Comparison of the disease activity score using erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein in African Americans with rheumatoid arthritis.
ABSTRACT: The Disease Activity Score based on 28 joints (DAS28) has been increasingly used in clinical practice and research studies of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Studies have reported discordance between DAS28 based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) versus C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with RA. However, such comparison is lacking in African Americans with RA.This analysis included participants from the Consortium for the Longitudinal Evaluation of African Americans with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (CLEAR) registry, which enrolls self-declared African Americans with RA. Using tender and swollen joint counts, separate ESR-based and CRP-based DAS28 scores (DAS28-ESR3 and DAS28-CRP3) were calculated, as were DAS28-ESR4 and DAS28-CRP4, which included the patient's assessment of disease activity. The scores were compared using paired t-test, simple agreement and ?, correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman plots.Of the 233 included participants, 85% were women, mean age at enrollment was 52.6 years, and median disease duration at enrollment was 21 months. Mean DAS28-ESR3 was significantly higher than DAS28-CRP3 (4.8 vs 3.9; p < 0.001). Similarly, mean DAS28-ESR4 was significantly higher than DAS28-CRP4 (4.7 vs 3.9; p < 0.001). ESR-based DAS28 remained higher than CRP-based DAS28 even when stratified by age, sex, and disease duration. Overall agreement was not high between DAS28-ESR3 and DAS28-CRP3 (50%) or between DAS28-ESR4 and DAS28-CRP4 (59%). DAS28-CRP3 underestimated disease activity in 47% of the participants relative to DAS28-ESR3 and DAS28-CRP4 in 40% of the participants relative to DAS28-ESR4.There was significant discordance between the ESR-based and CRP-based DAS28, a situation that could affect clinical treatment decisions for African Americans with RA.
Project description:Objectives:To evaluate determinants of discordance between DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP and resulting impact on disease activity stratification in RA. Methods:Paired DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP readings (n = 31 074) were obtained from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for RA. Factors influencing discordance between DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP were evaluated alongside the resulting effect on disease activity stratification. The impact of gender adjustment to the DAS28-CRP was evaluated. Results:DAS28-CRP scores were ∼0.3 lower than DAS28-ESR overall, with greatest differences for women (-0.35) and patients over 50 years old (-0.34). Mean male DAS28-CRP scores were 0.15 less than corresponding DAS28-ESR scores. Discordance between DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP significantly impacted disease activity stratification at low disease activity and remission thresholds (32.0% and 66.6% concordance, respectively). Adjusting DAS28-CRP scores by gender significantly (P < 0.001) improved agreement with the DAS28-ESR. Conclusion:Discordance between DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP is greatest for women and patients over 50 years of age, and influences disease activity stratification. The proposed gender-adjusted DAS28-CRP improves inter-score agreement with DAS28-ESR, supporting more reliable disease activity stratification in treat-to-target approaches for RA.
Project description:In most patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Disease Activity Score 28-joint count C reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) is lower than DAS28 erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR), suggesting that use of the DAS28-ESR cut-off to assess high disease activity (HDA) with DAS28-CRP may underestimate the number of patients with HDA. We determined the DAS28-CRP value corresponding to the validated DAS28-ESR cut-off for HDA.Baseline data were pooled from 2 clinical studies evaluating etanercept (ETN) plus methotrexate (MTX) or MTX in early RA; DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR were obtained, allowing the determination of the DAS28-CRP HDA value best corresponding to the DAS28-ESR cut-off of >5.1.At baseline, as expected, fewer patients had HDA by DAS28-CRP than DAS28-ESR; DAS28-CRP>5.1 and DAS28-ESR>5.1 had only modest agreement (κ coefficients 0.45-0.54). Mean DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR were 5.7 and 6.2, respectively, in the ETN+MTX group (n=571), and 6.0 and 6.5 in the MTX group (n=262). A DAS28-CRP cut-off of 4.6 corresponded to a DAS28-ESR cut-off of 5.1.We have shown that a DAS28-CRP of 4.6 corresponds to 5.1 for DAS28-ESR. Since this is substantially lower than the DAS28-ESR cut-off of 5.1, using 5.1 as the cut-off for DAS28-CRP underestimates disease activity in RA.NCT00195494; NCT00913458.
Project description:Background:Heterogeneity in assessments of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease remission, based on physician judgment and patient self-reports versus standardized measures, have previously been reported. This study explored the prevalence and types of discordance between physician perception versus objective data of RA disease activity in real-world clinical practice in the US. Methods:Data were from the Adelphi RA Disease Specific Programme (DSP; January to March 2014), a cross-sectional survey of US rheumatologists and their patients. RA remission based on physician judgment versus Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (3)-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28(3)-ESR) and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) scores were compared using descriptive analyses; patient and physician factors associated with discordance were identified using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results:Of 101 rheumatologists participating (completing patient-record forms for 843 patients), 56.4% based assessment of remission on clinical judgment alone. Of 531 patients eligible for the discordance analysis, 49.7% were in remission based on rheumatologists' evaluation, and 30.7% were eligible based on DAS28(3)-ESR. Compared with DAS28(3)-ESR criteria, 25.8% of patients' disease remission was negatively discordant (overestimated remission) based on clinical perception. These patients were mostly administered biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and were without a treat-to-target strategy followed by their rheumatologist (P < 0.05). These patients were also more likely to have experienced a higher level of pain as well as increased joint inflammation and damage (e.g. destruction of cartilage, thinning of bone, and/or synovium inflammation) compared with concordant patients (P < 0.005). Conversely, 6.8% of rheumatologists were positively discordant (under estimated remission) versus the DAS28(3)-ESR. Sensitivity analysis indicated different levels of discordance using CDAI, with 35.6% negative discordance and 1.3% positive discordance of rheumatologist-assessed disease remission compared with objective data. Conclusion:There is discordance between RA remission as assessed by rheumatologist perception versus standardized measures among those in the US DSP sample. Our study identified the factors associated with the discordance which may inform strategies to enhance assessments of RA disease remission.
Project description:This prospective one-year follow-up study was conducted from 835 visits in 178 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Tender-/swollen-joint count, Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Disease Activity Score 28-ESR (DAS28-ESR), DAS28-CRP, Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) and DAS28-monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (DAS28-MCP-1) scores were obtained every 3 months. Radiographs of hands and feet were acquired at baseline and one year. We evaluated the correlation and accuracy of activity scores in predicting remission, HAQ-DI changes and radiographic changes. DAS28-MCP-1 correlated strongly with DAS28-ESR, DAS28-CRP and SDAI scores (0.830, 0.899 and 0.931, respectively, with all P?<?0.001). Score changes of DAS28-MCP-1 were comparable to those of DAS28-ESR, DAS28-CRP and SDAI in predicting changes in HAQ-DI and bone erosion. DAS28-MCP-1 (<2.2) was better than DAS28-ESR (<2.6) in indicating modified American Rheumatism Association remission and 2011 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism remission (75.61% vs. 36.99% and 81.71% vs. 49.13%, respectively) with odds ratios of 5.28 and 4.62 (both P?<?0.001), respectively. We compared DAS28-MCP-1 with SDAI (?3.3) in indicating remission with odds ratios of 2.63 (P?=?0.002) and 0.98, respectively (and DAS28-MCP-1 with DAS28-CRP?<?2.5: 1.33 and 0.92). Therefore, DAS28-MCP-1 is useful as an alternative in assessing RA activity.
Project description:The aim was to study whether dietary quality was associated with disease activity and inflammation among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This cross-sectional analysis included 66 Swedish participants, who each completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at screening. Food intake was scored by a dietary quality index created by the Swedish National Food Agency. Disease activity was measured as Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), a patient administered visual analogue scale of perceived global health and the number of tender and swollen joints out of 28 examined. Inflammation was measured as ESR and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Associations between dietary quality, disease activity and inflammation were evaluated using multivariable linear regression analysis. High dietary quality (high intake of fish, shellfish, whole grain, fruit and vegetables and low intake of sausages and sweets) was not related to DAS28 (B = -0.02, p = 0.787). However, dietary quality was significantly negatively associated with hs-CRP (B = -0.6, p = 0.044) and ESR (B = -2.4, p = 0.002) after adjusting for body mass index, age, education, smoking and gender. Both hs-CRP and ESR decreased with increasing dietary quality. In conclusion, among patients with RA, high dietary quality was associated with reduced inflammation but not with disease activity.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic inflammatory disease, is associated with insulin resistance. Experimental evidence indicates that the relationship between insulin resistance and inflammation is bidirectional: Inflammation promotes insulin resistance, and insulin resistance promotes inflammation. Therefore, we examined the hypothesis that pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist, would decrease inflammation and disease activity and improve insulin resistance in patients with RA.In a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study patients with RA (N = 34) receiving stable therapy were randomized to also receive either pioglitazone 45 mg daily (n = 17) or matching placebo (n = 17) for eight weeks. This was followed by a four-week washout period and alternative treatment for eight weeks. Outcomes included change in Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) score, individual components of the DAS28 score and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA). Intention-to-treat analysis and linear mixed-effects models were used.Patients had a mean (± SD) age of 51 (± 14.2) years, 82.4% were female and baseline DAS28 high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) was 4.58 (± 1.1) units. Addition of pioglitazone was associated with a 9.3% reduction (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.17% to 17.6%) in DAS28-CRP (P = 0.046), but no significant change in DAS28 erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) (P = 0.92). There was a 10.7 mm (95% CI = 0.4 to 20.9 mm) improvement in patient-reported global health (P = 0.042), a 48.6% decrease (95% CI = 27.6% to 63.5%) in CRP (P < 0.001) and a 26.4% decrease (95% CI = 3.7% to 43.8%) in insulin resistance as measured by HOMA (P = 0.025), but no significant reduction in swollen or tender joint count or in ESR (all P > 0.05). Lower-extremity edema was more common during pioglitazone treatment (16%) than placebo (0%).Addition of pioglitazone to RA therapy improves insulin resistance and modestly reduces RA disease activity measured by DAS28-CRP and two of its components, including patient-reported global health and CRP, but not DAS28-ESR or ESR.NCT00763139.
Project description:Antifibrillar collagen type II (anti-CII) antibody-positive patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have early but not late signs of increased inflammation and joint erosions. We wanted to replicate this in a large RA cohort, and to relate to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1* alleles.Anti-CII and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP)2 were measured at baseline in 773 patients with RA from the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation in Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA) study with clinical follow-up data from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register (SRQ) registry, and 1476 with HLA-DRB1* information. Comparisons were done concerning C reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), tender joint count (TJC), swollen joint count (SJC), Disease Activity Score encompassing 28 joints based on ESR (DAS28), DAS28CRP, pain-Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), global-VAS and Health Assessment Questionnaire Score (HAQ) at eight occasions during 5 years, and association with HLA-DRB1* alleles.Anti-CII associated with elevated CRP, ESR, SJC, DAS28 and DAS28CRP at diagnosis and up to 6 months, whereas anti-CCP2 associated with SJC and DAS28 from 6 months to 5 years, but not earlier. The anti-CII-associated phenotype was strong, and predominated in anti-CII/anti-CCP2 double-positive patients. Anti-CII was associated with improvements in CRP, ESR, SJC, TJC and DAS28, whereas anti-CCP2 was associated with deteriorations in SJC and DAS28 over time. Anti-CII-positive patients achieved European League Against Rheumatism good or moderate response more often than negative patients. Anti-CII was positively associated with HLA-DRB1*01 and HLA-DRB1*03, with significant interaction, and double-positive individuals had >14 times higher mean anti-CII levels than HLA double negatives. Whereas smoking was associated with elevated anti-CCP2 levels, smokers had lower anti-CII levels.Anti-CII seropositive RA represents a distinct phenotype, in many respects representing the converse to the clinical, genetic and smoking associations described for anticitrullinated protein peptide autoantibodies. Although not diagnostically useful, early anti-CII determinations predict favourable inflammatory outcome in RA.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Calprotectin may be a sensitive biomarker of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity.<h4>Objectives</h4>In the current study, we investigated whether calprotectin is a better biomarker than CRP for predicting clinical activity and ultrasound parameters in patients with RA.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 160 patients with RA underwent clinical (swollen joint count-SJC, tender joint count-TJC, Disease Activity Score-DAS28, Clinical Disease Activity Index-CDAI, and simplified Disease Activity Index-SDAI) and ultrasound (German US7) examination. Clinical and laboratory measures were correlated with ultrasound findings using Spearman´s correlation coefficient. Differences in serum calprotectin levels in patients with variable disease activity according to the DAS28-ESR and CDAI scores were assessed using ANOVA. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the predictive values of calprotectin, CRP and SJC for CDAI and PD US synovitis scores.<h4>Results</h4>Serum calprotectin was significantly associated with DAS28-ESR (r = 0.321, p<0.001), DAS28-CRP (r = 0.346, p<0.001), SDAI (r = 0.305, p<0.001), CDAI (r = 0.279, p<0.001) scores and CRP levels (r = 0.556, p<0.001). Moreover, calprotectin was significantly correlated with GS (r = 0.379, p<0.001) and PD synovitis scores (r = 0.419, p<0.001). The multivariate regression analysis showed that calprotectin is a better predictor of the CDAI score and PD US synovitis than CRP.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results of this study support an additional role of calprotectin in assessing inflammatory activity in patients with RA.
Project description:Tofacitinib is an oral JAK inhibitor that is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In previous clinical trials of tofacitinib, a Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28)-based analysis was used to assess outcomes. In this study, remission rates according to various remission criteria were evaluated across 5 phase III randomized controlled studies.In all 5 studies, tofacitinib was administered at a dosage of 5 mg twice daily or 10 mg twice daily, either as monotherapy or with background methotrexate or other conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. One of the studies included adalimumab 40 mg once every 2 weeks. In addition to the 4-variable DAS28 using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-4[ESR]), a primary efficacy variable used in the phase III studies, disease activity was assessed post hoc by the 4-variable DAS28 using the C-reactive protein level (DAS28-4[CRP]), the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), and Boolean-based assessment.A total of 3,306 patients were analyzed (1,213 of these patients received tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily, 1,212 received tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily, 679 received placebo, and 202 received adalimumab 40 mg every 2 weeks). Remission rates varied according to the criteria used, with higher rates in the active-treatment groups for the DAS28-4(CRP) than for other scores. At month 3, remission rates with tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily were 18-22% using the DAS28-4(CRP), 5-10% using the DAS28-4(ESR), 4-7% using the SDAI, 5-6% using the CDAI, and 2-7% using the Boolean-based method. In contrast, the remission rates with placebo varied from 0% to 7%, with small differences between the DAS28-4(ESR) and the DAS28-4(CRP).Although tofacitinib at dosages of 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg twice daily was effective compared with placebo in achieving disease remission, regardless of the disease activity measure, remission rates were substantially higher when the DAS28-4(CRP) was used. The presence or absence and type of acute-phase reactants in remission criteria were significant contributors to remission rates across treatment groups. This finding has important consequences for trial design and clinical practice.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Imaging of joint inflammation provides a standard against which to derive an updated DAS for RA. Our objectives were to develop and validate a DAS based on reweighting the DAS28 components to maximize association with US-assessed synovitis. METHODS:Early RA patients from two observational cohorts (n = 434 and n = 117) and a clinical trial (n = 59) were assessed at intervals up to 104 weeks from baseline; all US scans were within 1 week of clinical exam. There were 899, 163 and 183 visits in each cohort. Associations of combined US grey scale and power Doppler scores (GSPD) with 28 tender joint count and 28 swollen joint count (SJC28), CRP, ESR and general health visual analogue scale were examined in linear mixed model regressions. Cross-validation evaluated model predictive ability. Coefficients learned from training data defined a re-weighted DAS28 that was validated against radiographic progression in independent data (3037 observations; 717 patients). RESULTS:Of the conventional DAS28 components only SJC28 and CRP were associated with GSPD in all three development cohorts. A two-component model including SJC28 and CRP outperformed a four-component model (R2 = 0.235, 0.392, 0.380 vs 0.232, 0.380, 0.375, respectively). The re-weighted two-component DAS28CRP outperformed conventional DAS28 definitions in predicting GSPD (Δtest log-likelihood <-2.6, P < 0.01), Larsen score and presence of erosions. CONCLUSION:A score based on SJC28 and CRP alone demonstrated stronger associations with synovitis and radiographic progression than the original DAS28 and should be considered in research on pathophysiological manifestations of early RA. Implications for clinical management of RA remain to be established.