Trastuzumab emtansine in the treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in Japanese patients.
ABSTRACT: Anti-HER2 agents, such as trastuzumab, lapatinib, trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), and pertuzumab, are standard agents in the treatment of breast cancer overexpressing the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Trastuzumab is the first approved HER2-targeted agent. Subsequent developments include agents with different mechanisms. In this paper, we review the results of clinical trials of T-DM1, a new anti-HER2 agent, with a focus on Japanese patients with breast cancer. On the basis of results from a Phase I study (JO22591), the maximum tolerated dose was determined to be 3.6 mg/kg every 3 weeks for both Japanese and western patients. In a Phase II study (JO22997), the overall response rate was 38.4% (90% confidence interval 28.8-48.6). T-DM1 was well tolerated in Japanese patients; however, the incidence of grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia was higher than that observed in earlier western studies, but was not associated with clinically important symptoms. Pharmacokinetic parameters for T-DM1 and its metabolites were consistent with those reported previously from a Phase I or II study in non-Japanese patients, and the data obtained showed no suggestion of ethnic differences. Several Phase III studies of T-DM1 are ongoing throughout the world, including in Japanese patients with breast cancer.
Project description:Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate that is effective and generally well tolerated when administered as a single agent to treat advanced breast cancer. Efficacy has now been demonstrated in randomized trials as first line, second line, and later than the second line treatment of advanced breast cancer. T-DM1 is currently being evaluated as adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer. It has several mechanisms of action consisting of the anti-tumor effects of trastuzumab and those of DM1, a cytotoxic anti-microtubule agent released within thetarget cells upon degradation of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-T-DM1 complex in lysosomes. The cytotoxic effect of T-DM1 likely varies depending on the intracellular concentration of DM1 accumulated in cancer cells, high intracellular levels resulting in rapid apoptosis, somewhat lower levels in impaired cellular trafficking and mitotic catastrophe, while the lowest levels lead to poor response to T-DM1. Primary resistance of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer to T-DM1 appears to be relatively infrequent, but most patients treated with T-DM1 develop acquired drug resistance. The mechanisms of resistance are incompletely understood, but mechanisms limiting the binding of trastuzumab to cancer cells may be involved. The cytotoxic effect of T-DM1 may be impaired by inefficient internalization or enhanced recycling of the HER2-T-DM1 complex in cancer cells, or impaired lysosomal degradation of trastuzumab or intracellular trafficking of HER2. The effect ofT-DM1 may also be compromised by multidrug resistance proteins that pump DM1 out of cancer cells. In this review we discuss the mechanism of action of T-DM1 and the key clinical results obtained with it, the combinations ofT-DM1 with other cytotoxic agents and anti-HER drugs, and the potential resistance mechanisms and the strategies to overcome resistance to T-DM1.
Project description:Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is a novel antibody-drug conjugate, comprised of a potent cytotoxic drug connected via a stable linker to the anti-HER2 antibody, trastuzumab, thereby primarily targeting chemotherapy delivery to cells overexpressing the HER2 receptor. A Phase II randomized trial of T-DM1 in the front-line metastatic breast cancer setting revealed promising activity and improved safety compared with standard chemotherapy plus trastuzumab. Subsequently, a Phase III trial in patients with trastuzumab-pretreated metastatic breast cancer showed T-DM1 to be associated with prolonged progression-free and overall survival compared with lapatinib plus capecitabine. T-DM1 represents a major shift in the treatment of patients with breast cancer as it replaces traditional nontargeted chemotherapy with a 'smart' medication that directs the cytotoxic therapy to cancer cells by using a known biomarker.
Project description:This article reviews the mechanism of action of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), existing clinical data relating to its use for human growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, potential pathways of resistance, and ongoing studies evaluating this novel agent.The development of HER2-targeted therapies has dramatically improved clinical outcomes for patients with any stage of HER2-positive breast cancer. Although the positive effect of these treatments cannot be overstated, treatment resistance develops in the vast majority of those diagnosed with stage IV HER2-positive breast cancer. Moreover, HER2-directed therapies are most effective when combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy. The need for chemotherapy leads to significant adverse effects and a clear decrease in quality of life for those dealing with a chronic incurable disease. T-DM1 is a recently developed, novel antibody-drug conjugate in which highly potent maytanisinoid chemotherapy is stably linked to the HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab.Preclinical and phase 1-3 clinical data support the significant antitumor activity of T-DM1. Importantly, several randomized studies also now demonstrate its clear superiority in terms of tolerability compared with standard chemotherapy-containing regimens. Its role in the treatment of trastuzumab-resistant metastatic breast cancer has now been established on the basis of the results of two phase 3 randomized studies, EMILIA (An Open-label Study of Trastuzumab Emtansine (T-DM1) vs Capecitabine + Lapatinib in Patients With HER2-positive Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer) and TH3RESA (A Study of Trastuzumab Emtansine in Comparison With Treatment of Physician's Choice in Patients With HER2-positive Breast Cancer Who Have Received at Least Two Prior Regimens of HER2-directed Therapy). The most common toxicities seen with T-DM1 are thrombocytopenia and an elevation in liver transaminases. Significant cardiac toxicity has not been demonstrated. Both in vitro cell line-based studies as well as exploratory analyses of archived tumor samples from the clinical trials are seeking to understand potential mechanisms of resistance to T-DM1. Ongoing studies are also evaluating the use of T-DM1 in the first-line metastatic, neoadjuvant, and adjuvant settings, as well as in combination with other targeted therapies.T-DM1 represents the first successfully developed antibody drug conjugate for the treatment of HER2-positive advanced breast cancer.
Project description:Importance:Treatment options for patients with disease progression after treatment with trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) are limited. Tucatinib is an oral, potent, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) being developed as a novel treatment for ERBB2/HER2-positive breast cancer. Objective:To determine the maximum tolerated dosage of tucatinib in combination with T-DM1 in the treatment of patients with ERBB2/HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer with and without brain metastases. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this phase 1b open-label, multicenter, clinical trial, 57 participants enrolled between January 22, 2014, and June 22, 2015, were 18 years of age or older with ERBB2/HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab and a taxane. Data were analyzed between January and March 2018. Interventions:Tucatinib 300 mg or 350 mg administered orally twice per day for 21 days and T-DM1 3.6 mg/kg administered intravenously once every 21 days. Main Outcomes and Measures:Safety assessments, pharmacokinetics, and response were assessed using RECIST 1.1 every 2 cycles for 6 cycles, followed by every 3 cycles. Results:Fifty-seven T-DM1-naive patients (median [IQR] 51 [44.0-63.0] years of age) who had undergone a median of 2 earlier HER2 therapies (range, 1-3) were treated. The tucatinib maximum tolerated dosage was determined to be 300 mg administered twice per day with dose-limiting toxic reactions seen at 350 mg twice per day. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed that there was no drug-drug interaction with T-DM1. Adverse events seen among the 50 patients treated at the maximum tolerated dosage regardless of causality included nausea (36 patients; 72%), diarrhea (30 patients; 60%), fatigue (28 patients; 56%), epistaxis (22 patients; 44%), headache (22 patients; 44%), vomiting (21 patients; 42%), constipation (21 patients; 42%), and decreased appetite (20 patients; 40%); the majority of adverse events were grade 1 or 2. Tucatinib-related toxic reactions that were grade 3 and above included thrombocytopenia (7 patients; 14%) and hepatic transaminitis (6 patients; 12%). Conclusions and Relevance:In this study, tucatinib in combination with T-DM1 appeared to have acceptable toxicity and to show preliminary antitumor activity among heavily pretreated patients with ERBB2/HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer with and without brain metastases. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01983501.
Project description:Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), an antibody-drug conjugate comprising the cytotoxic agent DM1, a stable linker, and trastuzumab, has demonstrated substantial activity in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive metastatic breast cancer, raising interest in evaluating the feasibility and cardiac safety of T-DM1 in early-stage breast cancer (EBC).Patients (N = 153) with HER2-positive EBC and prechemotherapy left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥ 55% received (neo)adjuvant doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide or fluorouracil plus epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide followed by T-DM1 for four cycles. Patients could then receive three to four cycles of optional docetaxel with or without trastuzumab. T-DM1 was then resumed with optional radiotherapy (sequential or concurrent) for 1 year (planned) of HER2-directed therapy. The coprimary end points were rate of prespecified cardiac events and safety.Median follow-up was 24.6 months. No prespecified cardiac events or symptomatic congestive heart failures were reported. Four patients (2.7%) had asymptomatic LVEF declines (≥ 10 percentage points from baseline to LVEF < 50%), leading to T-DM1 discontinuation in one patient. Of 148 patients who received ≥ one cycle of T-DM1, 82.4% completed the planned 1-year duration of HER2-directed therapy. During T-DM1 treatment, 38.5% and 2.7% of patients experienced grade 3 and 4 adverse events, respectively. Approximately 95% of patients receiving T-DM1 plus radiotherapy completed ≥ 95% of the planned radiation dose with delay ≤ 5 days.Use of T-DM1 for approximately 1 year after anthracycline-based chemotherapy was feasible and generally well tolerated by patients with HER2-positive EBC, providing support for phase III trials of T-DM1 in this setting.
Project description:Purpose Trastuzumab and pertuzumab are human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -targeted monoclonal antibodies, and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate that combines the properties of trastuzumab with the cytotoxic activity of DM1. T-DM1 demonstrated encouraging efficacy and safety in a phase II study of patients with previously untreated HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Combination T-DM1 and pertuzumab showed synergistic activity in cell culture models and had an acceptable safety profile in a phase Ib and II study. Methods In the MARIANNE study, 1,095 patients with centrally assessed, HER2-positive, advanced breast cancer and no prior therapy for advanced disease were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to control (trastuzumab plus taxane), T-DM1 plus placebo, hereafter T-DM1, or T-DM1 plus pertuzumab at standard doses. Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS), as assessed by independent review. Results T-DM1 and T-DM1 plus pertuzumab showed noninferior PFS compared with trastuzumab plus taxane (median PFS: 13.7 months with trastuzumab plus taxane, 14.1 months with T-DM1, and 15.2 months with T-DM1 plus pertuzumab). Neither experimental arm showed PFS superiority to trastuzumab plus taxane. Response rate was 67.9% in patients who were treated with trastuzumab plus taxane, 59.7% with T-DM1, and 64.2% with T-DM1 plus pertuzumab; median response duration was 12.5 months, 20.7 months, and 21.2 months, respectively. The incidence of grade ? 3 adverse events was numerically higher in the control arm (54.1%) versus the T-DM1 arm (45.4%) and T-DM1 plus pertuzumab arm (46.2%). Numerically fewer patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events in the T-DM1 arms, and health-related quality of life was maintained for longer in the T-DM1 arms. Conclusion T-DM1 showed noninferior, but not superior, efficacy and better tolerability than did taxane plus trastuzumab for first-line treatment of HER2-positive, advanced breast cancer.
Project description:The treatment of breast cancer that is driven by amplification and overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been drastically improved by the development of HER2-targeted therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib. While outcomes for patients diagnosed with HER2-positive breast cancer have been greatly impacted by these therapies, treatment resistance is common and toxicity to standard regimens remains a therapeutic challenge. Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is a novel antibody drug conjugate that consists of the HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, joined via a stable linker to a derivative of maytansine, a highly potent cytotoxic chemotherapy. While other antibody drug conjugates have been developed clinically, this is the first in its class that maintains the antitumor properties of the HER2-targeted antibody, trastuzumab, and also avoids release of the chemotherapy until the molecule is taken up inside the HER2-overexpressing cancer cell. Several phase I studies have shown T-DM1 is safe, tolerable and has activity in trastuzumab- and lapatinib-pretreated breast cancer. Moreover, phase II studies are now being reported that confirm its safety and clinical efficacy in both the frontline and heavily pretreated settings. Preliminary data from phase II studies evaluating its use in combination with other cytotoxics have also been reported and several large phase III trials are underway to evaluate its use in the HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer setting. This paper aims to provide a detailed review of the preclinical and clinical evidence relating to the mechanism of action, efficacy and safety of T-DM1 for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer.
Project description:Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of multiple molecules of the antimicrotubule agent DM1 linked to trastuzumab, a humanized anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody. Pharmacokinetics data from phase I (n = 52) and phase II (n = 111) studies in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients show a shorter terminal half-life for T-DM1 than for total trastuzumab (TTmAb). In this work, we translated prior preclinical modeling in monkeys to develop a semi-mechanistic population pharmacokinetics model to characterize T-DM1 and TTmAb concentration profiles. A series of transit compartments with the same disposition parameters was used to describe the deconjugation process from higher to lower drug-to-antibody ratios (DARs). The structure could explain the shorter terminal half-life of T-DM1 relative to TTmab. The final model integrates prior knowledge of T-DM1 DARs from preclinical studies and could provide a platform for understanding and characterizing the pharmacokinetics of other ADC systems.
Project description:Since 2013, trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) has been widely used in Japan to treat patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) who were previously administered trastuzumab and a taxane. However, there is no information about the treatment outcomes after exposure to T-DM1 in Japanese patients with HER2-positive MBC. In this study, we aimed to describe the survival outcomes of patients with HER2-positive MBC who received a treatment following T-DM1 and clarify the predictive factors of their prognosis.We retrospectively identified patients with HER2-positive MBC who received T-DM1 between April 1, 2014, and December 31, 2018, at the National Cancer Center Hospital, and focused on the population that received another line of therapy following T-DM1 discontinuation.Thirty patients were available for the outcome analysis. Median progression-free survival (PFS) of the first subsequent therapy was 6.0 months [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4.1-6.4], whereas the median overall survival (OS) from the first subsequent therapy was 20.6 months (95% CI 13.5 months to not reached). We divided the patients into 2 groups according to their PFS with T-DM1 treatment and compared their PFS with the subsequent therapy. The results revealed a significant difference in the median PFS with the first subsequent treatment between patients with the PFS of less than and more than 3 months [5.1 (95% CI 1.7-6.2) vs 6.2 (95% CI 4.0-11.3) months, P?=?.03].This is the first study to evaluate the survival outcomes of post-T-DM1 therapy in Japanese patients with HER2-positive MBC. A short PFS with T-DM1 might affect the PFS with a treatment after T-DM1.
Project description:The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has recommended Ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) as a preferred agent for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer and prior trastuzumab therapy. Overexpression of HER2 was reported in other cancer types such as bladder, gastric and urogenital carcinosarcomas similar to what is discovered in breast cancer. Some preclinical studies demonstrated the potential anti-tumor effects of T-DM1 in HER2-positive non-breast cancers. There is a paucity of data over the clinical evaluation of T-DM1 in human studies of non-breast cancer patients. We review some preclinical and ongoing clinical studies that assessed the efficacy of T-DM1 administration in the treatment of non-breast HER2 positive malignancies. Performing large and well-designed trials in this area is matter of interest and highly recommended.