Evolution: why all plumes and jets evolve to round cross sections.
ABSTRACT: Turbulent curtains of smoke rise initially as flat plumes and, above a certain height, they become round plumes. The same evolution of cross-sectional shape is exhibited by jets issuing from flat nozzles. Here we predict based on principle that all such flows should evolve their cross-sectional shapes from flat to round (and not the other way) at a critical distance downstream, which is predictable. The principle is that the prevailing flow architecture provides greater access to the flow of momentum from the moving core (plume, jet) to the still surroundings. For turbulent plumes and jets, the transition distance scales with the long dimensions (L) of the two-dimensional (flat) heat sources and nozzles that drive them. For laminar jets, the transition distance scales with L Re, where Re is the Reynolds number based on nozzle velocity and the smaller dimension of the nozzle cross section. These predictions are confirmed by full numerical experiments of the three-dimensional flow fields of turbulent and laminar jets covering the Re range 10-10(4).
Project description:To advance microfluidic integration, we present the use of two-photon additive manufacturing to fold 2D channel layouts into compact free-form 3D fluidic circuits with nanometer precision. We demonstrate this technique by tailoring microfluidic nozzles and mixers for time-resolved structural biology at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). We achieve submicron jets with speeds exceeding 160?m?s-1, which allows for the use of megahertz XFEL repetition rates. By integrating an additional orifice, we implement a low consumption flow-focusing nozzle, which is validated by solving a hemoglobin structure. Also, aberration-free in operando X-ray microtomography is introduced to study efficient equivolumetric millisecond mixing in channels with 3D features integrated into the nozzle. Such devices can be printed in minutes by locally adjusting print resolution during fabrication. This technology has the potential to permit ultracompact devices and performance improvements through 3D flow optimization in all fields of microfluidic engineering.
Project description:Pulsating twin jets mechanism (PTJM) was developed in the present work to study the effect of pulsating twin jets mixing region on the enhancement of heat transfer. Controllable characteristics twin pulsed jets were the main objective of our design. The variable nozzle-nozzle distance was considered to study the effect of two jets interaction at the mixing region. Also, the phase change between the frequencies of twin jets was taken into account to develop PTJM. All of these factors in addition to the ability of producing high velocity pulsed jet led to more appropriate design for a comprehensive study of multijet impingement heat transfer problems. The performance of PTJM was verified by measuring the pulse profile at frequency of 20 Hz, where equal velocity peak of around 64 m/s for both jets was obtained. Moreover, the jet velocity profile at different pulsation frequencies was tested to verify system performance, so the results revealed reasonable velocity profile configuration. Furthermore, the effect of pulsation frequency on surface temperature of flat hot plate in the midpoint between twin jets was studied experimentally. Noticeable enhancement in heat transfer was obtained with the increasing of pulsation frequency.
Project description:The adverse consequences of herbicide drift towards sensitive crops have been extensively reported in the literature. However, little to no information is available on the consequences of herbicide drift onto weed species inhabiting boundaries of agricultural fields. Exposure to herbicide drift could be detrimental to long-term weed management as several weed species have evolved herbicide-resistance after recurrent selection with sublethal herbicide rates This study investigated the deposition of glyphosate, 2,4-D, and dicamba spray particle drift from applications with two different nozzles in a low speed wind tunnel, and their impact on growth and development of Amaranthus spp. Herbicide drift resulted in biomass reduction or complete plant mortality. Inflection points (distance to 50% biomass reduction) for Amaranthus tuberculatus were 7.7, 4.0, and 4.1 m downwind distance for glyphosate, 2,4-D, and dicamba applications with the flat-fan nozzle, respectively, whereas these values corresponded to 2.8, 2.5, and 1.9 m for applications with the air-inclusion nozzle. Inflection points for Amaranthus palmeri biomass reduction were 16.3, 10.9, and 11.5 m for glyphosate, 2,4-D, and dicamba applications with the flat-fan nozzle, respectively, whereas these values corresponded to 7.6, 5.4, and 5.4 m for applications with the air-inclusion nozzle. Plants were more sensitive to glyphosate at higher exposure rates than other herbicides, whereas plants were more sensitive to 2,4-D and dicamba at lower exposure rates compared to glyphosate. Applications with the flat-fan nozzle resulted in 32.3 and 11.5% drift of the applied rate at 1.0 and 3.0 m downwind, respectively, whereas the air-inclusion nozzle decreased the dose exposure in the same distances (11.4 and 2.7%, respectively). Herbicide drift towards field boundaries was influenced by nozzle design and exposed weeds to herbicide rates previously reported to select for herbicide-resistant biotypes.
Project description:Plasma plumes with exotically segmented channel structure and plasma bullet propagation are produced in atmospheric plasma jets. This is achieved by tailoring interruptions of a continuous DC power supply over the time scales of lifetimes of residual electrons produced by the preceding discharge phase. These phenomena are explained by studying the plasma dynamics using nanosecond-precision imaging. One of the plumes is produced using 2 - 10 ?s interruptions in the 8 kV DC voltage and features a still bright channel from which a propagating bullet detaches. A shorter interruption of 900 ns produces a plume with the additional long conducting dark channel between the jet nozzle and the bright area. The bullet size, formation dynamics, and propagation speed and distance can be effectively controlled. This may lead to micrometer- and nanosecond-precision delivery of quantized plasma bits, warranted for next-generation health, materials, and device technologies.
Project description:While studies on vegetated channel flows have been developed in many research centers, studies on jets interacting with vegetation are still rare. This study presents and analyzes turbulent jets issued into an obstructed cross-flow, with emergent vegetation simulated with a regular array of cylinders. The paper presents estimates of the turbulence diffusion coefficients and the main turbulence variables of jets issued into a vegetated channel flow. The experimental results are compared with jets issued into unobstructed cross-flow. In the presence of the cylinder array, the turbulence length-scales in the streamwise and transverse directions were reduced, relative to the unobstructed crossflow. This contributed to a reduction in streamwise turbulent diffusion, relative to the unobstructed conditions. In contrast, the transverse turbulent diffusion was enhanced, despite the reduction in length-scale, due to enhanced turbulent intensity and the transverse deflection of flow around individual cylinders. Importantly, in the obstructed condition, the streamwise and transverse turbulent diffusion coefficients are of the same order of magnitude.
Project description:The paper is focused on the numerical simulation of acoustic properties of the free jets from circle nozzle at low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The near-field of compressible jet flow is calculated using developed regularized (quasi-gas dynamic) algorithms solver QGDFoam. Acoustic noise is computed for jets with M?=?0.9, Re?=?3600 and M?=?2.1, Re?=?70000 parameters. The acoustic pressure in far field is predicted using the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings analogy implemented in the libAcoustics library based on the OpenFOAM software package. The determined properties of the flow and acoustic fields are compared with experimental data. The flow structures are characterized by the development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability waves, which lead to energy outflux in the radial direction. Their further growth is accompanied by the formation of large and small-scale eddies leading to the generation of acoustic noise. The results showed that for selected jets the highest levels of generated noise is obtained at angles around 30° which agrees well with experimental data.
Project description:Hybrid constructs represent substantial progress in tissue engineering (TE) towards producing implants of a clinically relevant size that recapitulate the structure and multicellular complexity of the native tissue. They are created by interlacing printed scaffolds, sacrificial materials, and cell-laden hydrogels. A suitable biomaterial is a polycaprolactone (PCL); however, due to the higher viscosity of this biopolymer, three-dimensional (3D) printing of PCL is slow, so reducing PCL print times remains a challenge. We investigated parameters, such as nozzle shape and size, carriage speed, and print temperature, to find a tradeoff that speeds up the creation of hybrid constructs of controlled porosity. We performed experiments with conical, cylindrical, and cylindrical shortened nozzles and numerical simulations to infer a more comprehensive understanding of PCL flow rate. We found that conical nozzles are advised as they exhibited the highest shear rate, which increased the flow rate. When working at a low carriage speed, conical nozzles of a small diameter tended to form-flatten filaments and became highly inefficient. However, raising the carriage speed revealed shortcomings because passing specific values created filaments with a heterogeneous diameter. Small nozzles produced scaffolds with thin strands but at long building times. Using large nozzles and a high carriage speed is recommended. Overall, we demonstrated that hybrid constructs with a clinically relevant size could be much more feasible to print when reaching a tradeoff between temperature, nozzle diameter, and speed.
Project description:In the present paper, the formation and development of cavitation inside the nozzle of an atomizer with different geometrical characteristics have been studied numerically. Different shapes of inlet nozzles and different nozzle-length-to-diameter ratios have been investigated. The developed model has been built as a three-dimensional (3D) one, where the turbulence is modeled considering large eddy simulation. The obtained computational results showed good agreement with the reported experimental results. It has been found that the occurrence of cavitation depends on the amount of energy needed to overcome the viscosity and friction between the liquid layers. The mass flowing through the nozzle decreases with increasing cavitation. The intensity of cavitation depends on the nozzle entrance shape. Sharp edges cause cavitation to occur early in the nozzle, followed by an inclined shape, and then the curved entrance. The dissipative energy in the cavitation and bubble collapse result in an increase in the turbulent kinetic energy of the issuing liquid. This causes more liquid disintegration, leading to larger spray volume and smaller droplet size. The obtained results for spray droplet size distribution have been compared with experimental data developed by other researchers, and a good agreement has also been found.
Project description:Sand production and blockage are common during the drilling and production of horizontal oil and gas wells as a result of formation breakdown. The use of high-pressure rotating jets and annular helical flow is an effective way to enhance horizontal wellbore cleanout. In this paper, we propose the idea of using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) as washing fluid in water-sensitive formation. SC-CO2 is manifested to be effective in preventing formation damage and enhancing production rate as drilling fluid, which justifies tis potential in wellbore cleanout. In order to investigate the effectiveness of SC-CO2 helical flow cleanout, we perform the numerical study on the annular flow field, which significantly affects sand cleanout efficiency, of SC-CO2 jets in horizontal wellbore. Based on the field data, the geometry model and mathematical models were built. Then a numerical simulation of the annular helical flow field by SC-CO2 jets was accomplished. The influences of several key parameters were investigated, and SC-CO2 jets were compared to conventional water jets. The results show that flow rate, ambient temperature, jet temperature, and nozzle assemblies play the most important roles on wellbore flow field. Once the difference between ambient temperatures and jet temperatures is kept constant, the wellbore velocity distributions will not change. With increasing lateral nozzle size or decreasing rear/forward nozzle size, suspending ability of SC-CO2 flow improves obviously. A back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was successfully employed to match the operation parameters and SC-CO2 flow velocities. A comprehensive model was achieved to optimize the operation parameters according to two strategies: cost-saving strategy and local optimal strategy. This paper can help to understand the distinct characteristics of SC-CO2 flow. And it is the first time that the BP-ANN is introduced to analyze the flow field during wellbore cleanout in horizontal wells.
Project description:Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n?=?3; std 13%) of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation) before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.