Antibody epitopes on g protein-coupled receptors mapped with genetically encoded photoactivatable cross-linkers.
ABSTRACT: We developed a strategy for creating epitope maps of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) containing photo-cross-linkers. Using human CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) as a model system, we genetically incorporated the photolabile unnatural amino acid p-azido-l-phenylalanine (azF) at various positions within extracellular loop 2 (EC2). We then mapped the interactions of the azF-CXCR4 variants with mAb 12G5 using targeted loss-of-function studies and photo-cross-linking in whole cells in a microplate-based format. We used a novel variation of a whole cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate cross-linking efficiency. 12G5 cross-linked primarily to residues 184, 178, and 189 in EC2 of CXCR4. Mapping of the data to the crystal structure of CXCR4 showed a distinct mAb epitope footprint with the photo-cross-linked residues clustered around the loss-of-function sites. We also used the targeted photo-cross-linking approach to study the interaction of human CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) with PRO 140, a humanized mAb that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus-1 cellular entry, and 2D7. The mAbs produced distinct cross-linking patterns on EC2 of CCR5. PRO 140 cross-linked primarily to residues 174 and 175 at the amino-terminal end of EC2, and 2D7 cross-linked mainly to residues 170, 176, and 184. These results were mapped to the recent crystal structure of CCR5 in complex with maraviroc, showing cross-linked residues at the tip of the maraviroc binding crevice formed by EC2. As a strategy for mapping mAb epitopes on GPCRs, our targeted photo-cross-linking method is complementary to loss-of-function mutagenesis results and should be especially useful for studying mAbs with discontinuous epitopes.
Project description:Six mouse anti-human CCR5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that showed potent antiviral activities were identified from over 26,000 mouse hybridomas. The epitopes for these mAbs were determined by using various CCR5 mutants, including CCR5/CCR2B chimeras. One mAb, ROAb13, was found to bind to a linear epitope in the N terminus of CCR5. Strikingly, the other five mAbs bind to epitopes derived from extracellular loop 2 (ECL2). The three most potent mAbs, ROAb12, ROAb14, and ROAb18, require residues from both the N-terminal (Lys171 and Glu172) and C-terminal (Trp190) halves of ECL2 for binding; two other mAbs, ROAb10 and ROAb51, which also showed potent antiviral activities, require Lys171 and Glu172 but not Trp190 for binding. Binding of the control mAb 2D7 completely relies on Lys171 and Glu172. Unlike 2D7, the novel mAbs ROAb12, ROAb14, and ROAb18 do not bind to the linear peptide 2D7-2SK. In addition, all three mAbs bind to monkey CCR5 (with Arg at position 171 instead of Lys); however, 2D7 does not. Since five of the six most potent CCR5 mAbs derived from the same pool of immunized mice require ECL2 as epitopes, we hypothesize that CCR5 ECL2 contains the dominant epitopes for mAbs with potent antiviral activities. These dominant epitopes were found in CCR5 from multiple species and were detected in large proportions of the total cell surface CCR5. mAbs recognizing these epitopes also showed high binding affinity. A homology model of CCR5 was generated to aid in the interpretation of these dominant epitopes in ECL2.
Project description:R5 HIV-1 strains resistant to the CCR5 antagonist Maraviroc (MVC) can use drug-bound CCR5. We demonstrate that MVC-resistant HIV-1 exhibits delayed kinetics of coreceptor engagement and fusion during drug-bound versus free CCR5 infection of cell lines. Antibodies directed against the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of CCR5 had greater antiviral activity against MVC-bound compared to MVC-free CCR5 infection. However, in PBMCs, only ECL2 CCR5 antibodies HGS004 and HGS101, but not 2D7, inhibited infection by MVC resistant HIV-1 more potently with MVC-bound than with free CCR5. In addition, HGS004 and HGS101, but not 2D7, restored the antiviral activity of MVC against resistant virus in PBMCs. In flow cytometric studies, CCR5 binding by the HGS mAbs, but not by 2D7, was increased when PBMCs were treated with MVC, suggesting MVC increases exposure of the relevant epitope. Thus, HGS004 and HGS101 have antiviral mechanisms distinct from 2D7 and could help overcome MVC resistance.
Project description:Here we report that the N-pyridinylmethyl cyclam analog AMD3451 has antiviral activity against a wide variety of R5, R5/X4, and X4 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] ranging from 1.2 to 26.5 microM) in various T-cell lines, CCR5- or CXCR4-transfected cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and monocytes/macrophages. AMD3451 also inhibited R5, R5/X4, and X4 HIV-1 primary clinical isolates in PBMCs (IC(50), 1.8 to 7.3 microM). A PCR-based viral entry assay revealed that AMD3451 blocks R5 and X4 HIV-1 infection at the virus entry stage. AMD3451 dose-dependently inhibited the intracellular Ca(2+) signaling induced by the CXCR4 ligand CXCL12 in T-lymphocytic cells and in CXCR4-transfected cells, as well as the Ca(2+) flux induced by the CCR5 ligands CCL5, CCL3, and CCL4 in CCR5-transfected cells. The compound did not interfere with chemokine-induced Ca(2+) signaling through CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR6, CCR9, or CXCR3 and did not induce intracellular Ca(2+) signaling by itself at concentrations up to 400 microM. In freshly isolated monocytes, AMD3451 inhibited the Ca(2+) flux induced by CXCL12 and CCL4 but not that induced by CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, and CCL7. The CXCL12- and CCL3-induced chemotaxis was also dose-dependently inhibited by AMD3451. Furthermore, AMD3451 inhibited CXCL12- and CCL3L1-induced endocytosis in CXCR4- and CCR5-transfected cells. AMD3451, in contrast to the specific CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100, did not inhibit but enhanced the binding of several anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibodies (such as clone 12G5) at the cell surface, pointing to a different interaction with CXCR4. AMD3451 is the first low-molecular-weight anti-HIV agent with selective HIV coreceptor, CCR5 and CXCR4, interaction.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Small chemical compounds which target chemokine receptors have been developed against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and are under investigation for use as anti-HIV-1 microbicides. In addition, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against chemokine receptors have also been shown to have anti-HIV-1 activities. The objective of the present study was to screen a panel of three anti-CXCR4 specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for their ability to block the HIV-1 infection using in vitro activated primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). RESULTS: PBMCs from normal donors were pre-activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 mAbs for 1 day, and aliquots were infected with a low dose of CCR5-tropic (R5), CXCR4 tropic (X4) or dual tropic (X4R5) HIV-1 isolates and cultured in the presence of a panel of anti-CXCR4 mAbs. The panel included clones A145 mAb against the N-terminus, A120 mAb against a conformational epitope consisting of extracellular loops (ECL)1 and ECL2, and A80 mAb against ECL3 of CXCR4. Among these mAbs, the A120 mAb showed the most potent inhibition of infection, by not only X4 but surprisingly also R5 and X4R5 HIV-1. The inhibition of R5 HIV-1 was postulated to result from the novel ability of the A120 mAb to induce the levels of the CCR5-binding ?-chemokines MIP-1?, MIP-1? and/or RANTES, and the down modulation of CCR5 expression on activated CD4+ T cells. Neutralizing anti-MIP-1? mAb significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of the A120 mAb on R5 HIV-1 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The data described herein have identified a unique epitope of CXCR4 whose ligation not only directly inhibits X4 HIV-1, but also indirectly inhibits R5 HIV-1 infection by inducing higher levels of natural CCR5 ligands.
Project description:Gold standard beam radiation for glioblastoma (GBM) treatment is challenged by resistance phenomena occurring in cellular populations well prepared to survive or to repair damage caused by radiation. Among signals that have been linked with radio-resistance, the SDF1/CXCR4 axis, associated with cancer stem-like cell, may be an opportune target. To avoid the problem of systemic toxicity and blood-brain barrier crossing, the relevance and efficacy of an original system of local brain internal radiation therapy combining a radiopharmaceutical with an immuno-nanoparticle was investigated.The nanocarrier combined lipophilic thiobenzoate complexes of rhenium-188 loaded in the core of a lipid nanocapsule (LNC188Re) with a function-blocking antibody, 12G5 directed at the CXCR4, on its surface. The efficiency of 12G5-LNC188Re was investigated in an orthotopic and xenogenic GBM model of CXCR4-positive U87MG cells implanted in the striatum of Scid mice.We demonstrated that 12G5-LNC188Re single infusion treatment by convection-enhanced delivery resulted in a major clinical improvement in median survival that was accompanied by locoregional effects on tumor development including hypovascularization and stimulation of the recruitment of bone marrow derived CD11b- or CD68-positive cells as confirmed by immunohistochemistry analysis. Interestingly, thorough analysis by spectral imaging in a chimeric U87MG GBM model containing CXCR4-positive/red fluorescent protein (RFP)-positive- and CXCR4-negative/RFP-negative-GBM cells revealed greater confinement of DiD-labeled 12G5-LNCs than control IgG2a-LNCs in RFP compartments. Main conclusion: These findings on locoregional impact and targeting of disseminated cancer cells in tumor margins suggest that intracerebral active targeting of nanocarriers loaded with radiopharmaceuticals may have considerable benefits in clinical applications.
Project description:The mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of a man (VH) homozygous for the CCR5Delta32 mutation were investigated, and coreceptors other than CCR5 used by HIV type 1 (HIV-1) isolated from this individual were identified. In contrast to previous reports, this individual's rate of disease progression was not accelerated. Homozygosity for CCR5Delta32 mutation was demonstrated by PCR and DNA sequencing (R. Biti et al., Nat. Med. 3:252-253, 1997). CCR5 surface expression was absent on T lymphocytes and macrophages. HIV was isolated by coculture with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from siblings who were homozygous (VM) or wild type (WT) for the CCR5Delta32 mutation. The virus demonstrated dual tropism for infection of MT2 cell line and primary macrophages. Sequencing of the full HIV genome directly from the patient's PBMCs revealed 21 nucleotide insertions in the V1 region of gp120. The VH envelope sequence segregated apart from both the T-cell-line-adapted tropic strains NL4-3 and SF2 and M-tropic strain JRFL or YU2 by phylogenetic tree analysis. VH was shown to utilize predominantly CXCR4 for entry into T lymphocytes and macrophages by HOS.CD4 cell infection assay, direct envelope protein fusion, and inhibition by anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody (12G5), SDF-1, and AMD3100. Microsatellite mapping demonstrated the separate inheritance of CXCR4 by both homozygote brothers (VH and VM). Our study demonstrates the ability of certain strains of HIV to readily use CXCR4 for infection or entry into macrophages, which is highly relevant to the pathogenesis of late-stage disease and presumably also HIV transmission.
Project description:Recently, we reported that chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR)4 and atypical chemokine receptor 3 regulate ?1-adrenergic receptors (?1-AR) through the formation of hetero-oligomeric complexes. Whether ?1-ARs also regulate chemokine receptor function within such heteromeric receptor complexes is unknown. We observed that activation of ?1b-AR within the ?1b-AR:CXCR4 heteromeric complex leads to cross-recruitment of ?-arrestin2 to CXCR4, which could not be inhibited with AMD3100. Activation of CXCR4 did not cross-recruit ?-arrestin2 to ?1b-AR. A peptide analogue of transmembrane domain 2 of CXCR4 interfered with ?1b-AR:CXCR4 heteromerization and inhibited ?1b-AR-mediated ?-arrestin2 cross-recruitment. Phenylephrine (PE) induced internalization of CXCR4 in HEK293 cells co-expressing CXCR4 and ?1b-AR and of endogenous CXCR4 in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMC). The latter was detectable despite blockade of CXCR4 with the neutralizing antibody 12G5. hVSMC migrated towards CXCL12 and PE, but not towards a combination of CXCL12 and PE. PE inhibited CXCL12-induced chemotaxis of hVSMC (IC50: 77?±?30?nM). Phentolamine cross-inhibited CXCL12-induced chemotaxis of hVSMC, whereas AMD3100 did not cross-inhibit PE-induced chemotaxis. These data provide evidence for asymmetrical cross-regulation of CXCR4 by ?1-adrenergic receptors within the heteromeric receptor complex. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into the function of ?1-AR:CXCR4 heteromers and suggest alternative approaches to modulate CXCR4 in disease conditions.
Project description:C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is involved in several intractable disease processes, including HIV infection, cancer cell metastasis, leukemia cell progression, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, CXCR4 represents a promising drug target and several CXCR4 antagonizing agents are in preclinical or clinical development. Important parameters in drug lead evaluation are determination of binding affinities to the receptor and assessment of their stability and activity in plasma or blood of animals and humans. Here, we designed a microtiter plate-based CXCR4 antibody competition assay that enables to measure inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) and affinity constants (Ki values) of CXCR4 targeting drugs. The assay is based on the observation that most if not all CXCR4 antagonists compete with binding of the fluorescence-tagged CXCR4 antibody 12G5 to the receptor. We demonstrate that this antibody-competition assay allows a convenient and cheap determination of binding affinities of various CXCR4 antagonists in living cells within just 3 h. Moreover, the assay can be performed in the presence of high concentrations of physiologically relevant body fluids, and thus is a useful readout to evaluate stability (i.e. half-life) of CXCR4 ligands in serum/plasma, and even whole human and mouse blood ex vivo. Thus, this optimized 12G5 antibody-competition assay allows a robust and convenient determination and calculation of various important pharmacological parameters of CXCR4 receptor-drug interaction and may not only foster future drug development but also animal welfare by reducing the number of experimental animals.
Project description:Tissue engineering utilizing fibrin gel as a scaffold has the advantage of creating a completely biological replacement. Cells seeded in a fibrin gel can induce fibril alignment by traction forces when subjected to appropriate mechanical constraints. While gel compaction is key to successful tissue fabrication, excessive compaction can result due to low gel stiffness. This study investigated using ruthenium-catalyzed photo-cross-linking as a method to increase gel stiffness in order to minimize over-compaction. Cross-links between the abundant tyrosine molecules that comprise fibrin were created upon exposure to blue light. Cross-linking was effective in increasing the stiffness of the fibrin gel by 93% with no adverse effects on cell viability. Long-term culture of cross-linked tubular constructs revealed no detrimental effects on cell proliferation or collagen deposition due to cross-linking. After 4 weeks of cyclic distension, the cross-linked samples were more than twice as long as non-cross-linked controls, with similar cell and collagen contents. However, the cross-linked samples required a longer incubation period to achieve a UTS and modulus comparable to controls. This study shows that photo-cross-linking is an attractive option to stiffen the initial fibrin gel and thereby reduce cell-induced compaction, which can allow for longer incubation periods and thus more tissue growth without compaction below a useful size.
Project description:The development of an anti-HIV microbicide is critical in the fight against the spread of HIV. It is shown here that the covalent linking of compounds that bind gp120 with compounds that bind gp41 can inhibit HIV entry even more potently than individual inhibitors or noncovalent combinations. The most striking example involves griffithsin, a potent HIV inhibitor that binds to the surface of HIV gp120. While griffithsin inhibits HIV Env-mediated fusion in a CCR5-tropic cell-cell fusion assay with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 1.31 ± 0.87 nM and the gp41-binding peptide C37 shows an IC(50) of 18.2 ± 7.6 nM, the covalently linked combination of griffithsin with C37 (Griff37) has an IC(50) of 0.15 ± 0.05 nM, exhibiting a potency 8.7-fold greater than that of griffithsin alone. Similarly, in CXCR4-tropic cell-cell fusion assays, Griff37 is 5.2-fold more potent than griffithsin alone. In viral assays, both griffithsin and Griff37 inhibit HIV replication at midpicomolar levels, but the linked compound Griff37 is severalfold more potent than griffithsin alone against both CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic virus strains. Another example of this strategy is the covalently linked combination of peptide C37 with a variant of the gp120-binding peptide CD4M33 (L. Martin et al., Nat. Biotechnol. 21:71-76, 2003). Also, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra for several of these compounds are shown, including, to our knowledge, the first published NMR spectrum for griffithsin.