Endothelial dysfunction and enhanced contractility in microvessels from ovariectomized rats: roles of oxidative stress and perivascular adipose tissue.
ABSTRACT: Ovarian hormone loss increases reactive oxidative species, endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease. Because perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) regulates endothelial function, we hypothesized that reactive oxidative species in PVAT mediate adverse microvascular effects of ovarian hormone deficiency. Rats were ovariectomized or sham operated and given vehicle or tempol for 6 weeks. Mesenteric resistance arterioles from ovariectomized compared with sham-operated rats had dysfunctional responses to acetylcholine (ACh) including decreased ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation (50±6% versus 72±2%) and endothelium-dependent relaxation factor (17±4% versus 37±2%) and increased endothelium-dependent contracting factor (27±5% versus 9±3%). OVX rat mesenteric arterioles had increased contractions to the thromboxane/prostanoid receptor agonist U-46 619 (58±3% versus 40±5%) and increased reactive oxidative species (tempo-9-AC fluorescence) with U-46 619 (0.65±0.17 versus 0.14±0.06 ? unit) or ACh (0.49±0.09 versus 0.09±0.05 ? unit) and increased p22(phox) protein expression (0.89±0.05 versus 0.18±0.04 ? unit), whereas nitric oxide activity (DAF-FM [4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate] fluorescence) with ACh was reduced (0.39±0.1 versus 0.70±0.10 ? unit). No differences were found in endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factor or contractile responses to phenylephrine. PVAT enhanced ACh-induced relaxation, endothelium-dependent relaxation factor, and nitric oxide only in sham-operated rats. Tempol prevented ovariectomy-induced endothelial dysfunction and restored the enhancing effects of PVAT on ACh-induced relaxation, endothelium-dependent relaxation factor, and nitric oxide in ovariectomized rat vessels, but both tempol and PVAT were required to normalize the enhanced U-46 619 contractions after ovariectomy. In conclusion, ovariectomy redirects endothelial responses from relaxation to contraction by reducing vascular nitric oxide, augmenting thromboxane/prostanoid receptor signaling, and attenuating the vasodilatory effects of PVAT, all of which were dependent on reactive oxidative species.
Project description:1. We determined whether gender and/or oestrogen deficiency affect endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization and relaxation in mesenteric arteries isolated from middle-aged (44 - 45 week old) rats. 2. The hyperpolarizing response to acetylcholine (ACh) was significantly greater in females than in males. Ovariectomy caused a marked reduction in ACh-induced hyperpolarization in female arteries, and this was improved by 17 beta-oestradiol replacement therapy. 3. ACh-induced relaxations in female arteries were not significantly different from those observed in male rats, and were unaffected by ovariectomy, regardless of whether indomethacin was present. However, when endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was blocked with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, the sensitivity and maximum relaxant response to ACh was significantly higher in intact females compared with males and ovariectomized females. Treatment with 17 beta-oestradiol prevented the reduced vasorelaxant response in ovariectomized females. 4. Immunohistochemical examination for eNOS showed no apparent difference in eNOS protein expression in the endothelium of arteries between intact and ovariectomized females. 5. Since circulating concentrations of oestrogen were essentially low in middle-aged female rats, the present results suggest that subtle changes from a critical concentration of oestrogen at this age may strongly affect the vascular actions of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor without effect on eNOS expression and activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) attenuates vascular contraction, but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. The possible involvement of endothelium (E) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Aortic rings from Wistar rats were prepared with both PVAT and E intact (PVAT+ E+), with either PVAT or E removed (PVAT- E+, or PVAT+ E-), or with both removed (PVAT- E-) for functional studies. Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured. KEY RESULTS: Contraction to phenylephrine and 5-HT respectively was highest in PVAT- E-, lowest in PVAT+ E+, and intermediate in PVAT+ E- or PVAT- E+. In bioassay experiments, transferring bathing solution incubated with a PVAT+ ring (donor) to a PVAT- ring (recipient) induced relaxation in the recipient. This relaxation was abolished by E removal, NO synthase inhibition, scavenging of NO, high extracellular K+, or blockade of calcium-dependent K+ channels (K(Ca)). The solution stimulated NO production in isolated endothelial cells and in PVAT- E+ rings. In E- rings, the contraction to phenylephrine of PVAT+ rings but not PVAT- rings was enhanced by catalase or soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, but reduced by superoxide dismutase and tiron. In PVAT- E- rings, H2O2 attenuated phenylephrine-induced contraction. This effect was counteracted by sGC inhibition. NO donor and H2O2 exhibited additive inhibition of the contraction to phenylephrine in PVAT- E- rings. CONCLUSION: PVAT exerts its anti-contractile effects through two distinct mechanisms: (1) by releasing a transferable relaxing factor which induces endothelium-dependent relaxation through NO release and subsequent K(Ca) channel activation, and (2) by an endothelium-independent mechanism involving H2O2 and subsequent activation of sGC.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the effects of resistance training (RT), caloric restriction (CR), and the association of both interventions in aortic vascular reactivity and morphological alterations, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity, insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in ovariectomized rats. Fifty female Holtzman rats were subjected to ovariectomy and Sham surgery and distributed into the following groups: Sham-sedentary, ovariectomized-sedentary, ovariectomized-resistance training, ovariectomized-caloric restriction, and ovariectomized-resistance training and caloric restriction groups. RT and 30% CR protocols were performed for 13 weeks. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the following: acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation of aortic rings, MMP-2 activity, insulin tolerance test, highlighting of the aorta wall cross-sectional area by hematoxylin-eosin stain, aorta vessel remodeling and SBP. We observed that ovariectomy decreased the potency of dependent and independent endothelium relaxation and MMP-2 activity, prevented insulin resistance, promoted aorta vessel remodeling in the cross-sectional area, and promoted the media-to-lumen ratio, the collagen content, and the alteration of the structure and elastic fibers of the vessel. The effects of the ovariectomy could contribute to SBP increases. However, the association of exercise and diet improved the relaxation potency in dependent and independent endothelium relaxation, elevated MMP-2 activity, ameliorate insulin sensitivity, increased the aorta cross-sectional area and media-to-lumen ratio, decreased collagen content and promoted histological parameters of the aorta vessel wall, preventing the increase of SBP. CONCLUSION:Our study revealed that the RT and CR separately, and even associatively, improved vascular function, activated MMP-2, and produced a beneficial hypertrophic remodeling, preventing the elevation of SBP in ovariectomized rats.
Project description:1. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol, added either alone or in combination with the nitric oxide (NO) donor molsidomine, prevents the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in chronic hypoxic rats. 2. Chronic hypobaric hypoxia (10% oxygen) for 2 weeks increased the right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricle and lung wet weight. Relaxations evoked by acetylcholine (ACh) and the molsidomine metabolite SIN-1 were impaired in isolated proximal, but not distal pulmonary arteries, from chronic hypoxic rats. 3. Treatment with tempol (86 mg x kg(-1) day(-1) in drinking water) normalized RVSP and reduced right ventricular hypertrophy, while systemic blood pressure, lung and liver weights, and blunted ACh relaxation of pulmonary arteries were unchanged. 4. Treatment with molsidomine (15 mg x kg(-1) day(-1) in drinking water) had the same effects as tempol, except that liver weight was reduced, and potassium and U46619-evoked vasoconstrictions in pulmonary arteries were increased. Combining tempol and molsidomine did not have additional effects compared to tempol alone. ACh relaxation in pulmonary arteries was not normalized by these treatments. 5. The media to lumen diameter ratio of the pulmonary arteries was greater for the hypoxic rats compared to the normoxic rats, and was not reversed by treatment with tempol, molsidomine, or the combination of tempol and molsidomine. 6. We conclude that tempol, like molsidomine, is able to correct RVSP and reduce right ventricular weight in the rat hypoxic model. Functional and structural properties of pulmonary small arteries were little affected. The results support the possibility that superoxide dismutase mimetics may be a useful means for the treatment of PH.
Project description:BACKGROUND:3',4'-Dihydroxyflavonol (DiOHF) is an effective antioxidant that acutely preserves nitric oxide (NO) activity in the presence of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that DiOHF treatment (7 days, 1 mg/kg per day s.c.) would improve relaxation in mesenteric arteries from diabetic rats where endothelial dysfunction is associated with elevated oxidant stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:In mesenteric arteries from diabetic rats there was an increase in ROS, measured by L-012 and 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescence. NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide levels, assayed by lucigenin chemiluminescence, were also significantly increased in diabetic mesenteric arteries (diabetes, 4892±946 counts/mg versus normal 2486±344 counts/mg, n?=?7-10, p<0.01) associated with an increase in Nox2 expression but DiOHF (2094±300 counts/mg, n?=?10, p<0.001) reversed that effect. Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of mesenteric arteries was assessed using wire myography (pEC(50)?=?7.94±0.13 n?=?12). Diabetes significantly reduced the sensitivity to ACh and treatment with DiOHF prevented endothelial dysfunction (pEC(50), diabetic 6.86±0.12 versus diabetic+DiOHF, 7.49±0.13, n?=?11, p<0.01). The contribution of NO versus endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) to ACh-induced relaxation was assessed by evaluating responses in the presence of TRAM-34+apamin+iberiotoxin or N-nitro-L-arginine+ODQ respectively. Diabetes impaired the contribution of both NO (maximum relaxation, R(max) diabetic 24±7 versus normal, 68±10, n?=?9-10, p<0.01) and EDHF (pEC(50), diabetic 6.63±0.15 versus normal, 7.14±0.12, n?=?10-11, p<0.01) to endothelium-dependent relaxation. DiOHF treatment did not significantly affect the EDHF contribution but enhanced NO-mediated relaxation (R(max) 69±6, n?=?11, p<0.01). Western blotting demonstrated that diabetes also decreased expression and increased uncoupling of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Treatment of the diabetic rats with DiOHF significantly reduced vascular ROS and restored NO-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxation. Treatment of the diabetic rats with DiOHF also increased eNOS expression, both in total and as a dimer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:DiOHF improves NO activity in diabetes by reducing Nox2-dependent superoxide production and preventing eNOS uncoupling to improve endothelial function.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Previously, we demonstrated that exogenous heat shock protein 27 (HSP27/gene, HSPB1) treatment of human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) increases the synthesis and secretion of VEGF, improves EPC-migration/re-endothelialization and decreases neo-intima formation, suggesting a role for HSPB1 in regulating EPC function. We hypothesized that HSPB1 also affects mature endothelial cells (ECs) to alter EC-mediated vasoreactivity in vivo. Our work focused on endothelial NOS (eNOS)/NO-dependent relaxation induced by ACh and the coagulation pathway-activated receptor, proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Aorta rings from male and female wild-type, HSPB1-null and HSPB1 overexpressing (HSPB1o/e) mice were contracted with phenylephrine, and NOS-dependent relaxation responses to ACh and PAR2 agonist, 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 , were measured without and with L-NAME and ODQ, either alone or in combination to block NO synthesis/action. Tissues from female HSPB1-null mice were treated in vitro with recombinant HSP27 and then used for bioassay as above. Furthermore, oestrogen-specific effects were evaluated using a bioassay of aorta isolated from ovariectomized mice. KEY RESULTS:Relative to males, HSPB1-null female mice exhibited an increased L-NAME-resistant relaxation induced by activation of either PAR2 or muscarinic ACh receptors that was blocked in the concurrent presence of both L-NAME and ODQ. mRNAs (qPCR) for eNOS and ODQ-sensitive guanylyl-cyclase were increased in females versus males. Treatment of isolated aorta tissue with HSPB1 improved tissue responsiveness in the presence of L-NAME. Ovariectomy did not affect NO sensitivity, supporting an oestrogen-independent role for HSPB1. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:HSPB1 can regulate intact vascular endothelial function to affect NO-mediated vascular relaxation, especially in females.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds most blood vessels and secretes numerous active substances, including adiponectin, which produce a net anticontractile effect in healthy individuals. AMPK is a key mediator of cellular energy balance and may mediate the vascular effects of adiponectin. In this study, we investigated the role of AMPK within PVAT in mediating the anticontractile effect of PVAT.<h4>Experimental approach</h4>Endothelium-denuded aortic rings from wild-type (WT; Sv129) and ?<sub>1</sub> AMPK knockout (KO) mice were mounted on a wire myograph. Dose-response curves to the AMPK-independent vasodilator cromakalim were studied in vessels with and without PVAT, and effect of pre-incubation with conditioned media and adiponectin on relaxation was also studied. The effect of AMPK?1 KO on the secretory profile of PVAT was assessed by elisa.<h4>Key results</h4>Thoracic aortic PVAT from KO mice was morphologically indistinct from that of WT and primarily composed of brown adipose tissue. PVAT augmented relaxation to cromakalim in WT but not KO aortic rings. Addition of WT PVAT augmented relaxation in KO aortic rings but KO PVAT had no effect in WT rings. PVAT from KO mice secreted significantly less adiponectin and addition of adiponectin to either KO or WT aortic rings without PVAT augmented relaxation to cromakalim. An adiponectin blocking peptide significantly attenuated relaxation in WT rings with PVAT but not in KO rings.<h4>Conclusions and implications</h4>AMPK?1 has a critical role in maintaining the anticontractile actions of PVAT; an effect independent of the endothelium but likely mediated through altered adiponectin secretion or sensitivity.<h4>Linked articles</h4>This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Perivascular Adipose Tissue - Potential Pharmacological Targets? To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.20/issuetoc.
Project description:<h4>Key points</h4>The endothelium plays a pivotal role in the vascular response to chemical and mechanical stimuli. The endothelium is exquisitely sensitive to ACh, although the physiological significance of ACh-induced activation of the endothelium is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of flow-mediated endothelial calcium signalling. Our data establish that flow-mediated endothelial calcium responses arise from the autocrine action of non-neuronal ACh released by the endothelium.<h4>Abstract</h4>Circulating blood generates frictional forces (shear stress) on the walls of blood vessels. These frictional forces critically regulate vascular function. The endothelium senses these frictional forces and, in response, releases various vasodilators that relax smooth muscle cells in a process termed flow-mediated dilatation. Although some elements of the signalling mechanisms have been identified, precisely how flow is sensed and transduced to cause the release of relaxing factors is poorly understood. By imaging signalling in large areas of the endothelium of intact arteries, we show that the endothelium responds to flow by releasing ACh. Once liberated, ACh acts to trigger calcium release from the internal store in endothelial cells, nitric oxide production and artery relaxation. Flow-activated release of ACh from the endothelium is non-vesicular and occurs via organic cation transporters. ACh is generated following mitochondrial production of acetylCoA. Thus, we show ACh is an autocrine signalling molecule released from endothelial cells, and identify a new role for the classical neurotransmitter in endothelial mechanotransduction.
Project description:We tested the hypothesis that superoxide signaling within aortic perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) contributes to large elastic artery stiffening in old mice. Young (4-6 months), old (26-28 months), and old treated with 4-Hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPOL), a superoxide scavenger (1 mm in drinking water for 3 weeks), male C57BL6/N mice were studied. Compared with young, old had greater large artery stiffness assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV, 436 ± 9 vs. 344 ± 5 cm s(-1)) and intrinsic mechanical testing (3821 ± 427 vs. 1925 ± 271 kPa) (both P < 0.05). TEMPOL treatment in old reversed both measures of arterial stiffness. Aortic PVAT superoxide production was greater in old (P < 0.05 vs. Y), which was normalized with TEMPOL. Compared with young, old controls had greater pro-inflammatory proteins in PVAT-conditioned media (P < 0.05). Young recipient mice transplanted with PVAT from old compared with young donors for 8 weeks had greater aPWV (409 ± 7 vs. 342 ± 8 cm s(-1)) and intrinsic mechanical properties (3197 ± 647 vs. 1889 ± 520 kPa) (both P < 0.05), which was abolished with TEMPOL supplementation in old donors. Tissue-cultured aortic segments from old in the presence of PVAT had greater mechanical stiffening compared with old cultured in the absence of PVAT and old with PVAT and TEMPOL (both, P < 0.05). In addition, PVAT-derived superoxide was associated with arterial wall hypertrophy and greater adventitial collagen I expression with aging that was attenuated by TEMPOL. Aging or TEMPOL treatment did not affect blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence for greater age-related superoxide production and pro-inflammatory proteins in PVAT, and directly link superoxide signaling in PVAT to large elastic artery stiffness.
Project description:Angiotensin (Ang) II causes endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with cardiovascular risk. We investigated the hypothesis that Ang II increases microvascular reactive oxygen species and asymmetrical dimethylarginine and switches endothelial function from vasodilator to vasoconstrictor pathways. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent responses of mesenteric resistance arterioles were assessed in a myograph and vascular NO and reactive oxygen species by fluorescent probes in groups (n=6) of male rats infused for 14 days with Ang II (200 ng/kg per minute) or given a sham infusion. Additional groups of Ang or sham-infused rats were given oral Tempol (2 mmol · L(-1)). Ang II infusion increased mean blood pressure (119±5 versus 89±7 mm Hg; P<0.005) and plasma malondialdehyde (0.57±0.02 versus 0.37±0.05 ?mol · L(-1); P<0.035) and decreased maximal endothelium-dependent relaxation (18±5% versus 54±6%; P<0.005) and hyperpolarizing (19±3% versus 29±3%; P<0.05) responses and NO activity (0.9±0.1 versus 1.6±0.2 U; P<0.01) yet enhanced endothelium-dependent contraction responses (23±5% versus 5±5%; P<0.05) and reactive oxygen species production (0.82±0.05 versus 0.15±0.03 U; P<0.01). Ang II decreased the expression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2 and increased asymmetrical dimethylarginine in vessels (450±50 versus 260±35 pmol/mg of protein; P<0.01) but not plasma. Tempol prevented any significant changes with Ang II. In conclusion, Ang redirected endothelial responses from relaxation to contraction, reduced vascular NO, and increased asymmetrical dimethylarginine. These effects were dependent on reactive oxygen species and could, therefore, be targeted with effective antioxidant therapy.