Risk factors for incident peripheral arterial disease in type 2 diabetes: results from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation in type 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) Trial.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this article was to define risk factors for incidence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a large cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), overall and within the context of differing glycemic control strategies.The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation in Type 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) randomized controlled trial assigned participants to insulin-sensitizing (IS) therapy versus insulin-providing (IP) therapy. A total of 1,479 participants with normal ankle-brachial index (ABI) at study entry were eligible for analysis. PAD outcomes included new ABI ?0.9 with decrease at least 0.1 from baseline, lower extremity revascularization, or lower extremity amputation. Baseline risk factors within the overall cohort and time-varying risk factors within each assigned glycemic control arm were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models.During an average 4.6 years of follow-up, 303 participants (20.5%) experienced an incident case of PAD. Age, sex, race, and baseline smoking status were all significantly associated with incident PAD in the BARI 2D cohort. Additional baseline risk factors included pulse pressure, HbA1c, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (P < 0.05 for each). In stratified analyses of time-varying covariates, changes in BMI, LDL, HDL, systolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure were most predictive among IS patients, while change in HbA1c was most predictive among IP patients.Among patients with T2DM, traditional cardiovascular risk factors were the main predictors of incident PAD cases. Stratified analyses showed different risk factors were predictive for patients treated with IS medications versus those treated with IP medications.
Project description:The aim of this manuscript was to report the risk of incident peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a large randomized clinical trial that enrolled participants with stable coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes and compare the risk between assigned treatment arms.The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial randomly assigned participants to insulin sensitization (IS) therapy versus insulin-providing (IP) therapy for glycemic control. Results showed similar 5-year mortality in the two glycemic treatment arms. In secondary analyses reported here, we examine the effects of treatment assignment on the incidence of PAD. A total of 1,479 BARI 2D participants with normal ankle-brachial index (ABI) (0.91-1.30) were eligible for analysis. The following PAD-related outcomes are evaluated in this article: new low ABI?0.9, a lower-extremity revascularization, lower-extremity amputation, and a composite of the three outcomes.During an average 4.6 years of follow-up, 303 participants experienced one or more of the outcomes listed above. Incidence of the composite outcome was significantly lower among participants assigned to IS therapy than those assigned to IP therapy (16.9 vs. 24.1%; P<0.001). The difference was significant in time-to-event analysis (hazard ratio 0.66 [95% CI 0.51-0.83], P<0.001) and remained significant after adjustment for in-trial HbA1c (0.76 [0.59-0.96], P=0.02).In participants with type 2 diabetes who are free from PAD, a glycemic control strategy of insulin sensitization may be the preferred therapeutic strategy to reduce the incidence of PAD and subsequent outcomes.
Project description:Although prior studies report a relationship between elevated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and incident cardiovascular disease, the prospective association of Lp-PLA2 with incident peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has not been studied. We investigated the association between Lp-PLA2 mass and activity and the risk of developing clinical PAD and low ankle-brachial index (ABI).Among Cardiovascular Health Study participants, a population-based cohort of 5888 adults aged ?65 years enrolled in 1989 to 1990, Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were measured in 4537 individuals without baseline PAD. Clinical PAD, defined as leg artery revascularization or diagnosed claudication, was ascertained through 2011. Incident low ABI, defined as ABI <0.9 and decline of ?0.15, was assessed among 3537 individuals who had an ABI >0.9 at baseline and a second ABI measurement 3 or 6 years later. Analyses were adjusted for demographics, cholesterol, smoking, comorbidities, and C-reactive protein. Each standard deviation increment in Lp-PLA2 mass (117 ng/mL) was associated with a higher risk of developing clinical PAD (hazard ratio 1.28; 95% confidence interval 1.13, 1.45) and incident low ABI (odds ratio 1.16; 95% confidence interval 1.00, 1.33). Results per standard deviation increment in Lp-PLA2 activity (13 nmol/min per mL) were similar for clinical PAD (hazard ratio 1.24; 95% confidence interval 1.07, 1.44) and low ABI (odds ratio 1.28; 95% confidence interval 1.09, 1.50).Higher Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were associated with development of both incident clinical PAD and low ABI. Future studies are needed to determine whether pharmacological inhibition of Lp-PLA2 reduces the incidence of PAD.
Project description:We evaluated whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased incidence of lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) in community dwelling people free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline. We assessed whether higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers may mediate the association of MetS with incident PAD.MetS was defined at baseline as the presence of three or more of the following components: elevated waist circumference, triglycerides ?150 mg/dL, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, blood pressure ?130/85 mm Hg or taking blood pressure medication, and fasting glucose ?100 mg/dL and <126 mg/dL. People with diabetes were excluded. Incident New PAD was defined among people with a normal ankle brachial index (ABI) at baseline (i.e. baseline ABI of 0.90 to 1.40) and consisted of one of the following outcomes during 3-year follow-up: ABI decline to < 0.90 combined with a decline ?0.15 or medical record confirmed PAD outcome. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to estimate the association between MetS and incident PAD.Among 4817 participants without PAD at baseline, 1382 (29%) had MetS. Adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, physical activity, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, baseline ABI, and other confounders, 23/1382 (1.7%) people with MetS developed PAD vs. 30/3435 (0.87%) people without MetS (risk ratio = 1.78 [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.04 to 2.82], P = 0.031). Adjusting for C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, or interleukin-6 did not attenuate this association.People free of clinical cardiovascular disease with MetS are at increased risk for PAD. Our findings suggest that this association is not mediated by inflammation.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>The association of subclinical atherosclerotic disease in the coronary arteries and thoracic aorta with incident peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is unknown. We investigated the association between coronary artery calcium score (CACs) and thoracic aortic calcium score (TACs) with incident clinical and subclinical PAD.<h4>Methods and results</h4>The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) recruited 6814 men and women aged 45-84 from four ethnic groups who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease at enrolment. Coronary artery calcium score and thoracic aortic calcium score were measured from computed tomography scans. Participants with a baseline ankle-brachial index (ABI) ≤0.90 or >1.4 were excluded. Abnormal ABI was defined as ABI ≤0.9 or >1.4 at follow-up exam. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to test the associations between baseline CACs and TACs with incident abnormal ABI and clinical PAD, respectively. A total of 6409 participants (female: 52.8%) with a mean age of 61 years were analysed. Over a median follow-up of 16.7 years, 91 participants developed clinical PAD. In multivariable analysis, each unit increase in log (CACS + 1) and log (TACs + 1) were associated with 23% and 13% (<i>P</i> < 0.01for both) higher risk of incident clinical PAD, respectively. In 5725 (female: 52.6%) participants with an available follow-up ABI over median 9.2 years, each 1-unit increase in log (CACs + 1) and log (TACs + 1) were independently associated with 1.15-fold and 1.07-fold (<i>P</i> < 0.01for both) higher odds of incident abnormal ABI, respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Higher baseline CACs and TACs predict abnormal ABI and clinical PAD independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and baseline ABI.
Project description:Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is known to be associated with high cardiovascular risk, but the individual impact of PAD presentations on risk of macrovascular and microvascular events has not been reliably compared in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the impact of major PAD, and its different presentations, on the 10-year risk of death, major macrovascular events, and major clinical microvascular events in these patients.Participants in the action in diabetes and vascular disease: PreterAx and DiamicroN modified-release controlled evaluation (ADVANCE) trial and the ADVANCE-ON post-trial study were followed for a median of 5.0 (in-trial), 5.4 (post-trial), and 9.9 (overall) years. Major PAD at baseline was subdivided into lower-extremity chronic ulceration or amputation secondary to vascular disease and history of peripheral revascularization by angioplasty or surgery.Among 11,140 participants, 516 (4.6 %) had major PAD at baseline: 300 (2.7 %) had lower-extremity ulceration or amputation alone, 190 (1.7 %) had peripheral revascularization alone, and 26 (0.2 %) had both presentations. All-cause mortality, major macrovascular events, and major clinical microvascular events occurred in 2265 (20.3 %), 2166 (19.4 %), and 807 (7.2 %) participants, respectively. Compared to those without PAD, patients with major PAD had increased rates of all-cause mortality (HR 1.35, 95 % CI 1.15-1.60, p = 0.0004), and major macrovascular events (1.47 [1.23-1.75], p < 0.0001), after multiple adjustments for region of origin, cardiovascular risk factors and treatments, peripheral neuropathy markers, and randomized treatments. We have also observed a trend toward an association of baseline PAD with risk of major clinical microvascular events [1.31 (0.96-1.78), p = 0.09]. These associations were comparable for patients with a lower-extremity ulceration or amputation and for those with a history of peripheral revascularization. Furthermore, the risk of retinal photocoagulation or blindness, but not renal events, increased in patients with lower-extremity ulceration or amputation [1.53 (1.01-2.30), p = 0.04].Lower-extremity ulceration or amputation, and peripheral revascularization both increased the risks of death and cardiovascular events, but only lower-extremity ulceration or amputation increased the risk of severe retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Screening for major PAD and its management remain crucial for cardiovascular prevention in patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00949286).
Project description:GlycA, a composite biomarker of systemic inflammation, is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, but its relationship with peripheral artery disease (PAD) is unknown. We assessed whether plasma GlycA is associated with ankle-brachial index (ABI), carotid plaque (CP), and incident clinical PAD among 6466 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants without CVD at baseline. GlycA, ABI, and CP were measured at baseline. Both ABI and CP were remeasured at 10 years. Incident clinical PAD was ascertained from hospital records. We used logistic, Cox, and linear mixed regression models adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors. Mean (standard deviation, SD) was 62 (10) years for age and 381 (61) µmol/L for GlycA; 53% were women. GlycA was associated with both prevalent low ABI ?0.8 (prevalence odds ratio [95% confidence interval, CI] per SD increment in GlycA, 1.65 [1.39-1.97]) and CP (1.19 [1.11-1.27]) at baseline. There were no significant associations of GlycA with incident low ABI, incident CP, or 10-year change in ABI or CP score. We identified 110 incident cases of PAD after 79 590 person-years. The hazard ratio (95% CI) of incident PAD per SD increment in GlycA was 1.38 (1.14-1.66). In conclusion, GlycA was associated with prevalent low ABI, prevalent CP, and incident PAD after a median of 14 years.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The ankle-brachial index (ABI), a noninvasive measure of PAD, is a predictor of adverse events among individuals with CKD. In general populations, changes in ABI have been associated with mortality, but this association is not well understood among patients with CKD.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a prospective study of 2920 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study without lower extremity revascularization or amputation at baseline and with at least one follow-up ABI measurement (taken at annual visits) during the first 4 years of follow-up. The ABI was obtained by the standard protocol.<h4>Results</h4>In Cox proportional hazard regression analyses, we found a U-shaped association of average annual change in ABI with all-cause mortality. After adjusting for baseline ABI and other covariates, compared with participants with an average annual change in ABI of 0-<0.02, individuals with an average annual change in ABI <-0.04 or ≥0.04 had multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.81 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34-2.44) and 1.42 (95% CI 1.12-1.82) for all-cause mortality, respectively. Compared with the cumulative average ABI of 1.0-<1.4, multivariable-adjusted HRs for those with a cumulative average ABI of <0.9, 0.9-<1.0 and ≥1.4 were 1.93 (95% CI 1.42-2.61), 1.20 (0.90-1.62) and 1.31 (0.94-1.82), respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study indicates both larger decreases and increases in average annual changes in ABI (>0.04/year) were associated with higher mortality risk. Monitoring changes in ABI over time may facilitate risk stratification for mortality among individuals with CKD.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Reduced kidney function is a risk factor for lower-extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). However, the associations of novel filtration markers with PAD are yet to be quantified. Moreover, little is known on whether bone-mineral metabolism (BMM) markers are related to incident PAD beyond kidney function. METHODS:Using data from 12,472 participants at baseline (1990-1992) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, we comprehensively quantified the associations of kidney related markers with incident PAD (defined as hospitalizations with diagnosis of lower-extremity atherosclerosis, revascularization, or amputation). Kidney related markers of interest included estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (based on creatinine, cystatin C, and both), cystatin C, beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), and BMM markers (serum fibroblast growth factor 23, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus). RESULTS:During a median follow-up of 21 years, 471 participants developed incident PAD. Low eGFR was significantly associated with future PAD risk, with slightly stronger relationship when cystatin C was used (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 6.3-8.3 for eGFR <30 and 2.4-3.5 for eGFR 30-59 vs. eGFR ?90 mL/min/1.73 m2). Among all filtration markers, B2M had the strongest association with incident PAD (HR for top vs. bottom quartile 2.60 [95% CI: 1.91-3.54] for B2M vs. 1.20 [0.91-1.58] for creatinine-based eGFR). Among BMM markers, only phosphorus remained significant for PAD risk beyond potential confounders, including kidney function (HR 1.47 [1.11-1.94] in top quartile). CONCLUSIONS:Kidney dysfunction was independently associated with future PAD risk, particularly when assessed with cystatin C and B2M. Among the BMM markers tested, phosphorus was most robustly associated with incident PAD beyond kidney function. Our results suggest the potential usefulness of novel filtration markers for PAD risk assessment and the possible role of phosphorus in the pathophysiology of PAD.
Project description:Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a marker of widespread atherosclerosis. Individuals with PAD, most of whom do not show typical PAD symptoms ('asymptomatic' patients), are at increased risk of cardiovascular ischaemic events. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend that individuals with asymptomatic lower extremity PAD should be identified by measurement of ankle-brachial index (ABI). However, despite its associated risk, PAD remains under-recognised by clinicians and the general population and office-based ABI detection is still poorly-known and under-used in clinical practice. The Prevalence of peripheral Arterial disease in patients with a non-high cardiovascular disease risk, with No overt vascular Diseases nOR diAbetes mellitus (PANDORA) study has a primary aim of assessing the prevalence of lower extremity PAD through ABI measurement, in patients at non-high cardiovascular risk, with no overt cardiovascular diseases (including symptomatic PAD), or diabetes mellitus. Secondary objectives include documenting the prevalence and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and the characteristics of both patients and physicians as possible determinants for PAD under-diagnosis.PANDORA is a non-interventional, cross-sectional, pan-European study. It includes approximately 1,000 primary care participating sites, across six European countries (Belgium, France, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Switzerland). Investigator and patient questionnaires will be used to collect both right and left ABI values at rest, presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, current pharmacological treatment, and determinants for PAD under-diagnosis.The PANDORA study will provide important data to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic PAD in a population otherwise classified at low or intermediate risk on the basis of current risk scores in a primary care setting.Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT00689377.
Project description:Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects 8.5 million Americans and thus improving our understanding of PAD is critical to developing strategies to reduce disease burden. The objective of the study was to determine the association of ABO blood type with ankle brachial index (ABI) as well as prevalent and incident PAD in a multi-ethnic cohort.The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis includes non-Hispanic White, African, Hispanic, and Chinese Americans aged 45-84. ABO blood type was estimated using ABO genotypes in 6027 participants who had ABI assessed at the baseline exam. Associations with ABO blood type were evaluated categorically and under an additive genetic model by number of major ABO alleles. After excluding those with ABI>1.4, prevalent PAD was defined as ABI?0.9 at baseline and incident PAD as ABI?0.9 for 5137 participants eligible for analysis.There were 222 prevalent cases and 239 incident cases of PAD. In African Americans, each additional copy of the A allele was associated with a 0.02 lower baseline ABI (p=0.006). Each copy of the A allele also corresponded to 1.57-fold greater odds of prevalent PAD (95% CI, 1.17-2.35; p=0.004), but was not associated with incident PAD. No associations were found in other racial/ethnic groups for ABI, prevalent PAD, or incident PAD across all races/ethnicities.Blood type A and the A allele count were significantly associated with baseline ABI and prevalent PAD in African Americans. Further research is needed to confirm and study the mechanisms of this association in African Americans.