Circulating biomarkers of immune activation distinguish viral suppression from nonsuppression in HAART-treated patients with advanced HIV-1 subtype C infection.
ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined immune activation profiles in patients with advanced HIV-1 subtype C infection or assessed their potential to predict responsiveness to HAART. BioPlex, ELISA, and nephelometric procedures were used to measure plasma levels of inflammatory biomarkers in HIV-1 subtype C-infected patients sampled before and after 6 months of successful HAART (n = 20); in patients failing HAART (n = 30); and in uninfected controls (n = 8). Prior to HAART, CXCL9, CXCL10, ? 2M, sTNF-R1, TGF- ? 1, IFN- ? , IL-6, TNF, and sCD14 were significantly elevated in HIV-1-infected patients compared to controls (P < 0.01). All of these markers, with the exception of sTNF-R1, were also elevated in patients failing HAART (P < 0.05). The persistently elevated levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and ? 2M in patients failing therapy in the setting of a marked reduction in these markers in patients on successful HAART suggest that they may be useful not only to monitor immune activation during HAART, but also to distinguish between good and poor responders. In the case of sCD14 and TGF- ? 1, the levels of these biomarkers remained persistently elevated despite HAART-induced virological suppression, a finding that is consistent with ongoing monocyte-macrophage activation, underscoring a potential role for adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Immune activation is a strong predictor of disease progression in HIV infection. Combinatorial plasma biomarker signatures that represent surrogate markers of immune activation in both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have not been defined. Here, we identify a plasma inflammatory biomarker signature that distinguishes between both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on cART and healthy controls and examine relationships of this signature to markers of disease progression. METHODS:Multiplex profiling and ELISA were used to detect 15 cytokines/chemokines, soluble IL-2R (sIL-2R), and soluble CD14 (sCD14) in plasma from 57 HIV patients with CD4 nadir <300 cells/µl and 29 healthy controls. Supervised and unsupervised analyses were used to identify biomarkers explaining variance between groups defined by HIV status or drug abuse. Relationships between biomarkers and disease markers were examined by Spearman correlation. RESULTS:The majority (91%) of HIV subjects were on cART, with 38% having undetectable viral loads (VL). Hierarchical clustering identified a biomarker cluster in plasma consisting of two interferon-stimulated gene products (CXCL9 and CXCL10), T cell activation marker (sIL-2R), and monocyte activation marker (sCD14) that distinguished both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on cART from controls (p<0.0001) and were top-ranked in variables important in projection plots. IL-12 and CCL4 were also elevated in viremic and aviremic patients compared to controls (p<0.05). IL-12 correlated with IFN?, IFN?, CXCL9, and sIL-2R (p<0.05). CXCL10 correlated positively with plasma VL and percentage of CD16+ monocytes, and inversely with CD4 count (p?=?0.001, <0.0001, and 0.04, respectively). CONCLUSION:A plasma inflammatory biomarker signature consisting of CXCL9, CXCL10, sIL-2R, and sCD14 may be useful as a surrogate marker to monitor immune activation in both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on cART during disease progression and therapeutic responses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels are associated with risk for heart failure (HF). The soluble TNF type 1 (sTNF-R1) and type 2 (sTNF-R2) receptors are elevated in patients with manifest HF, but whether they are associated with risk for incident HF is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS:Using Cox proportional hazard models, we examined the association between baseline levels of sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 with incident HF risk among 1285 participants of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (age, 74.0±2.9 years; 51.4% women; 41.1% black). At baseline, median (interquartile range) of TNF, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2 levels was 3.14 (2.42-4.06), 1.46 (1.25-1.76), and 3.43 (2.95-4.02) ng/mL, respectively. During a median follow-up of 11.4 (6.9-11.7) years, 233 (18.1%) participants developed HF. In models controlling for other HF risk factors, TNF (hazard ratio [HR], 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.61 per log2 increase) and sTNF-R1 (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.15-2.46 per log2 increase), but not sTNF-R2 (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.80-1.63 per log2 increase), were associated with a higher risk for HF. These associations were consistent across whites and blacks (TNF, sTNF-R1, sTNF-R2; interaction P=0.531, 0.091, and 0.795, respectively) and in both sexes (TNF, sTNF-R1, sTNF-R2; interaction P=0.491, 0.672, and 0.999, respectively). TNF-R1 was associated with a higher risk for HF with preserved versus reduced ejection fraction (HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.03-3.18; P=0.038 for preserved versus HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.56-1.44; P=0.667 for reduced ejection fraction; interaction P=0.05). CONCLUSIONS:In older adults, elevated levels of sTNF-R1 are associated with increased risk for incident HF. However, addition of TNF-R1 to the previously validated Health ABC HF risk model did not demonstrate material improvement in net discrimination or reclassification.
Project description:The circulating levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNF-R1) and sTNF-R2 are altered in numerous diseases, including several types of cancer. Correlations with the risk of progression in some cancers, as well as systemic manifestations of the disease and therapeutic side-effects, have been described. However, there is very little information on the levels of these soluble receptors in glioblastoma (GBM). Here, we report on an exploratory retrospective study of the levels of sTNF-Rs in the vascular circulation of patients with GBM. Banked samples were obtained from 112 GBM patients (66 untreated, newly-diagnosed patients and 46 with recurrent disease) from two institutions. The levels of sTNF-R1 in the plasma were significantly lower in patients with newly-diagnosed or recurrent GBM than apparently healthy individuals and correlated with the intensity of expression of TNF-R1 on the tumor-associated endothelial cells (ECs) in the corresponding biopsies. Elevated levels of sTNF-R1 in patients with recurrent, but not newly-diagnosed GBM, were significantly associated with a shorter survival, independent of age (p?=?0.02) or steroid medication. In contrast, the levels of circulating sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in recurrent GBM than healthy individuals and there was no significant correlation with expression of TNF-R2 on the tumor-associated ECs or survival time. The results indicate that larger, prospective studies are warranted to determine the predictive value of the levels of sTNF-R1 in patients with recurrent GBM and the factors that regulate the levels of sTNF-Rs in the circulation in GBM patients.
Project description:Identification of serum proteins that track with disease course in sarcoidosis may have clinical and pathologic importance. We previously identified up-regulated transcripts for interferon-inducible chemokines CXCL9, and CXCL10, in blood of sarcoidosis patients compared to controls. The objective of this study was to determine whether proteins encoded by these transcripts were elevated in serum and identified patients with remitting vs. chronic progressive sarcoidosis longitudinally.Serum levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and proteins associated with inflammation and/or disease activity (sIL2R, ACE, ESR and CRP) were measured in a prospective cohort of sarcoidosis subjects and controls. Comparisons were made between groups and clinical course using pulmonary function measures and a severity score developed by Wasfi et al.In a cross-sectional analysis of 36 non-immunosuppressed sarcoidosis subjects, serum CXCL9, CXCL10, and sIL2R were significantly elevated compared to 46 controls (p?<?0.0001). CXCL9 and CXCL10 were strongly inter-correlated (p?=?0.0009). CXCL10 and CXCL9 were inversely correlated with FVC% predicted and DLCO% predicted, respectively. CXCL10 and CXCL9 significantly correlated with sarcoidosis severity score. sIL2R, ESR, CRP, and ACE serum levels did not correlate with pulmonary function measures or severity score. In the longitudinal analysis of 26 subjects, changes in serum CXCL10 level over time corresponded with progression versus remission of disease.Interferon-?-inducible chemokines, CXCL9 and CXCL10, are elevated in sarcoidosis and inter-correlated with each other. Chemokine levels correlated with measures of disease severity. Serial measurements of CXCL10 corresponded to clinical course.
Project description:Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is a disorder caused by an immunological attack on the adrenal cortex. The interferon (IFN)-inducible chemokine CXCL10 is elevated in serum of AAD patients, suggesting a peripheral IFN signature. However, CXCL10 can also be induced in adrenocortical cells stimulated with IFNs, cytokines, or microbial components. We therefore investigated whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from AAD patients display an enhanced propensity to produce CXCL10 and the related chemokine CXCL9, after stimulation with type I or II IFNs or the IFN inducer poly (I:C). Although serum levels of CXCL10 and CXCL9 were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls, IFN stimulated patient PBMC produced significantly less CXCL10/CXCL9 than control PBMC. Low CXCL10 production was not significantly associated with medication, disease duration, or comorbidities, but the low production of poly (I:C)-induced CXCL10 among patients was associated with an AAD risk allele in the phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene. PBMC levels of total STAT1 and -2, and IFN-induced phosphorylated STAT1 and -2, were not significantly different between patients and controls. We conclude that PBMC from patients with AAD are deficient in their response to IFNs, and that the adrenal cortex itself may be responsible for the increased serum levels of CXCL10.
Project description:LPS is a powerful adjuvant, and although LPS-mediated TLR4 signaling has been exquisitely delineated, the in vivo mechanism of how TLR4 responses impact T cell priming is far less clear. Besides costimulation, TNF and type 1 IFN are dominant cytokines released after TLR4 activation and can shape T cell responses, but other downstream factors have not been examined extensively. Depending on context, we show that IFN?R1 blockade resulted in minor to major effects on specific CD4 T cell clonal expansion. To help explain these differences, it was hypothesized that IFN?R1 blockade would inhibit specific T cell migration by reducing chemokine receptor signaling, but specific CD4 T cells from IFN?R1-blocked mice were readily able to migrate in response to specific chemokines. Next, we examined downstream factors and found that type 1 IFN signaling was necessary for chemokine production, even when mice were immunized with specific Ag with LPS and CD134 costimulation. IFN?R1 signaling promoted CXCL9 and CXCL10 synthesis, suggesting that these chemokines might be involved in the LPS and CD134 costimulation response. After immunization, we show that CXCL9 blockade inhibited CD4 T cell accumulation in the liver but also in LNs, even in the presence of elevated serum IFN-? levels. Thus, whereas type 1 IFN might have direct effects on primed CD4 T cells, the downstream chemokines that play a role during migration also impact accumulation. In sum, CXCL9 production is a key benchmark for productive CD4 T cell vaccination strategies.
Project description:Graves' disease (GD), an organ-specific autoimmune disease, is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) exhibits immunological and metabolic activities involved in the induction and maintenance of immune responses. We attempted to evaluate the relationship between GD and serum TNF-? and its soluble receptors (sTNFRs), soluble TNF receptor 1 and 2 (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2). A total of 72 GD patients and 72 matched healthy individuals were recruited for this study. Serum TNF-? and sTNFRs were measured by sandwich ELISA. In our study, no significant difference was observed in TNF-?, but sTNFRs were found to be significantly elevated in GD patients compared to healthy individuals. Serum sTNFR levels were positively correlated with free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4), and TNF-? was negatively correlated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the GD group. It was also shown that thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) was positively correlated with TNF-? and sTNFRs. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that only sTNF-R1 was positively correlated with complement C3. Multiple linear regression analysis suggests that serum levels of sTNF-R1 and FT4 may play an important role in the serum level of FT3. According to the median value of FT3 level, GD patients were further divided into a high FT3 group and a low FT3 group. The serum levels of sTNF-R1 in the high FT3 GD group were significantly higher than those in the low FT3 GD group. In conclusion, sTNFRs may play an important role in anti-inflammatory and immune response in GD.
Project description:Although severe immune dysregulation is an established risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), it is unclear whether subclinical immune system function influences lymphomagenesis. To address this question, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial to investigate whether circulating levels of cytokines and other immune markers are associated with future risk of NHL. Selected cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-?] and other immune markers [soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1), sTNF-R2, C-reactive protein, and sCD27] were measured in prediagnostic serum specimens from 297 incident NHL cases and 297 individually matched controls. ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating quartiles of analyte concentration to NHL risk were calculated by using conditional logistic regression. Statistically significant associations with increased NHL risk were observed for elevated serum levels of sTNF-R1 (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.8; P(trend) = 0.02) and sCD27 (OR = 5.3, 95% CI: 2.9-9.4; P(trend) < 0.0001). These associations remained in analyses of cases diagnosed longer than 6 years following blood collection (sTNF-R1: OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0-4.0, P(trend) = 0.01; sCD27: OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.9-8.5, P(trend) = 0.0001). Elevated levels of IL-10, TNF-? and sTNF-R2 were also significantly associated with increased risk of NHL overall; however, these associations weakened with increasing time from blood collection to case diagnosis and were null for cases diagnosed longer than 6 years postcollection. Our findings for sTNF-R1 and sCD27, possible markers for inflammatory and B-cell stimulatory states, respectively, support a role for subclinical inflammation and chronic B-cell stimulation in lymphomagenesis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by varying degrees of lung inflammation and/or fibrosis. We investigated biomarkers to infer whether patients with collagen vascular diseases associated ILD (CVD-ILD) and interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) benefit from immunosuppressive therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We retrospectively investigated patients with CVD-ILD, IPAF, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) between June 2013 and May 2017 at our department. First, we assessed differences in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of cytokines between groups. Second, we assessed the associations of patient's clinical variables with serum and BALF levels of those cytokines that were different between groups. Finally, we assessed the associations of diagnosis and response to immunosuppressive therapy with serum levels of those cytokines that were different between groups. RESULTS:We included 102 patients (51 with IPF, 35 with IPAF, and 16 with CVD-ILD). Serum and BALF levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 were significantly elevated in patients with IPAF or CVD-ILD compared with those in patients with IPF. BALF levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 were correlated with the percentages of lymphocytes and macrophages in BALF. Serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 were correlated with BALF levels. Serum levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 were correlated C-reactive protein, percent predicted forced vital capacity, alveolar-arterial oxygen difference, and the percentages of lymphocytes and macrophages in BALF. Serum levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 showed moderate accuracy to distinguish patients with CVD-ILD from those with IPAF and IPF. Pre-treatment serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL11 showed strong positive correlations with the annual forced vital capacity changes in patients with IPAF and CVD-ILD treated with immunosuppressive drugs. CONCLUSIONS:Serum CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 are potential biomarkers for autoimmune inflammation and predictors of the immunosuppressive therapy responses in ILD with background autoimmunity.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: Elevated humoral responses to cytomegalovirus (CMV) associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). To better understand the persistence of CMV humoral responses in relation to CVD, we determined trends in CMV antibody levels over the first 10 years on ART. DESIGN: We describe longitudinal analyses of plasma from 13 HIV patients commencing ART with <210 CD4 T-cells/µL and 27 controls. Antibodies reactive with CMV (fibroblast lysate, gB and IE-1 antigens), EBV-VCA, and HIVgp41 were quantitated. B-cell activation was assessed via total IgG and sBAFF. Inflammation was assessed via sTNF-RI and sCD14. RESULTS: Amongst CMV seropositive HIV patients, levels of antibody reactive with CMV (P = 0.03) and EBV-VCA (P = 0.02) peaked after 1 year on ART. Levels of total IgG, sCD14, and sTNF-RI declined to approximate those in controls after 10 years, but sBAFF (P = 0.0002), EBV-VCA (P = 0.001), and CMV (P = 0.0004) antibodies remained elevated. A strong correlation between sBAFF and CMVgB antibody was seen at 10 years (R = 0.93, P = 0.0009) and verified in a second cohort. CONCLUSIONS: CMV antibody titres peak on ART and remain high. A correlation between CMV antibody and sBAFF suggests a role for HIV-induced B-cell pathology that may affect its use as a marker of CMV burden.