Whole-genome sequencing of Berkshire (European native pig) provides insights into its origin and domestication.
ABSTRACT: Domesticated organisms have experienced strong selective pressures directed at genes or genomic regions controlling traits of biological, agricultural or medical importance. The genome of native and domesticated pigs provide a unique opportunity for tracing the history of domestication and identifying signatures of artificial selection. Here we used whole-genome sequencing to explore the genetic relationships among the European native pig Berkshire and breeds that are distributed worldwide, and to identify genomic footprints left by selection during the domestication of Berkshire. Numerous nonsynonymous SNPs-containing genes fall into olfactory-related categories, which are part of a rapidly evolving superfamily in the mammalian genome. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian pigs rather than between domestic and wild pigs. Admixture analysis exhibited higher portion of Chinese genetic material for the Berkshire pigs, which is consistent with the historical record regarding its origin. Selective sweep analyses revealed strong signatures of selection affecting genomic regions that harbor genes underlying economic traits such as disease resistance, pork yield, fertility, tameness and body length. These discoveries confirmed the history of origin of Berkshire pig by genome-wide analysis and illustrate how domestication has shaped the patterns of genetic variation.
Project description:Natural and artificial selection following domestication has led to the existence of more than a hundred pig breeds, as well as incredible variation in phenotypic traits. Berkshire pigs are regarded as having superior meat quality compared to other breeds. As the meat production industry seeks selective breeding approaches to improve profitable traits such as meat quality, information about genetic determinants of these traits is in high demand. However, most of the studies have been performed using trained sensory panel analysis without investigating the underlying genetic factors. Here we investigate the relationship between genomic composition and this phenotypic trait by scanning for signatures of positive selection in whole-genome sequencing data.We generated genomes of 10 Berkshire pigs at a total of 100.6 coverage depth, using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. Along with the genomes of 11 Landrace and 13 Yorkshire pigs, we identified genomic variants of 18.9 million SNVs and 3.4 million Indels in the mapped regions. We identified several associated genes related to lipid metabolism, intramuscular fatty acid deposition, and muscle fiber type which attribute to pork quality (TG, FABP1, AKIRIN2, GLP2R, TGFBR3, JPH3, ICAM2, and ERN1) by applying between population statistical tests (XP-EHH and XP-CLR). A statistical enrichment test was also conducted to detect breed specific genetic variation. In addition, de novo short sequence read assembly strategy identified several candidate genes (SLC25A14, IGF1, PI4KA, CACNA1A) as also contributing to lipid metabolism.Results revealed several candidate genes involved in Berkshire meat quality; most of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and intramuscular fat deposition. These results can provide a basis for future research on the genomic characteristics of Berkshire pigs.
Project description:Objective:Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) were identified in Berkshire selective sweep regions and then were investigated to discover genetic nsSNP mechanisms that were potentially associated with Berkshire domestication and meat quality. We further used bioinformatics tools to predict damaging amino-acid substitutions in Berkshire-related nsSNPs. METHODS:nsSNPs were examined in whole genome resequencing data of 110 pigs, including 14 Berkshire pigs, generated using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform to identify variations that might affect meat quality in Berkshire pigs. RESULTS:Total 65,550 nsSNPs were identified in the mapped regions; among these, 319 were found in Berkshire selective-sweep regions reported in a previous study. Genes encompassing these nsSNPs were involved in lipid metabolism, intramuscular fatty-acid deposition, and muscle development. The effects of amino acid change by nsSNPs on protein functions were predicted using sorting intolerant from tolerant and polymorphism phenotyping V2 to reveal their potential roles in biological processes that may correlate with the unique Berkshire meat-quality traits. CONCLUSION:Our nsSNP findings confirmed the history of Berkshire pigs and illustrated the effects of domestication on generic-variation patterns. Our novel findings, which are generally consistent with those of previous studies, facilitated a better understanding of Berkshire domestication. In summary, we extensively investigated the relationship between genomic composition and phenotypic traits by scanning for nsSNPs in large-scale whole-genome sequencing data.
Project description:Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits). We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea) as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30-75 genes (less than 1%) of expressed genes were differentially expressed), while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH) were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.
Project description:Identification of genomic signatures that help reveal mechanisms underlying desirable traits in domesticated pigs is of significant biological, agricultural and medical importance. To identify the genomic footprints left by selection during domestication of the Enshi black pig, a typical native and meat-lard breed in China, we generated about 72-fold coverage of the pig genome using pools of genomic DNA representing three different populations of Enshi black pigs from three different locations. Combining this data with the available whole genomes of 13 Chinese wild boars, we identified 417 protein-coding genes embedded in the selected regions of Enshi black pigs. These genes are mainly involved in developmental and metabolic processes, response to stimulus, and other biological processes. Signatures of selection were detected in genes involved in body size and immunity (RPS10 and VASN), lipid metabolism (GSK3), male fertility (INSL6) and developmental processes (TBX19). These findings provide a window into the potential genetic mechanism underlying development of desirable phenotypes in Enshi black pigs during domestication and subsequent artificial selection. Thus, our results illustrate how domestication has shaped patterns of genetic variation in Enshi black pigs and provide valuable genetic resources that enable effective use of pigs in agricultural production.
Project description:Animal domestication involved drastic phenotypic changes driven by strong artificial selection and also resulted in new populations of breeds, established by humans. This study aims to identify genes that show evidence of recent artificial selection during pig domestication.Whole-genome resequencing of 30 individual pigs from domesticated breeds, Landrace and Yorkshire, and 10 Asian wild boars at ~16-fold coverage was performed resulting in over 4.3 million SNPs for 19,990 genes. We constructed a comprehensive genome map of directional selection by detecting selective sweeps using an F ST-based approach that detects directional selection in lineages leading to the domesticated breeds and using a haplotype-based test that detects ongoing selective sweeps within the breeds. We show that candidate genes under selection are significantly enriched for loci implicated in quantitative traits important to pig reproduction and production. The candidate gene with the strongest signals of directional selection belongs to group III of the metabolomics glutamate receptors, known to affect brain functions associated with eating behavior, suggesting that loci under strong selection include loci involved in behaviorial traits in domesticated pigs including tameness.We show that a significant proportion of selection signatures coincide with loci that were previously inferred to affect phenotypic variation in pigs. We further identify functional enrichment related to behavior, such as signal transduction and neuronal activities, for those targets of selection during domestication in pigs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Scanning of the genome for selection signatures between breeds may play important role in understanding the underlie causes for observable phenotypic variations. The discovery of high density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) provide a useful starting point to perform genome-wide scan in pig populations in order to identify loci/candidate genes underlie phenotypic variation in pig breeds and facilitate genetic improvement programs. However, prior to this study genomic region under selection in commercially selected Berkshire and Korean native pig breeds has never been detected using high density SNP markers. To this end, we have genotyped 45 animals using Porcine SNP60 chip to detect selection signatures in the genome of the two breeds by using the F ST approach.<h4>Results</h4>In the comparison of Berkshire and KNP breeds using the FDIST approach, a total of 1108 outlier loci (3.48%) were significantly different from zero at 99% confidence level with 870 of the outlier SNPs displaying high level of genetic differentiation (F ST ?0.490). The identified candidate genes were involved in a wide array of biological processes and molecular functions. Results revealed that 19 candidate genes were enriched in phosphate metabolism (GO: 0006796; ADCK1, ACYP1, CAMK2D, CDK13, CDK13, ERN1, GALK2, INPP1; MAK, MAP2K5, MAP3K1, MAPK14, P14KB, PIK3C3, PRKC1, PTPRK, RNASEL, THBS1, BRAF, VRK1). We have identified a set of candidate genes under selection and have known to be involved in growth, size and pork quality (CART, AGL, CF7L2, MAP2K5, DLK1, GLI3, CA3 and MC3R), ear morphology and size (HMGA2 and SOX5) stress response (ATF2, MSRB3, TMTC3 and SCAF8) and immune response ( HCST and RYR1).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Some of the genes may be used to facilitate genetic improvement programs. Our results also provide insights for better understanding of the process and influence of breed development on the pattern of genetic variations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pigs were domesticated independently in Eastern and Western Eurasia early during the agricultural revolution, and have since been transported and traded across the globe. Here, we present a worldwide survey on 60K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 2093 pigs, including 1839 domestic pigs representing 122 local and commercial breeds, 215 wild boars, and 39 out-group suids, from Asia, Europe, America, Oceania and Africa. The aim of this study was to infer global patterns in pig domestication and diversity related to demography, migration, and selection.<h4>Results</h4>A deep phylogeographic division reflects the dichotomy between early domestication centers. In the core Eastern and Western domestication regions, Chinese pigs show differentiation between breeds due to geographic isolation, whereas this is less pronounced in European pigs. The inferred European origin of pigs in the Americas, Africa, and Australia reflects European expansion during the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. Human-mediated introgression, which is due, in particular, to importing Chinese pigs into the UK during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, played an important role in the formation of modern pig breeds. Inbreeding levels vary markedly between populations, from almost no runs of homozygosity (ROH) in a number of Asian wild boar populations, to up to 20% of the genome covered by ROH in a number of Southern European breeds. Commercial populations show moderate ROH statistics. For domesticated pigs and wild boars in Asia and Europe, we identified highly differentiated loci that include candidate genes related to muscle and body development, central nervous system, reproduction, and energy balance, which are putatively under artificial selection.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Key events related to domestication, dispersal, and mixing of pigs from different regions are reflected in the 60K SNP data, including the globalization that has recently become full circle since Chinese pig breeders in the past decades started selecting Western breeds to improve local Chinese pigs. Furthermore, signatures of ongoing and past selection, acting at different times and on different genetic backgrounds, enhance our insight in the mechanism of domestication and selection. The global diversity statistics presented here highlight concerns for maintaining agrodiversity, but also provide a necessary framework for directing genetic conservation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The Wannan Black pig is a typical Chinese indigenous, disease-resistant pig breed with high fertility, and a crude-feed tolerance that has been bred by artificial selection in the south of Anhui province for a long time. However, genome variation, genetic relationships with other pig breeds, and domestication, remain poorly understood. Here, we focus on elucidating the genetic characteristics of the Wannan Black pig and identifying selection signatures during domestication and breeding. METHODS:We identified the whole-genome variation in the Wannan Black pig and performed population admixture analyses to determine genetic relationships with other domesticated pig breeds and wild boars. Then, we identified the selection signatures between the Wannan Black pig and Asian wild boars in 100-kb windows sliding in 10 kb steps by using two approaches: the fixation index (FST) and ? ratios. RESULTS:Resequencing the Wannan Black pig genome yielded 501.52 G of raw data. After calling single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions/deletions (InDels), we identified 21,316,754 SNVs and 5,067,206 InDels (2,898,582 inserts and 2,168,624 deletions). Additionally, we found genes associated with growth, immunity, and digestive functions. CONCLUSION:Our findings help in explaining the unique genetic and phenotypic characteristics of Wannan Black pigs, which in turn can be informative for future breeding programs of Wannan Black pigs.
Project description:c-MYC (v-myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologue) is a transcription factor that plays important role in many biological process including cell growth and differentiation, such as myogenesis and adipogenesis. In this study, we aimed to detect MYC gene polymorphisms, their genotype frequencies and to determine associations between these polymorphisms and meat quality traits in Berkshire pigs. We identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron 2 of MYC gene by Sanger sequencing, i.e., g.3350G>C (rs321898326), that is only found in Berkshire pigs, but not in other breeds including Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire pigs that were used in this study. Genotypes of total 378 Berkshire pigs (138 sows and 240 boars) were determined using Hha I restriction enzyme digestion after polymerase chain reaction. Observed allele frequencies of GG, GC, and CC genotypes were 0.399, 0.508, and 0.093 respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the g.3350G>C polymorphism was significantly associated with pH45min and cooking loss (p<0.05), suggesting that g.3350G>C SNP can be used for pre-selection of pH45min and cooking loss traits in Berkshire pigs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Meat from Jeju native pigs (JNPs) is highly popular among Korean consumers; however, the production efficiency is limited due to the low adult body weight. In contrast, the Berkshire breed, which has a genetic background closely related to Asian native pigs, gains weight more efficiently.<h4>Objectives</h4>This study focused on the differential expression of genes related to muscle growth in postnatal myogenesis between Berkshire and JNPs, specifically the myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) genes (MyoD, Pax7, Myf5, Myf6 and MyBPH). The MRF family is primarily involved in the proliferation and development of muscle.<h4>Methods</h4>Qualitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses revealed that expression of MyoD and Pax7 was significantly higher in Berkshire pigs than in JNPs. In addition, co-expression of MyoD and Pax7 was observed in myotubes formed in cultured C2C12 cells. ToppCluster was used to elucidate the relationship between biological processes of the MRFs and muscle-related signalling pathways.<h4>Results</h4>MyoD and Pax7 are factors essential for the activation of satellite cell during myogenesis. However, the mRNA and protein levels of MyBPH (which is responsible for meat quality, e.g. water content, colour and tenderness) are significantly higher in both 1-day-old piglets and adult JNPs than in Berkshire pigs.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study provides a genetic understanding of myogenesis in the postnatal and adult stages of Berkshire pigs and JNPs. Moreover, these results will help identify marker genes related to muscle mass, growth performance and meat quality in indigenous Korean pig breeds.