increased number and length of filopodia. Isoflavones exposure increased the phosphorylation levels of FAK (Tyr397 and Tyr576/577), ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204), Akt (Ser473), and Rac1/cdc42 (Ser71), and the expression levels of cortactin, paxillin and ER?. These effects were suppressed by knockdown of the GPER. Co-exposure of isoflavones to the selective RhoA inhibitor, rhosin, selective Cdc42 inhibitor, casin, or Rac1/Cdc42 inhibitor, ML-141, decreased the effects of isoflavones on cell migration. These findings indicate that soybean isoflavones exert their action <i>via</i> the GPER to activate the PI3K/FAK/Akt/RhoA/Rac1/Cdc42 signaling pathway, resulting in increased glial cell migration. Furthermore, <i>in silico</i> molecular docking studies to examine the binding mode of isoflavones to the GPER revealed the possibility that isoflavones bind directly to the GPER at the same position as E2, further confirming that the effects of the isoflavones are at least in part exerted <i>via</i> the GPER signal transduction pathway. The findings of the present study indicate that isoflavones may be an effective supplement to promote astrocyte migration in developing and/or injured adult brains.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The multiple biological responses to estrogens are mainly mediated by the classical estrogen receptors ER? and ER?, which act as ligand-activated transcription factors. ER? exerts a main role in the development of breast cancer; therefore, the ER antagonist tamoxifen has been widely used although its effectiveness is limited by de novo and acquired resistance. Recently, GPR30/GPER, a member of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family, has been implicated in mediating the effects of estrogens in various normal and cancer cells. In particular, GPER triggered gene expression and proliferative responses induced by estrogens and even ER antagonists in hormone-sensitive tumor cells. Likewise, additional ER ligands showed the ability to bind to GPER eliciting promiscuous and, in some cases, opposite actions through the two receptors. We synthesized a novel compound (ethyl 3-[5-(2-ethoxycarbonyl-1-methylvinyloxy)-1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]but-2-enoate), referred to as MIBE, and investigated its properties elicited through ER? and GPER in breast cancer cells. METHODS:Molecular modeling, binding experiments and functional assays were performed in order to evaluate the biological action exerted by MIBE through ER? and GPER in MCF7 and SkBr3 breast cancer cells. RESULTS:MIBE displayed the ability to act as an antagonist ligand for ER? and GPER as it elicited inhibitory effects on gene transcription and growth effects by binding to both receptors in breast cancer cells. Moreover, GPER was required for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ERK activation by EGF as ascertained by using MIBE and performing gene silencing experiments. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings provide novel insights on the functional cross-talk between GPER and EGFR signaling. Furthermore, the exclusive antagonistic activity exerted by MIBE on ER? and GPER could represent an innovative pharmacological approach targeting breast carcinomas which express one or both receptors at the beginning and/or during tumor progression. Hence, the simultaneous inhibition of both ER? and GPER may guarantee major therapeutic benefits in respect to the use of a selective estrogen receptor antagonist.
Project description:The G protein estrogen receptor GPER/GPR30 mediates estrogen action in breast cancer cells as well as in breast cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which are key components of microenvironment driving tumor progression. GPER is a transcriptional target of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1?) and activates VEGF expression and angiogenesis in hypoxic breast tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, IGF1/IGF1R signaling, which has angiogenic effects, has been shown to activate GPER in breast cancer cells.We analyzed gene expression data from published studies representing almost 5000 breast cancer patients to investigate whether GPER and IGF1 signaling establish an angiocrine gene signature in breast cancer patients. Next, we used GPER-positive but estrogen receptor (ER)-negative primary CAF cells derived from patient breast tumours and SKBR3 breast cancer cells to investigate the role of GPER in the regulation of VEGF expression and angiogenesis triggered by IGF1. We performed gene expression and promoter studies, western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis, gene silencing strategies and endothelial tube formation assays to evaluate the involvement of the HIF-1?/GPER/VEGF signaling in the biological responses to IGF1.We first determined that GPER is co-expressed with IGF1R and with the vessel marker CD34 in human breast tumors (n?=?4972). Next, we determined that IGF1/IGF1R signaling engages the ERK1/2 and AKT transduction pathways to induce the expression of HIF-1? and its targets GPER and VEGF. We found that a functional cooperation between HIF-1? and GPER is essential for the transcriptional activation of VEGF induced by IGF1. Finally, using conditioned medium from CAFs and SKBR3 cells stimulated with IGF1, we established that HIF-1? and GPER are both required for VEGF-induced human vascular endothelial cell tube formation.These findings shed new light on the essential role played by GPER in IGF1/IGF1R signaling that induces breast tumor angiogenesis. Targeting the multifaceted interactions between cancer cells and tumor microenvironment involving both GPCRs and growth factor receptors has potential in future combination anticancer therapies.
Project description:Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are widely found in the environment. Estrogen-like activity is attributed to EDCs, such as bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol AF (BPAF), and zearalenone (Zea), but mechanisms of action and diversity of effects are poorly understood.We used in vitro models to evaluate the mechanistic actions of BPA, BPAF, and Zea on estrogen receptor (ER) ? and ER?.We used three human cell lines (Ishikawa, HeLa, and HepG2) representing three cell types to evaluate the estrogen promoter activity of BPA, BPAF, and Zea on ER? and ER?. Ishikawa/ER? stable cells were used to determine changes in estrogen response element (ERE)-mediated target gene expression or rapid action-mediated effects.The three EDCs showed strong estrogenic activity as agonists for ER? in a dose-dependent manner. At lower concentrations, BPA acted as an antagonist for ER? in Ishikawa cells and BPAF acted as an antagonist for ER? in HeLa cells, whereas Zea was only a partial antagonist for ER?. ERE-mediated activation by BPA and BPAF was via the AF-2 function of ER?, but Zea activated via both the AF-1 and AF-2 functions. Endogenous ER? target genes and rapid signaling via the p44/42 MAPK pathway were activated by BPA, BPAF, and Zea.BPA and BPAF can function as EDCs by acting as cell type-specific agonists (? 10 nM) or antagonists (? 10 nM) for ER? and ER?. Zea had strong estrogenic activity and activated both the AF-1 and AF-2 functions of ER?. In addition, all three compounds induced the rapid action-mediated response for ER?.
Project description:It is prevailingly thought that estrogen signaling is not involved in development of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer. However, there is evidence indicating that ovariectomy prevents the development of both ER-positive and -negative breast cancer, suggesting that estrogen signaling is involved in the development of ER-negative breast cancer. Previously, our laboratory cloned a variant of ER-?, ER-?36, and found that ER-?36 mediated nongenomic estrogen signaling and is highly expressed in ER-negative breast cancer cells. In this study, we found that ER-?36 was highly expressed in 10/12 cases of triple-negative breast cancer. We investigated the role of mitogenic estrogen signaling mediated by ER-?36 in malignant growth of triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436 cells that express high levels of ER-?36 and found that these cells strongly responded to mitogenic estrogen signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of ER-?36 expression in these cells using the small hairpin RNA method diminished their responsiveness to estrogen. ER-?36 physically interacted with the EGFR/Src/Shc complex and mediated estrogen-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Src. EGFR signaling activated ER-?36 transcription through an AP1 site in the ER-?36 promoter, and ER-?36 expression was able to stabilize EGFR protein. Our results, thus demonstrated that ER-?36 mediates nongenomic estrogen signaling through the EGFR/Src/ERK signaling pathway in ER-negative breast cancer cells and suggested that a subset of ER-negative breast tumors that expresses ER-?36, retains responsiveness to mitogenic estrogen signaling.
Project description:GPER/GPR30 is a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled estrogen receptor that regulates many aspects of mammalian biology and physiology. We have previously described both a GPER-selective agonist G-1 and antagonist G15 based on a tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline scaffold. The antagonist lacks an ethanone moiety that likely forms important hydrogen bonds involved in receptor activation. Computational docking studies suggested that the lack of the ethanone substituent in G15 could minimize key steric conflicts, present in G-1, that limit binding within the ER? ligand binding pocket. In this report, we identify low-affinity cross-reactivity of the GPER antagonist G15 to the classical estrogen receptor ER?. To generate an antagonist with enhanced selectivity, we therefore synthesized an isosteric G-1 derivative, G36, containing an isopropyl moiety in place of the ethanone moiety. We demonstrate that G36 shows decreased binding and activation of ER?, while maintaining its antagonist profile towards GPER. G36 selectively inhibits estrogen-mediated activation of PI3K by GPER but not ER?. It also inhibits estrogen- and G-1-mediated calcium mobilization as well as ERK1/2 activation, with no effect on EGF-mediated ERK1/2 activation. Similar to G15, G36 inhibits estrogen- and G-1-stimulated proliferation of uterine epithelial cells in vivo. The identification of G36 as a GPER antagonist with improved ER counterselectivity represents a significant step towards the development of new highly selective therapeutics for cancer and other diseases.
Project description:Bisphenol AF (BPAF), an endocrine disrupting chemical, can induce estrogenic activity through binding to estrogen receptor (ER). However, the metabolism of BPAF in vivo and the estrogenic activity of its metabolites remain unknown. In the present study, we identified four metabolites including BPAF diglucuronide, BPAF glucuronide (BPAF-G), BPAF glucuronide dehydrated and BPAF sulfate in the urine of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. BPAF-G was further characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). After treatment with a single dose of BPAF, BPAF was metabolized rapidly to BPAF-G, as detected in the plasma of SD rats. Biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G was confirmed with human liver microsomes (HLM), and Vmax of glucuronidation for HLM was 11.6 nmol/min/mg. We also found that BPAF glucuronidation could be mediated through several human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) including UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, among which UGT2B7 showed the highest efficiency of glucuronidation. To explain the biological function of BPAF biotransformation, the estrogenic activities of BPAF and BPAF-G were evaluated in ER-positive breast cancer T47D and MCF7 cells. BPAF significantly stimulates ER-regulated gene expression and cell proliferation at the dose of 100 nM and 1 ?M in breast cancer cells. However, BPAF-G did not show any induction of estrogenic activity at the same dosages, implying that formation of BPAF-G is a potential host defense mechanism against BPAF. Based on our study, biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G can eliminate BPAF-induced estrogenic activity, which is therefore considered as reducing the potential threat to human beings.