A codon-optimized bacterial antibiotic gene used as selection marker for stable nuclear transformation in the marine red alga Pyropia yezoensis.
ABSTRACT: Marine macroalgae play an important role in marine coastal ecosystems and are widely used as sea vegetation foodstuffs and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there have been increased demands for useful species and varieties of these macroalgae. However, genetic transformation in macroalgae has not yet been established. We have developed a dominant selection marker for stable nuclear transformation in the red macroalga Pyropia yezoensis. We engineered the coding region of the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase gene aph7? from Streptomyces hygroscopicus to adapt codon usage of the nuclear genes of P. yezoensis. We designated this codon-optimized aph7? gene as PyAph7. After bombarding P. yezoensis cells with plasmids containing PyAph7 under the control of their endogenous promoter, 1.9 thalli (or individuals) of hygromycin-resistant strains were isolated from a 10-mm square piece of the bombarded thallus. These transformants were stably maintained throughout the asexual life cycle. Stable expression of PyAph7was verified using Southern blot analysis and genomic PCR and RT-PCR analyses. PyAph7 proved to be a new versatile tool for stable nuclear transformation in P. yezoensis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pyropia yezoensis is an important marine crop which, due to its high protein content, is widely used as a seafood in China. Unfortunately, red rot disease, caused by Pythium porphyrae, seriously damages P. yezoensis farms every year in China, Japan, and Korea. Proteomic methods are often used to study the interactions between hosts and pathogens. Therefore, an iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was used to identify pathogen-responsive proteins following the artificial infection of P. yezoensis with P. porphyrae spores. RESULTS:A total of 762 differentially expressed proteins were identified, of which 378 were up-regulated and 384 were down-regulated following infection. A large amount of these proteins were involved in disease stress, carbohydrate metabolism, cell signaling, chaperone activity, photosynthesis, and energy metabolism, as annotated in the KEGG database. Overall, the data showed that P. yezoensis resists infection by inhibiting photosynthesis, and energy and carbohydrate metabolism pathways, as supported by changes in the expression levels of related proteins. The expression data are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD009363. CONCLUSIONS:The current data provide an overall summary of the red algae responses to pathogen infection. This study improves our understanding of infection resistance in P. yezoensis, and may help in increasing the breeding of P. porphyrae-infection tolerant macroalgae.
Project description:Nori, a marine red alga, is one of the most profitable mariculture crops in the world. However, the biological properties of this macroalga are poorly understood at the molecular level. In this study, we determined the draft genome sequence of susabi-nori (Pyropia yezoensis) using next-generation sequencing platforms. For sequencing, thalli of P. yezoensis were washed to remove bacteria attached on the cell surface and enzymatically prepared as purified protoplasts. The assembled contig size of the P. yezoensis nuclear genome was approximately 43 megabases (Mb), which is an order of magnitude smaller than the previously estimated genome size. A total of 10,327 gene models were predicted and about 60% of the genes validated lack introns and the other genes have shorter introns compared to large-genome algae, which is consistent with the compact size of the P. yezoensis genome. A sequence homology search showed that 3,611 genes (35%) are functionally unknown and only 2,069 gene groups are in common with those of the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae. As color trait determinants of red algae, light-harvesting genes involved in the phycobilisome were predicted from the P. yezoensis nuclear genome. In particular, we found a second homolog of phycobilisome-degradation gene, which is usually chloroplast-encoded, possibly providing a novel target for color fading of susabi-nori in aquaculture. These findings shed light on unexplained features of macroalgal genes and genomes, and suggest that the genome of P. yezoensis is a promising model genome of marine red algae.
Project description:Pyropia yezoensis can survive the severe water loss that occurs during low tide, making it an ideal species to investigate the acclimation mechanism of intertidal seaweed to special extreme environments. In this study, we determined the effects of high salinity on photosynthesis using increasing salinity around algal tissues. Both electron transport rates, ETR (I) and ETR (II), showed continuous decreases as the salinity increased. However, the difference between these factors remained relatively stable, similar to the control. Inhibitor experiments illustrated that there were at least three different cyclic electron transport pathways. Under conditions of severe salinity, NAD(P)H could be exploited as an endogenous electron donor to reduce the plastoquinone pool in Py. yezoensis. Based on these findings, we next examined how these different cyclic electron transport (CETs) pathways were coordinated by cloning the gene (HM370553) for ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR). A phylogenetic tree was constructed, and the evolutionary relationships among different FNRs were evaluated. The results indicated that the Py. yezoensis FNR showed a closer relationship with cyanobacterial FNR. The results of both real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting showed that the enzyme was upregulated under 90-120‰ salinity. Due to the structure-function correlations in organism, Py. yezoensis FNR was proposed to be involved in NAD(P)H-dependent Fd+ reduction under severe salinity conditions. Thus, through the connection between different donors bridged by FNR, electrons were channeled toward distinct routes according to the different metabolic demands. This was expected to make the electron transfer in the chloroplasts become more flexible and to contribute greatly to acclimation of Py. yezoensis to the extreme variable environments in the intertidal zone.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pyropia haitanensis and P. yezoensis are two economically important marine crops that are also considered to be research models to study the physiological ecology of intertidal seaweed communities, evolutionary biology of plastids, and the origins of sexual reproduction. This plastid genome information will facilitate study of breeding, population genetics and phylogenetics.<h4>Principal findings</h4>We have fully sequenced using next-generation sequencing the circular plastid genomes of P. hatanensis (195,597 bp) and P. yezoensis (191,975 bp), the largest of all the plastid genomes of the red lineage sequenced to date. Organization and gene contents of the two plastids were similar, with 211-213 protein-coding genes (including 29-31 unknown-function ORFs), 37 tRNA genes, and 6 ribosomal RNA genes, suggesting a largest coding capacity in the red lineage. In each genome, 14 protein genes overlapped and no interrupted genes were found, indicating a high degree of genomic condensation. Pyropia maintain an ancient gene content and conserved gene clusters in their plastid genomes, containing nearly complete repertoires of the plastid genes known in photosynthetic eukaryotes. Similarity analysis based on the whole plastid genome sequences showed the distance between P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis (0.146) was much smaller than that of Porphyra purpurea and P. haitanensis (0.250), and P. yezoensis (0.251); this supports re-grouping the two species in a resurrected genus Pyropia while maintaining P. purpurea in genus Porphyra. Phylogenetic analysis supports a sister relationship between Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae, though precise phylogenetic relationships between multicellular red alage and chromists were not fully resolved.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results indicate that Pyropia have compact plastid genomes. Large coding capacity and long intergenic regions contribute to the size of the largest plastid genomes reported for the red lineage. Possessing the largest coding capacity and ancient gene content yet found reveal that Pyropia are more primitive multicellular red algae.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pyropia yezoensis (Rhodophyta) is widely cultivated in East Asia and plays important economic, ecological and research roles. Although inorganic carbon utilization of P. yezoensis has been investigated from a physiological aspect, the carbon concentration mechanism (CCM) of P. yezoensis remains unclear. To explore the CCM of P. yezoensis, especially during its different life stages, we tracked changes in the transcriptome, photosynthetic efficiency and in key enzyme activities under different inorganic carbon concentrations. RESULTS:Photosynthetic efficiency demonstrated that sporophytes were more sensitive to low carbon (LC) than gametophytes, with increased photosynthesis rate during both life stages under high carbon (HC) compared to normal carbon (NC) conditions. The amount of starch and number of plastoglobuli in cells corresponded with the growth reaction to different inorganic carbon (Ci) concentrations. We constructed 18 cDNA libraries from 18 samples (three biological replicates per Ci treatment at two life cycles stages) and sequenced these using the Illumina platform. De novo assembly generated 182,564 unigenes, including approximately 275 unigenes related to CCM. Most genes encoding internal carbonic anhydrase (CA) and bicarbonate transporters involved in the biophysical CCM pathway were induced under LC in comparison with NC, with transcript abundance of some PyCAs in gametophytes typically higher than that in sporophytes. We identified all key genes participating in the C4 pathway and showed that their RNA abundances changed with varying Ci conditions. High decarboxylating activity of PEPCKase and low PEPCase activity were observed in P. yezoensis. Activities of other key enzymes involved in the C4-like pathway were higher under HC than under the other two conditions. Pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) showed higher carboxylation activity than PEPC under these Ci conditions. Isocitrate lyase (ICL) showed high activity, but the activity of malate synthase (MS) was very low. CONCLUSION:We elucidated the CCM of P. yezoensis from transcriptome and enzyme activity levels. All results indicated at least two types of CCM in P. yezoensis, one involving CA and an anion exchanger (transporter), and a second, C4-like pathway belonging to the PEPCK subtype. PYC may play the main carboxylation role in this C4-like pathway, which functions in both the sporophyte and gametophyte life cycles.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pyropia yezoensis, a marine red alga, is an ideal research model for studying the mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in intertidal seaweed. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the most commonly used method to analyze gene expression levels. To accurately quantify gene expression, selection and validation of stable reference genes is required. RESULTS:We used transcriptome profiling data from different abiotic stress treatments to identify six genes with relatively stable expression levels: MAP, ATPase, CGS1, PPK, DPE2, and FHP. These six genes and three conventional reference genes, UBC, EF1-?, and eif4A, were chosen as candidates for optimal reference gene selection. Five common statistical approaches (geNorm, ?Ct method, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and ReFinder) were used to identify the stability of each reference gene. Our results show that: MAP, UBC, and FHP are stably expressed in all analyzed conditions; CGS1 and UBC are stably expressed under conditions of dehydration stress; and MAP, UBC, and CGS1 are stably expressed under conditions of temperature stress. CONCLUSION:We have identified appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR in P. yezoensis under different abiotic stress conditions which will facilitate studies of gene expression under these conditions.
Project description:Macroalgae polysaccharides are phytochemicals that are beneficial to human health. In this study, response surface methodology was applied to optimize the extraction procedure of <i>Pyropia yezoensis</i> porphyran (PYP). The optimum extraction parameters were: 100 °C (temperature), 120 min (time), and 29.32 mL/g (liquid-solid ratio), and the maximum yield of PYP was 22.15 ± 0.55%. The physicochemical characteristics of PPYP, purified from PYP, were analyzed, along with its lipid-lowering effect, using HepG2 cells and <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i> larvae. PPYP was a ?-type sulfated hetero-rhamno-galactan-pyranose with a molecular weight of 151.6 kDa and a rhamnose-to-galactose molar ratio of 1:5.3. The results demonstrated that PPYP significantly reduced the triglyceride content in palmitic acid (PA)-induced HepG2 cells and high-sucrose-fed <i>D. melanogaster</i> larvae by regulating the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes, reducing lipogenesis and increasing fatty acid ?-oxidation. To summarize, PPYP can lower lipid levels in HepG2 cells and larval fat body (the functional homolog tissue of the human liver), suggesting that PPYP may be administered as a potential marine lipid-lowering drug.
Project description:Pyropia yezoensis, one of the most economically important marine algae, suffers from the biotic stress of the oomycete necrotrophic pathogen Pythium porphyrae. However, little is known about the molecular defensive mechanisms employed by Pyr. yezoensis during the infection process. In the present study, we defined three stages of red rot disease based on histopathological features and photosynthetic physiology. Transcriptomic analysis was carried out at different stages of infection to identify the genes related to the innate immune system in Pyr. yezoensis. In total, 2139 up-regulated genes and 1672 down-regulated genes were identified from all the infected groups. Pathogen receptor genes, including three lectin genes (pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)) and five genes encoding typical plant R protein domains (leucine rich repeat (LRR), nucleotide binding site (NBS), or Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)), were found to be up-regulated after infection. Several defense mechanisms that were typically regarded as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in plants were induced during the infection. These included defensive and protective enzymes, heat shock proteins, secondary metabolites, cellulase, and protease inhibitors. As a part of the effector-triggered immunity (ETI), the expression of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and hypersensitive cell death response (HR) increased significantly during the infection. The current study suggests that, similar to plants, Pyr. yezoensis possesses a conserved innate immune system that counters the invasion of necrotrophic pathogen Pyt. porphyrae. However, the innate immunity genes of Pyr. yezoensis appear to be more ancient in origin compared to those in higher plants.
Project description:Plant life cycles consist of two temporally separated stages: a haploid gametophyte and a diploid sporophyte. In plants employing a haploid-diploid sexual life cycle, the transition from sporophyte to gametophyte generally depends on meiosis. However, previous work has shown that in the red seaweed Pyropia yezoensis, this transition is independent of meiosis, though how and when it occurs is unknown. Here, we explored this question using transcriptomic profiling of P. yezoensis gametophytes, sporophytes, and conchosporangia parasitically produced on sporophytes. We identify a knotted-like homeobox gene that is predominately expressed in the conchosporangium and may determine its identity. We also find that spore-like single cells isolated from the conchosporangium develop directly into gametophytes, indicating that the gametophyte identity is established before the release of conchospores and prior to the onset of meiosis. Based on our findings, we propose a triphasic life cycle for P. yezoensis involving production of gametophytes by apospory.