Arthroscopic absorbable suture fixation for tibial spine fractures.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this technical note and accompanying video is to describe a modified arthroscopic suture fixation technique to treat tibial spine avulsion fractures. Twenty-one patients underwent arthroscopic treatment for tibial spine avulsion with our technique; they were clinically and biomechanically evaluated at 2 years' follow-up and showed optimal clinical and radiographic outcomes. Repair with this arthroscopic technique provides a significant advantage in the treatment of type III and IV fractures of the tibial eminence by obtaining arthroscopic fixation within the substance of the anterior cruciate ligament: suture methods based on the avulsed bone fragment are technically impossible, but sutures through the base of the ligament itself provide secure fixation, reducing the risks of comminution of the fracture fragment and eliminating the time for hardware removal. This arthroscopic technique restores the length and the integrity of the anterior cruciate ligament and provides a simplified, reproducible method of treating patients, including young patients, with low hardware costs in comparison to sutures using anchors or other hardware.
Project description:Few cases of tibial spine avulsion injuries occur in adolescents. An open or arthroscopic surgical approach is indicated for displaced and nonreducible fractures, but evidence for a gold standard is insufficient. Various arthroscopic techniques are available. Suture fixation is popular and shows good results. The proposed technique is a modified suture-bridge fixation using 2 high-strength sutures tied through 2 transosseous tunnels. This simple and low-cost technique avoids the potential complications of hardware fixation within a joint. It represents an arthroscopic treatment option for anterior cruciate ligament tibial avulsion injuries.
Project description:Tibial eminence avulsion fractures are rare injuries occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults. When necessary, regardless of patient age, anatomic reduction and stable internal fixation are mandatory for fracture healing and accurate restoration of normal knee biomechanics. Various arthroscopically assisted fixation methods with sutures, anchors, wires, or screws have been described but can be technically demanding, thus elongating operative times. The purpose of this article is to present a technical variation of arthroscopic suture fixation of anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fractures. Using thoracic drain needles over 2.4-mm anterior cruciate ligament tibial guidewires, we recommend the safe and easy creation of four 2.9-mm tibial tunnels at different angles and at specific points. This technique uses thoracic drain needles as suture passage cannulas and offers 4-point fixation stability, avoiding potential complications of bony bridge fracture and tunnel connection.
Project description:Avulsion anterior cruciate ligament injuries are more common in pediatric patients. There are several methods of fixation available for these injuries (tibial intercondylar eminence fractures), such as the pullout suture technique, screw fixation, and suture anchor fixation. Currently, a pullout technique is widely used for fixation. We purpose a pullout technique method using a modified No. 16 intravenous catheter needle to suture the anterior cruciate ligament fiber instead of a suture hook or suture passer. We also use one anterior tibial tunnel for this arthroscopic pullout fixation technique to decrease the incidence of physeal injury in pediatric patients by using many tibial tunnels.
Project description:Tibial spine avulsion fractures are uncommon knee injuries that predominantly occur in children and young adults. Restoration of anterior cruciate ligament length through surgical reduction and fixation of the fracture is necessary to ensure stability of the knee with suitable range of motion and minimal knee laxity. Arthroscopic repair of tibial spine avulsion fractures is a technically complex procedure, specifically when performing and maintaining the initial anatomic reduction. We describe in this technical note and accompanying video a unique 3-point fixation repair of tibial spine avulsion fractures using an arthroscopic assisted suture lever reduction technique. Our technique is both simple and efficacious in the reduction of tibial spine avulsion fractures to anatomic position by passing the first suture through the anterior cruciate ligament, and subsequently anterior to the avulsion fragment, and then beneath the fragment through a posteriorly placed bone tunnel within the tibial fracture bed.
Project description:Avulsion fracture of the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) receives constant concern. Arthroscopic procedures have long been attempted because of their minimally invasive nature, and various related techniques have been reported. However, the best arthroscopic method is still being pursued. In this article, we introduce an arthroscopic suture ligation and backup adjustable-loop fixation technique for PCL tibial avulsion fracture. The critical points of this technique are proper ligation of the PCL, proper location of the 2 tibial tunnels to create pulleys for posterior-inferior reduction of the bone fragment, and additional backup suture loop fixation. Our experience indicates that this technique is efficient and relatively simple. We consider that the introduction of this technique will provide a reasonable choice in the treatment of PCL tibial avulsion fracture.
Project description:Tibial eminence fractures are an uncommon but well-described avulsion of the anterior cruciate ligament. Treatment principles are based on the amount and pattern of fracture displacement. Management has evolved from closed reduction and immobilization to arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation followed by early rehabilitation. Various fixation methods have evolved, ranging from arthroscopic reduction and percutaneous screw fixation to arthroscopic suture repair. We present a technique for arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation using a cannulated drill bit and high-strength suture. This technique facilitates anatomic reduction with uncomplicated tunnel placement and suture passing in an effort to allow strong fixation and early rehabilitation.
Project description:Adult tibial avulsion fracture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) occurs not as frequently as ACL tear but still is concerning. There are many methods of arthroscopic fixation of this special fracture. However, a simple and effective method is still being pursued. We would like to introduce an arthroscopic suture-to-adjustable loop fixation technique, which features are a reduction of lateral displacement of the fragment by special suture configuration and tensioning, and a final reduction of residual displacement by tensioning the adjustable loop. We consider the introduction of this technique will provide additional choice in the treatment of adult ACL tibial avulsion fracture.
Project description:Various arthroscopic techniques have been devised for fixation of tibial eminence avulsions, namely percutaneous K-wires, arthroscopy-guided screw fixation, staples, TightRope (Arthrex)-suture button fixation, and transosseous suture fixation. Such techniques provide well-pronounced advantages including less postoperative pain, a reduced hospital stay, and minimal scar with resultant earlier and more compliant rehabilitation. As for transosseous suture fixation, the standard technique comprises the creation of 2 tibial tunnels exiting on both sides of the footprint of the avulsion fracture using an anterior cruciate ligament tibial guide with the angle set at 45°. Our technique entails the creation of a single tibial tunnel directed from the proximal anteromedial tibia to the center of the tibial eminence. The technique uses Ethibond suture (No. 5) and/or FiberWire suture (Arthrex) to fix the tibial eminence by pulling the anterior cruciate ligament fibers and tightening the pullout suture at the tibial exit of the tunnel with a 4-hole button. This modified single-tunnel pullout suture technique is an appealing option that has proved to be effective and economical with a shorter operative time. Moreover, it provides a less invasive option for skeletally immature patients.
Project description:Reports of surgical resection and internal fixation for symptomatic tibial spine malunion are rare, and the reported techniques typically involve an open surgical approach. We present an all-arthroscopic technique of tibial spine malunion treatment, with selective arthroscopic bone resection below the tibial spine, preserving the anterior cruciate ligament attachment, followed by internal fixation of the tibial spine with a hybrid transtibial and suture-bridge construct using knotless anchors and tape sutures.
Project description:The tibial avulsion fracture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in skeletally immature patients poses challenges to orthopaedic surgeons due to the necessity of protecting the epiphysial plate during surgical reduction and fixation of the bone fragment. Several epiphysial plate–sparing techniques have been reported. However, the epiphysial plate is still in danger because in most of these techniques the fixation device is approaching the epiphysial plate or passing through it. We would like to introduce a suture fixation technique in which there is no fixation device passing through the fracture interface as well as the epiphysial plate. The critical points of this technique are ligating the ACL, retrieving the fixation suture distally along the anterior surface of the proximal tibia, and tying the fixation suture at an adjustable loop that is set distal to the proximal tibial epiphysial plate. Our clinical experience indicates that this technique is safe and effective. We consider the introduction of this technique will provide more feasible options when surgical treatment is indicated in case of ACL tibial avulsion fracture in skeletally immature patients. Technique Video Video 1 Arthroscopic epiphyseal plate-sparing fixation of ACL tibial avulsion fracture in skeletally immature patients. This procedure is performed in the left knee. Part of the infra-patella pad is removed to expose the bone fragment. The fibrous tissue between the bone fragment and the bone bed is removed. The bone bed is slightly deepened. The bone fragment is pulled to the tibial bed for a preliminary reduction. A guide suture is placed through the lateral side of the ACL, around its back, and to its posteromedial side. The guide suture is pulled from the medial side of the ACL out of the joint. Three No. 2 nonabsorbable sutures are pulled back with the guide suture around the back of the ACL. A suture retriever is placed in through the anterolateral portal along the lateral suture limbs. The medial suture limbs are pulled out from the anterolateral portal. A half-knot is made by making a cross of the suture limbs. The half knot is pushed inside to the anterior side of the ACL, above the bone fragment. A penetrator is passed from stabs over the anteromedial side of the proximal tibia, along the anterior tibial slope to the anteromedial edges of the bone bed. The suture limbs from the medial side of the ACL are pulled out. The penetrator is passed from the medial edge of the patella tendon to the anterolateral edge of the bone bed. The suture limbs from the lateral side of the ACL are retrieved out. With consistent pulling of the sutures, the fragment is adjusted into the tibial bed. A transtibial ridge tunnel is created. A distal medial incision is made near the medial orifice of the transtibial ridge tunnel. All the fixation suture limbs are passed subcutaneously out of the distal medial incision. A set of cortical suspension fixation devices with an adjustable loop is pulled through this tunnel from the medial to the lateral side. The suture limbs from the medial side of the ACL are passed through the adjustable loop. The cortical button is pulled through the transtibial ridge tunnel and flipped over the lateral orifice. The sutures limbs passing through the adjustable loop are tied to their counterparts to fix the fragment at the adjustable loop. The adjustable loop is reduced to tension the fragment finally. (ACL, anterior cruciate ligament.)