Campylobacter excreted into the environment by animal sources: prevalence, concentration shed, and host association.
ABSTRACT: An intensive study of 443 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from 2031 fecal samples excreted by animal sources including cattle, sheep, and pigs, a range of wild and domesticated avian species and pets is described. The prevalence found in the majority of animal sources ranged from 22% to 28% with poultry being highest at 41% and cats and dogs lowest (<5%). The average count excreted for each animal source was found not to be significantly different ranging from approximately 10(2) to 10(5) cfu/g. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified phylogenies that exhibited host specificity. A number of clonal complexes (CCs) and sequence types (STs) were characteristic of particular hosts (e.g., CC-179, ST-637, and ST-1341 found only in pigeons and gulls). Analysis of genetic distance demonstrated numerous significant differences in the distribution of MLST types (CC, ST, and allele) between animal sources. Host association was quantified using structure that correctly assigned the nine animal sources with accuracies of 28%, 24%, and 55% at the CC, ST, and allele levels, respectively. This is substantially higher than would be expected by random allocation (11%) but farmyard poultry had the lowest assignment accuracy (13%, 13%, and 21%) suggesting that isolates were shared with a wide range of other animals. This study demonstrates the link between MLST type and host and provides data that can be used in risk assessment and food attribution models. Further, it demonstrates the applicability of MLST to characterize Campylobacter strains from a broad range of environmental sources.
Project description:Source attribution using molecular subtypes has implicated cattle and sheep as sources of human Campylobacter infection. Whether the Campylobacter subtypes associated with cattle and sheep vary spatiotemporally remains poorly known, especially at national levels. Here we describe spatiotemporal patterns of prevalence, bacterial enumeration, and subtype composition in Campylobacter isolates from cattle and sheep feces from northeastern (63 farms, 414 samples) and southwestern (71 farms, 449 samples) Scotland during 2005 to 2006. Isolates (201) were categorized as sequence type (ST), as clonal complex (CC), and as Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). No significant difference in average prevalence (cattle, 22%; sheep, 25%) or average enumeration (cattle, 2.7 x 10(4) CFU/g; sheep, 2.0 x 10(5) CFU/g) was found between hosts or regions. The four most common STs (C. jejuni ST-19, ST-42, and ST-61 and C. coli ST-827) occurred in both hosts, whereas STs of the C. coli ST-828 clonal complex were more common in sheep. Neither host yielded evidence for regional differences in ST, CC, or MLST allele composition. Isolates from the two hosts combined, categorized as ST or CC, were more similar within than between farms but showed no further spatiotemporal trends up to 330 km and 50 weeks between farm samples. In contrast, both regions yielded evidence for significant differences in ST, CC, and allele composition between hosts, such that 65% of isolates could be attributed to a known host. These results suggest that cattle and sheep within the spatiotemporal scales analyzed are each capable of contributing homogeneous Campylobacter strains to human infections.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. This study aimed at a better understanding of the genetic diversity of this pathogen disseminated in Japan. We performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from different sources (100 human, 61 poultry, and 51 cattle isolates) in Japan between 2005 and 2006. This approach identified 62 sequence types (STs) and 19 clonal complexes (CCs), including 11 novel STs. These 62 STs were phylogenetically divided into 6 clusters, partially exhibiting host association. We identified a novel ST (ST-4526) that has never been reported in other countries; a phylogenetic analysis showed that ST-4526 and related STs showed distant lineage from the founder ST, ST-21 within CC-21. Comparative genome analysis was performed to investigate which properties could be responsible for the successful dissemination of ST-4526 in Japan. Results revealed that three representative ST-4526 isolates contained a putative island comprising the region from Cj0737 to Cj0744, which differed between the ST-4526 isolates and the reference strain NCTC11168 (ST-43/CC-21). Amino acid sequence alignment analyses showed that two of three ST-4526 isolates expressed 693aa- filamentous hemagglutination domain protein (FHA), while most of other C. jejuni strains whose genome were sequenced exhibited its truncation. Correspondingly, host cell binding of FHA-positive C. jejuni was greater than that of FHA-truncated strains, and exogenous administration of rFHA protein reduced cell adhesion of FHA-positive bacteria. Biochemical assays showed that this putative protein exhibited a dose-dependent binding affinity to heparan sulfate, indicating its adhesin activity. Moreover, ST-4526 showed increased antibiotic-resistance (nalidixic acid and fluoroquinolones) and a reduced ability for DNA uptake. Taken together, our data suggested that these combined features contributed to the clonal thriving of ST-4526 in Japan.
Project description:Consumption and handling of chicken meat are well-known risk factors for acquiring campylobacteriosis. This study aimed to describe the Campylobacter jejuni population in Finnish chickens and to investigate the distribution of C. jejuni genotypes on Finnish chicken farms over a period of several years. We included 89.8% of the total C. jejuni population recovered in Finnish poultry during 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2012 and used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to characterize the 380 isolates. The typing data was combined with isolate information on collection-time and farm of origin. The C. jejuni prevalence in chicken slaughter batches was low (mean 3.0%, CI95% [1.8%, 4.2%]), and approximately a quarter of Finnish chicken farms delivered at least one positive chicken batch yearly. In general, the C. jejuni population was diverse as represented by a total of 63 sequence types (ST), but certain predominant MLST lineages were identified. ST-45 clonal complex (CC) accounted for 53% of the isolates while ST-21 CC and ST-677 CC covered 11% and 9% of the isolates, respectively. Less than half of the Campylobacter positive farms (40.3%) delivered C. jejuni-contaminated batches in multiple years, but the genotypes (ST and PFGE types) generally varied from year to year. Therefore, no evidence for a persistent C. jejuni source for the colonization of Finnish chickens emerged. Finnish chicken farms are infrequently contaminated with C. jejuni compared to other European Union (EU) countries, making Finland a valuable model for further epidemiological studies of the C. jejuni in poultry flocks.
Project description:Campylobacter is a zoonotic pathogen that causes foodborne diarrheal illness globally. To better understand health risks in Southeastern China, Campylobacter spp. were surveyed in humans and representative poultry products over 3 years. One hundred and ninety-five representative isolates (n = 148, Campylobacter jejuni; n = 45, Campylobacter coli; n = 2 Campylobacter hyointestinalis) were examined for genetic relatedness and antimicrobial susceptibility. Nearly all Campylobacter isolates (99.0%, 193/195) were resistant to at least one class of antimicrobials, and 45.6% (89/195) of the isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. Genotypic analysis revealed high diversity among tested strains. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) displayed 120 sequence types (STs) including 42 novel STs being added to the PubMLST international database. Sixty-two STs belonged to 16 previously characterized clonal complexes (CCs), of which CC-21, CC-45, CC-464, CC-574, CC-353, and CC-828 were most frequently identified. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting resulted in 66 PFGE SmaI patterns among the 125 isolates, with eight patterns shared between human and poultry sources. Subtyping data did not correlate with antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Taken together, this large-scale surveillance study highlights high antimicrobial resistance and molecular features of Campylobacter isolates in Southeastern China.
Project description:Wild European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) shed Campylobacter at high rates, suggesting that they may be a source of human and farm animal infection. A survey of Campylobacter shedding of 957 wild starlings was undertaken by culture of faecal specimens and genetic analysis of the campylobacters isolated: shedding rates were 30.6% for Campylobacter jejuni, 0.6% for C. coli and 6.3% for C. lari. Genotyping by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antigen sequence typing established that these bacteria were distinct from poultry or human disease isolates with the ST-177 and ST-682 clonal complexes possibly representing starling-adapted genotypes. There was seasonal variation in both shedding rate and genotypic diversity, both exhibiting a maximum during the late spring/early summer. Host age also affected Campylobacter shedding, which was higher in younger birds, and turnover was rapid with no evidence of cross-immunity among Campylobacter species or genotypes. In nestlings, C. jejuni shedding was evident from 9 days of age but siblings were not readily co-infected. The dynamics of Campylobacter infection of starlings differed from that observed in commercial poultry and consequently there was no evidence that wild starlings represent a major source of Campylobacter infections of food animals or humans.
Project description:<b>Objectives:</b> <i>Campylobacter jejuni</i> is responsible for 80% of <i>Campylobacter</i> infections in Israel, a country with a high incidence reaching 91/100,000 population. We studied the phylogeny, diversity and prevalence of virulence factors using whole genome sequencing (WGS) of a national sample of <i>C. jejuni</i> clinical, food, and animal isolates collected over a 10-year period (2003-2012). <b>Methods:</b> <i>C. jejuni</i> isolates (<i>n</i> = 263) were subject to WGS using Illumina sequencing (PE 250bpx2). Raw reads and <i>de novo</i> assemblies were analyzed with the BioNumerics whole genome MLST (wgMLST) pipeline. Reads were screened for 71 virulence genes by the SRST2 script. Allelic profiles were analyzed to create minimum spanning trees and allelic core distances were investigated to determine a reliable cutoff for strain determination. <b>Results:</b> wgMLST analysis of 263 <i>C. jejuni</i> isolates indicated significant diversity among the prevalent clonal complexes (CCs) with CC-21 and CC-353 being the most diverse, and CC-574 the most clonal. Within CC-21, sequence type (ST)-1359 created a separate clade. Human, poultry and bovine isolates clustered together across the different STs. Forty four percent of studied isolates were assigned to 29 genetic clusters. Temporal and geographical relatedness were found among the minority of clusters, while most phylogenetically associated cases appeared diffuse and unassociated epidemiologically. The majority of virulence factors were highly prevalent across the dataset and not associated with genotype, source of isolation or invasiveness. Conversely, all 13 genes associated with type VI secretion system (T6SS) were lineage-related and identified in only 18% of the isolates. T6SS was detected in 95.2% of ST-1359, a common type in Israel. <b>Conclusions:</b> wgMLST supported the assessment that poultry and cattle are likely food sources of infection in Israel. Substantial genetic clustering among <i>C. jejuni</i> isolates suggested multiple point source and diffuse outbreaks that were previously unreported in Israel. The high prevalence of T6SS among ST-1359 isolates is unique to Israel, and requires further investigation. This study exemplifies the importance of studying foodborne pathogens using advanced genomic approaches across the entire spectrum of One Health.
Project description:The phylogenetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Campylobacter coli from humans and animals in Japan between 2008 and 2014 were investigated. A total of 338 foodborne campylobacterioses were reported in Osaka, and C. coli was isolated from 38 cases (11.2%). In the present study, 119 C. coli strains (42 from humans, 25 each from poultry, cattle, and swine, and 2 from wild mallard) were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). MLST assigned 36 sequence types (STs), including 14 novel STs; all human strains and 91% of animal strains (70/77) were assigned to the ST-828 clonal complex. The predominant human ST was ST-860 (18/42, 43%), followed by ST-1068 (8/42, 19%); these STs were also predominant in poultry (ST-860, 9/25, 36%) and cattle (ST-1068, 18/25, 72%). ST-1562 was only predominant in swine (11/25, 44.0%). Swine strains showed the greatest resistance to erythromycin (EM; 92.0%), while EM resistance was only found in 2 out of the 42 human strains examined (4.8%). All EM-resistant swine strains (n=15) exhibited a common point mutation in the 23S rRNA sequence (A2085G), and the tetO gene was detected in 22 out of the 23 TET-resistant swine strains. A whole genome sequencing analysis of four representative swine ST-1562 strains revealed abundant AMR-associated gene clusters in their genomes, suggesting horizontal gene transfer events during host adaptation. This is the first study to demonstrate the phylogenetic diversity and AMR profiles of C. coli in Japan. The present results suggest that poultry and cattle are major reservoirs, improving our knowledge on the epidemiological and ecological traits of this pathogen.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Campylobacteriosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases worldwide and a significant health burden in New Zealand. Campylobacter jejuni is the predominant species worldwide, accounting for approximately 90% of human cases, followed by Campylobacter coli Most studies in New Zealand have focused on C. jejuni; hence, the impact of C. coli strains on human health is not well understood. The aim of this study was to genotype C. coli isolates collected in the Manawatu region of New Zealand from clinical cases, fresh poultry meat, ruminant feces, and environmental water sources, between 2005 and 2014, to study their population structure and estimate the contribution of each source to the burden of human disease. Campylobacter isolates were identified by PCR and typed by multilocus sequence typing. C. coli accounted for 2.9% (n = 47/1,601) of Campylobacter isolates from human clinical cases, 9.6% (n = 108/1,123) from poultry, 13.4% (n = 49/364) from ruminants, and 6.4% (n = 11/171) from water. Molecular subtyping revealed 27 different sequence types (STs), of which 18 belonged to clonal complex ST-828. ST-1581 was the most prevalent C. coli sequence type isolated from both human cases (n = 12/47) and poultry (n = 44/110). When classified using cladistics, all sequence types belonged to clade 1 except ST-7774, which belonged to clade 2. ST-854, ST-1590, and ST-4009 were isolated only from human cases and fresh poultry, while ST-3232 was isolated only from human cases and ruminant sources. Modeling indicated ruminants and poultry as the main sources of C. coli human infection.<h4>Importance</h4>We performed a molecular epidemiological study of Campylobacter coli infection in New Zealand, one of few such studies globally. This study analyzed the population genetic structure of the bacterium and included a probabilistic source attribution model covering different animal and water sources. The results are discussed in a global context.
Project description:Campylobacter infection is the most commonly notified bacterial enteritis in Germany. We performed a large combined case-control and source attribution study (Nov 2011-Feb 2014) to identify risk factors for sporadic intestinal Campylobacter infections and to determine the relative importance of various animal sources for human infections in Germany. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors. Source attribution analysis was performed using the asymmetric island model based on MLST data of human and animal/food isolates. As animal sources we considered chicken, pig, pet dog or cat, cattle, and poultry other than chicken. Consumption of chicken meat and eating out were the most important risk factors for Campylobacter infections. Additional risk factors were preparation of poultry meat in the household; preparation of uncooked food and raw meat at the same time; contact with poultry animals; and the use of gastric acid inhibitors. The mean probability of human C. jejuni isolates to originate from chickens was highest (74%), whereas pigs were a negligible source for C. jejuni infections. Human C. coli isolates were likely to originate from chickens (56%) or from pigs (32%). Efforts need to be intensified along the food chain to reduce Campylobacter load, especially on chicken meat.
Project description:Campylobacteriosis has increased markedly in Luxembourg during recent years. We sought to determine which Campylobacter genotypes infect humans, where they may originate from, and how they may infect humans. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on 1153 Campylobacter jejuni and 136 C. coli human strains to be attributed to three putative animal reservoirs (poultry, ruminants, pigs) and to environmental water using the asymmetric island model. A nationwide case-control study (2010-2013) for domestic campylobacteriosis was also conducted, including 367 C. jejuni and 48 C. coli cases, and 624 controls. Risk factors were investigated by Campylobacter species, and for strains attributed to different sources using a combined case-control and source attribution analysis. 282 sequence types (STs) were identified: ST-21, ST-48, ST-572, ST-50 and ST-257 were prevailing. Most cases were attributed to poultry (61.2%) and ruminants (33.3%). Consuming chicken outside the home was the dominant risk factor for both Campylobacter species. Newly identified risk factors included contact with garden soil for either species, and consuming beef specifically for C. coli. Poultry-associated campylobacteriosis was linked to poultry consumption in wintertime, and ruminant-associated campylobacteriosis to tap-water provider type. Besides confirming chicken as campylobacteriosis primary source, additional evidence was found for other reservoirs and transmission routes.