Human papillomavirus and cystic node metastasis in oropharyngeal cancer and cancer of unknown primary origin.
ABSTRACT: The clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) in neck node metastasis from cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is not well established. We aimed to address the relationship of HPV status between node metastasis and the primary tumor, and also the relevance of HPV status regarding radiographically detected cystic node metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and CUP. HPV DNA was examined in 68 matched pairs of node metastasis and primary tumor, and in node metastasis from 27 CUPs. In surgically treated CUPs, p16 was examined immunohistochemically. When tonsillectomy proved occult tonsillar cancer in CUP, HPV DNA and p16 were also examined in the occult primary. Cystic node metastasis on contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans was correlated with the primary site and HPV status in another series of 255 HNSCCs and CUPs with known HPV status. Node metastasis was HPV-positive in 19/37 (51%) oropharyngeal SCCs (OPSCCs) and 10/27 (37%) CUPs, but not in non-OPSCCs. Fluid was collected from cystic node metastasis using fine needle aspiration in two OPSCCs and one CUP, and all fluid collections were HPV-positive. HPV status, including the presence of HPV DNA, genotype, and physical status, as well as the expression pattern of p16 were consistent between node metastasis and primary or occult primary tumor. Occult tonsillar cancer was found more frequently in p16-positive CUP than in p16-negative CUP (odds ratio (OR), 39.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-377.8; P?=?0.02). Radiographically, cystic node metastasis was specific to OPSCC and CUP, and was associated with HPV positivity relative to necrotic or solid node metastasis (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 1.2-45.7; P?=?0.03). In conclusion, HPV status remains unchanged after metastasis. The occult primary of HPV-positive CUP is most probably localized in the oropharynx. HPV status determined from fine needle aspirates facilitates the diagnosis of cystic node metastasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has a good prognosis, the accurate prediction of survival and risk of treatment failure is essential to design deintensification regimens. Here, we investigated estrogen receptor ? (ER?) as a prognostic biomarker with therapeutic implications in OPSCC alongside factors associated with HPV infection. METHODS:We performed immunohistochemistry for ER? and p53 using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues and assessed the HPV status using p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV DNA testing in 113 consecutive patients with OPSCC treated with surgical resection or radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy. RESULTS:ER? expression and p53 alteration was observed in 35.4% and 21.2% OPSCCs; 45.6% and 1.3% p16+/HPV+ OPSCCs; and 11.5% and 76.9% p16- OPSCCs, respectively. These data suggest that OPSCC pathogenesis varies with HPV status. Furthermore, ER? expression was associated with improved overall survival (OS) in both HPV+ (p16+/HPV+ OPSCC) and p16+ (p16+ OPSCC irrespective of HPV status) models (p?=?0.005 and p?=?0.006, respectively) and with improved OS adjusted for stage (p?=?0.037, hazard ratio: 0.109, 95% confidence interval 0.013-0.871) in the p16+ model. CONCLUSIONS:ER? is a potential predictive biomarker for improved survival in both HPV+ and p16+ OPSCC models.
Project description:Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an etiological risk factor for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC). Our study investigates the prevalence, prognostic, and clinicopathologic features of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer in Northeast China and elucidates the involvement of p16 in the tumorigenesis and progression of OPSCC. Specimens from 1470 OPSCC patients collected from 2000 to 2016 were analyzed using the status of HPV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and p16 immunohistochemistry. Overexpression of p16 was observed in 81 (5.51%) of the 1470 cases, and HPV positive was present in 78 cases (5.31%) of the 1470 cases. HPV positive and p16 overexpression have a good concordance. However, we found that the etiological fraction of HPV in cancers of the OPSCCs was obviously lower in Northeast China than other cohorts previously reported. Interestingly, nearly 89% of patients with p16 expression were smokers, and nearly 70% of patients with p16 expression had a history of alcohol. Our study also demonstrates that p16 expression is significantly associated with early stage primary OPSCCs and the patients with p16 expression tend to show better survival following surgery and radiotherapy.
Project description:Importance:Clinical trials that deintensify treatment for patients with suspected human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) use p16 expression to identify HPV-mediated tumors and guide treatment. While p16 staining has a strong correlation with good outcomes, approximately 12% of p16-positive patients have recurrent disease. Biomarkers that reveal tumor-specific characteristics, such as nodal involvement, may change therapy decisions. Objective:To assess whether if a tumor-specific genetic signature exists for node-negative vs node-positive HPV 16-positive/p16-positive OPSCCs. Design, Setting, and Participants:This was a retrospective cohort study with randomized case selection for p16 OPSCCs undertaken at a university-based, tertiary care cancer center. Samples were collected from patients with p16-positive OPSCC. A total of 21 HPV 16/p16-positive tumors were used in this study. Main Outcomes and Measures:Gene expression profiles of node-negative vs node-positive tumor samples were evaluated using a differential expression analysis approach and the sensitivity and specificity of a molecular signature was determined. Results:Among the 21 patients in the study (3 women, 18 men; mean [SD] age, 54.6 [9.6] years), 6 had node-negative disease and 15 had node-positive disease. Using differential expression analysis, we found 146 genes that were significantly different in patients with node-negative disease vs those with node-positive disease, of which 15 genes were used to create a genetic signature that could distinguish node-negative-like from node-positive-like disease. The resultant molecular signature has a sensitivity of 88.2% (95% CI, 63.6%-98.5%) and specificity of 85.7% (95% CI, 42.1%-99.6%). The positive likelihood ratio of this signature was 6.1 (95% CI, 1.0-38.2) and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.1 (95% CI, 0.04-0.5). Given this population's prevalence of node-positive disease of 70.8%, the positive- and negative-predicative values for this gene signature were 93.7% (95% CI, 70.8%-98.9%) and 75.0% (95% CI, 44.1%-92.0%), respectively. In addition, we developed a gene signature using agnostic, machine learning software that identified a 40-gene profile that predicts node-negative disease from node-positive disease (area under the curve, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.63-1.00). Conclusions and Relevance:Many HPV-16 and p16-positive tumors are treated as "lower-risk," but they do not have similar genetic compositions at the biological level. The identification of subgroups with unique expression patterns, such as those with nodal metastases, may guide physicians toward alternative or more aggressive therapies. In our study, unguided clustering suggested that that the larger biological characteristics of a tumor could be a better prognostic biomarker.
Project description:Importance:Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes an increasing proportion of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs), particularly in white men. The prevalence of HPV among other demographic groups and other anatomic sites of HNSCC is unclear. Objective:To explore the role of HPV tumor status among women and nonwhites with OPSCC and patients with nonoropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (non-OP HNSCC). Design, Setting, and Participants:Retrospective cohort study at 2 tertiary academic centers including cases diagnosed 1995 through 2012, oversampled for minorities and females. A stratified random sample of 863 patients with newly diagnosed SCC of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, or nasopharynx was used. Main Outcomes and Measures:Outcomes were HPV status as measured by p16 immunohistochemical analysis, HPV16 DNA in situ hybridization (ISH), and high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA ISH. Results:Of 863 patients, 551 (63.9%) were male and median age was 58 years (interquartile range, 51-68 years). Among 240 OPSCCs, 144 (60%) were p16 positive (p16+), 115 (48%) were HPV16 DNA ISH positive (ISH16+), and 134 (56%) were positive for any oncogenic HPV type (ISH+). From 1995 to 2012, the proportion of p16+ OPSCC increased significantly among women (from 29% to 77%; P?=?.005 for trend) and men (36% to 72%; P?<?.001 for trend), as well as among whites (39% to 86%; P?<?.001 for trend) and nonwhites (32% to 62%; P?=?.02 for trend). Similar results were observed for ISH+ OPSCC (P???.01 for all). Among 623 non-OP HNSCCs, a higher proportion were p16+ compared with ISH positive (62 [10%] vs 30 [5%]; P?=?.001). A high proportion (26 of 62 [42%]) of these p16+ non-OP HNSCCs were found in sites adjacent to the oropharynx. The proportion of p16+ and ISH+ non-OP HNSCCs were similar by sex. Over time, the proportion of non-OP HNSCCs that were p16+ (or ISH+) increased among whites (P?=?.04 for trend) but not among nonwhites (each P?> .51 for trend). Among OPSCCs, p16 had high sensitivity (100%), specificity (91%), and positive (93%) and negative predictive value (100%) for ISH positivity. In non-OP HNSCCs, p16 had lower sensitivity (83%) and positive predictive value (40%) but high specificity (94%) and negative predictive value (99%) for ISH positivity. Conclusions and Relevance:During 1995 through 2012, the proportion of OPSCCs caused by HPV has increased significantly. This increase was not restricted to white men but was a consistent trend for women and men, as well as for white and nonwhite racial groups. Few non-OP HNSCCs were HPV related. P16 positivity was a good surrogate for ISH+ tumor status among OPSCC, but not a good surrogate for non-OP HNSCC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to report associations between p16 status, clinicopathologic characteristics, and outcomes for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP). METHODS:Specimens of squamous cell CUP were reanalyzed. Human papillomavirus (HPV) status was determined by p16 stain. A tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed to evaluate biomarkers potentially prognostic in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). RESULTS:A majority of the population (n?=?26; 74%) was p16 positive (+). Prognostic factors benefiting survival were p16+ status (p?<?.0001), absence of macroscopic extracapsular extension (ECE; p?=?.004), younger age (p?=?.01), and higher grade (p?=?0.007). The prognostic implication of worse overall survival (OS) with macroscopic ECE (p = .009) remained significant when limited to patients who were p16+ (p?=?.002). Exploratory TMA between unknown primary and controls suggested a biomolecular difference between squamous cell CUP and known-primary cancer. CONCLUSION:The majority of patients with squamous cell CUP were p16+, indicative of HPV association. P16 staining and ECE seem to be the most prognostic features in squamous cell CUP.
Project description:Although p16 protein expression, a surrogate marker of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, is recognized as a prognostic marker in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), its prevalence and significance have not been well established in cancer of the oral cavity, hypopharynx, or larynx, collectively referred as non-OPSCC, where HPV infection is less common than in the oropharynx.p16 expression and high-risk HPV status in non-OPSCCs from RTOG 0129, 0234, and 0522 studies were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH). Hazard ratios from Cox models were expressed as positive or negative, stratified by trial, and adjusted for clinical characteristics.p16 expression was positive in 14.1% (12 of 85), 24.2% (23 of 95), and 19.0% (27 of 142) and HPV ISH was positive in 6.5% (six of 93), 14.6% (15 of 103), and 6.9% (seven of 101) of non-OPSCCs from RTOG 0129, 0234, and 0522 studies, respectively. Hazard ratios for p16 expression were 0.63 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.95; P = .03) and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.89; P = .01) for progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS), respectively. Comparing OPSCC and non-OPSCC, patients with p16-positive OPSCC have better PFS and OS than patients with p16-positive non-OPSCC, but patients with p16-negative OPSCC and non-OPSCC have similar outcomes.Similar to results in patients with OPSCC, patients with p16-negative non-OPSCC have worse outcomes than patients with p16-positive non-OPSCC, and HPV may also have a role in outcome in a subset of non-OPSCC. However, further development of a p16 IHC scoring system in non-OPSCC and improvement of HPV detection methods are warranted before broad application in the clinical setting.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study investigates the characteristics of a special type of cancer of unknown primary site (CUP, type 2), which is a metastasis of a definite pathological diagnosis without a detectable primary site. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2014 were identified from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. The characteristics of type 2 CUP from different sources were analyzed. For each source of type 2 CUP, tumors of the corresponding Tn N0-X M1 stage were used as controls. RESULTS:A total of 8505 patients with type 2 CUP were included in this analysis. Type 2 CUP shows an increasing trend, while type 1 shows the opposite. Type 2 CUPs have significant differences with stage IV of the same pathological primary lesion. Many characteristics influenced the prognosis of type 2 CUP patients, including marital status, age, race, sex, registration time, lymph node metastasis, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. CONCLUSION:Our study suggests that identifying the source of metastasis is the key to the selection of treatment and the determination of the prognosis for CUP.
Project description:Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major etiologic factor for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). However, little is known about HPV-related OPSCC in Japan. During the study, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded OPSCC specimens from Japanese patients were analyzed for HPV DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for the surrogate marker p16 by immuno-histochemistry. For HPV DNA-positive, p16-negative specimens, the methylation status of the p16 gene promoter was examined by methylation-specific PCR. Overall survival was calculated in relation to HPV DNA and p16 status and was subjected to multivariate analysis. OPSCC cell lines were examined for sensitivity to radiation or cisplatin in vitro. The study results showed that tumor specimens from 40 (38%) of the 104 study patients contained HPV DNA, with such positivity being associated with tumors of the tonsils, lymph node metastasis, and nonsmoking. Overall survival was better for OPSCC patients with HPV DNA than for those without it (hazard ratio, 0.214; 95% confidence interval, 0.074-0.614; P = 0.002). Multivariate analysis revealed HPV DNA to be an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.015). Expression of p16 was associated with HPV DNA positivity. However, 20% of HPV DNA-positive tumors were negative for p16, with most of these tumors manifesting DNA methylation at the p16 gene promoter. Radiation or cisplatin sensitivity did not differ between OPSCC cell lines positive or negative for HPV DNA. Thus, positivity for HPV DNA identifies a distinct clinical subset of OPSCC with a more favorable outcome in Japanese.
Project description:The majority of cystic squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the neck have been shown to be metastatic tumors from tonsillar SCCs associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV). Recent studies have demonstrated cytokeratin (CK)7 involvement in the development of HPV positive SCC, but no report has been issued on its simultaneous expression in primary tonsillar and metastatic tumor with cystic change. We present a case of HPV positive tonsillar SCC of a 42-year-old male that initially manifested as a cystic neck mass expressing CK7, CK19, and p16 in primary and metastatic tumors. Immunohistochemical examination revealed diffuse CK19 and p16 expression, and patchy CK7 expression in the solid components of primary and metastatic tumors. However, in cystic components of metastatic tumors the expression of CK7 and CK19 was preserved but p16 expression was absent, which was consistent with immunocytochemical findings of fine-needle aspirates from cystic neck mass. In immunocytochemistry performed on aspirates of a branchial cleft cyst for the comparison of cystic SCC and benign cyst, CK19 staining was positive but CK7 and p16 staining was negative. These results suggest that CK7 immunocytochemistry on aspirated material from cystic neck mass may be a useful adjunct for distinguishing cystic metastasis of tonsillar SCC from branchial cleft cyst, although a larger scale study would be required.