Conformational Dynamics of DNA G-Quadruplex in Solution Studied by Kinetic Capillary Electrophoresis Coupled On-line with Mass Spectrometry.
ABSTRACT: G-quadruplex-forming DNA/RNA sequences play an important role in the regulation of biological functions and development of new anticancer and anti-aging drugs. In this work, we couple on-line kinetic capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (KCE-MS) to study conformational dynamics of DNA G-quadruplexes in solution. We show that peaks shift and its widening in KCE can be used for measuring rate and equilibrium constants for DNA-metal affinity interactions and G-quadruplex formation; and ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) provides information about relative sizes, absolute molecular masses and stoichiometry of DNA complexes. KCE-MS separates a thrombin-binding aptamer d[GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG] from mutated sequences based on affinity to potassium, and reveals the apparent equilibrium folding constant (K F?150??m), folding rate constant (k on?1.70×10(3)?s(-1)?m(-1)), unfolding rate constant (k off?0.25?s(-1)), half-life time of the G-quadruplex (t 1/2?2.8?s), and relaxation time (??3.9?ms at physiological 150?mm [K(+)]). In addition, KCE-MS screens for a GQ-stabilizing/-destabilizing effect of DNA binding dyes and an anticancer drug, cisplatin.
Project description:The human oncogene c-myc is regulated by G-quadruplex formation within the nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE III(I)) in the c-myc promoter, making the quadruplex a strong anti-cancer target. With respect to this, the competing equilibrium between intramolecular quadruplex folding and bimolecular duplex formation is poorly understood and very few techniques have addressed this problem. We present a method for simultaneously determining the kinetic constants for G-quadruplex folding/unfolding and hybridization in the presence of the complementary strand from a single reaction using an optical biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Using this technique, we demonstrate for the first time that quadruplex formation in the c-myc promoter is favored at low strand concentrations. Our results indicate favorable quadruplex folding (equilibrium folding constant K(F) of 2.09 calculated from the kinetic parameters: folding rate constant, k(f) = 1.65 x 10(-2) s(-1) and unfolding rate constant, k(u) = 7.90 x 10(-3) s(-1)) in 150 mM K+. The hybridization rate constants detected concurrently gave a bimolecular association constant, k(a) = 1.37 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and dissociation constant, k(d) = 4.94 x 10(-5) s(-1). Interestingly, in the presence of Na+ we observed that G-quadruplex folding was unfavorable (K(F) = 0.54). Implication of our results on the c-myc transcription activation model is discussed in light of aberrant c-myc expression observed on destabilization of the G-quadruplex.
Project description:Guanine-rich nucleic acids can form G-quadruplexes that are important in gene regulation, biosensor design and nano-structure construction. In this article, we report on the development of a nanopore encapsulating single-molecule method for exploring how cations regulate the folding and unfolding of the G-quadruplex formed by the thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA, GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG). The signature blocks in the nanopore revealed that the G-quadruplex formation is cation-selective. The selectivity sequence is K(+) > NH(4)(+) approximately Ba(2+) > Cs(+) approximately Na(+) > Li(+), and G-quadruplex was not detected in Mg(2+) and Ca(2+). Ba(2+) can form a long-lived G-quadruplex with TBA. However, the capability is affected by the cation-DNA interaction. The cation-selective formation of the G-quadruplex is correlated with the G-quadruplex volume, which varies with cation species. The high formation capability of the K(+)-induced G-quadruplex is contributed largely by the slow unfolding reaction. Although the Na(+)- and Li(+)-quadruplexes feature similar equilibrium properties, they undergo radically different pathways. The Na(+)-quadruplex folds and unfolds most rapidly, while the Li(+)-quadruplex performs both reactions at the slowest rates. Understanding these ion-regulated properties of oligonucleotides is beneficial for constructing fine-tuned biosensors and nano-structures. The methodology in this work can be used for studying other quadruplexes and protein-aptamer interactions.
Project description:Potassium can stabilize the formation of chair- or edge-type quadruplex DNA structures and appears to be the only naturally occurring cation that can do so. As quadruplex DNAs may be important in the structure of telomere, centromere, triplet repeat and other DNAs, information about the details of the potassium-quadruplex DNA interactions are of interest. The structures of the 1:1 and the fully saturated, 2:1, potassium-DNA complexes of d(GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG) have been determined using the combination of experimental NMR results and restrained molecular dynamics simulations. The refined structures have been used to model the interactions at the potassium binding sites. Comparison of the 1:1 and 2:1 potassium:DNA structures indicates how potassium binding can determine the folding pattern of the DNA. In each binding site potassium interacts with the carbonyl oxygens of both the loop thymine residues and the guanine residues of the adjacent quartet.
Project description:Gold nanoparticles have been used as a probe to detect low (<10?ppb) concentrations of quadruplex DNA. These nanoparticles display a tendency to form aggregates in the presence of certain quadruplex forms, as observed via enhanced plasmon resonance light scattering (PRLS) signals. These nanoparticles showed differing degrees of interactions with different types of quadruplex and mixed sequences but no interaction with duplex DNA. Enhancement of PRLS signals greater than 50% was observed at nanomolar DNA concentration, and a lower limit of detection of 2.1?nM was established for three different quadruplex DNA sequences, including the thrombin-inhibiting single-stranded 15?mer aptamer DNA, d(GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG), and the double-stranded 12?mer DNA, d(G4T4G4). Two different sample preparation protocols were used for the PRLS experiments, and they yielded similar results.
Project description:Cation-induced folding into quadruplex structures for three model human telomeric oligonucleotides, d[AGGG(TTAGGG)(3)], d[TTGGG(TTAGGG)(3)A] and d[TTGGG(TTAGGG)(3)], was characterized by equilibrium titrations with KCl and NaCl and by multiwavelength stopped flow kinetics. Cation binding was cooperative with Hill coefficients of 1.5-2.2 in K(+) and 2.4-2.9 in Na(+) with half-saturation concentrations of 0.5-1 mM for K(+) and 4-13 mM for Na(+) depending on the oligonucleotide sequence. Oligonucleotide folding in 50 mM KCl at 25 degrees C consisted of single exponential processes with relaxation times tau of 20-60 ms depending on the sequence. In contrast, folding in100 mM NaCl consisted of three exponentials with tau-values of 40-85 ms, 250-950 ms and 1.5-10.5 s. The folding rate constants approached limiting values with increasing cation concentration; in addition, the rates of folding decreased with increasing temperature over the range 15-45 degrees C. Taken together, these results suggest that folding of G-rich oligonucleotides into quadruplex structures proceeds via kinetically significant intermediates. These intermediates may consist of antiparallel hairpins in rapid equilibrium with less ordered structures. The hairpins may subsequently form nascent G-quartets stabilized by H-bonding and cation binding followed by relatively slow strand rearrangements to form the final completely folded topologies. Fewer kinetic intermediates were evident with K(+) than Na(+), suggesting a simpler folding pathway in K(+) solutions.
Project description:The structural competition between the G-quadruplex and Watson-Crick duplex has been implicated for the repetitive DNA sequences, but the factors influencing this competitive equilibrium in the natural and pharmacological context need to be elucidated. Using a 21mer 5'-Fluorescein-d[(G3TTA)3G3]-TAMRA-3' as a model system, extensive fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis was carried out to investigate sensitivity of this equilibrium to osmotic stress and quadruplex selective small molecule. The binding affinities and kinetics involved in the hybridization of quadruplex to its complementary strand in the absence and presence of different concentrations of osmolytes (ethylene glycol and glycerol) and a quadruplex selective ligand (cationic porphyrin-TMPyP4) were determined. The presence of osmolytes and cationic porphyrin decreased the binding affinity of quadruplex to its complementary strand and slowed the kinetics of the reaction by delaying the hybridization process. Our binding data analysis indicates that the presence of either osmolytes or porphyrin increase the amount of quadruplex in the equilibrium. In 100 mM KCl solution, when 30 nM of each of the components, i.e. quadruplex and the complementary strand, were mixed together, the amount of quadruplex present in the system under equilibrium were 17.6, 23.4, 23.1 and 19.6 nM in the absence and presence of 10% ethylene glycol, 10% glycerol and 150 nM TMPyP4, respectively. Fluorescence melting profile of quadruplex in the absence and presence of these perturbants confirm the findings that osmolytes and cationic porphyrin stabilize quadruplex, and thus, shift the equilibrium to quadruplex formation.
Project description:The cofactors commonly involved in natural enzymes have provided the inspiration for numerous advances in the creation of artificial metalloenzymes. Nevertheless, to design an appropriate cofactor for a given biomolecular scaffold or vice versa remains a challenge in developing efficient catalysts in biochemistry. Herein, we extend the idea of G-quadruplex-targeting anticancer drug design to construct a G-quadruplex DNA metalloenzyme. We found that a series of terpyridine-Cu(ii) complexes (CuLn) can serve as excellent cofactors to dock with human telemetric G-quadruplex DNA. The resulting G-quadruplex DNA metalloenzyme utilising CuL1 catalyzes an enantioselective Diels-Alder reaction with enantioselectivity of >99% enantiomeric excess and about 73-fold rate acceleration compared to CuL1 alone. The terpyridine-Cu(ii) complex cofactors demonstrate dual functions, both as an active site to perform catalysis and as a structural regulator to promote the folding of human telemetric G-quadruplex DNA towards excellent catalysts.
Project description:Structural information on the complexes of drug like molecules with quadruplex DNAs can aid the development of therapeutics and research tools that selectively target specific quadruplex DNAs. Screening can identify candidate molecules that require additional evaluation. An enhanced hydroxyl radical cleavage protocol is demonstrated that can efficiently provide structural information on the complexes of the candidate molecules with quadruplex DNA. NMR methods have been used to offer additional structural information about the complexes as well as validate the results of the hydroxyl radical approach. This multi-step protocol has been demonstrated on complexes of the chair type quadruplex formed by the thrombin binding aptamer, d(GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG). The hydroxyl radical results indicate that NSC 176319, Cain's quinolinium that was found by screening, exhibits selective binding to the two TT loops. The NMR results are consistent with selective disruption of the hydrogen bonding between T4 and T13 as well as unstacking of these residues from the bottom quartet. Thus, the combination of screening, hydroxyl radical footprinting and NMR can find new molecules that selectively bind to quadruplex DNAs as well as provide structural information about their complexes.
Project description:The interactions of three related cationic porphyrins, TMPyP4, TMPyP3 and TMPyP2, with a WT 39-mer Bcl-2 promoter sequence G-quadruplex were studied using Circular Dichroism, ESI mass spectrometry, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, and Fluorescence spectroscopy. The planar cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 (5, 10, 15, 20-meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine) is shown to bind to a WT Bcl-2 G-quadruplex via two different binding modes, an end binding mode and a weaker mode attributed to intercalation. The related non-planar ligands, TMPyP3 and TMPyP2, are shown to bind to the Bcl-2 G-quadruplex by a single mode. ESI mass spectrometry experiments confirmed that the saturation stoichiometry is 4:1 for the TMPyP4 complex and 2:1 for the TMPyP2 and TMPyP3 complexes. ITC experiments determined that the equilibrium constant for formation of the (TMPyP4)1/DNA complex (K1 = 3.7 × 10(6)) is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than the equilibrium constant for the formation of the (TMPyP2)1/DNA complex, (K1 = 7.0 × 10(4)). Porphyrin fluorescence is consistent with intercalation in the case of the (TMPyP4)3/DNA and (TMPyP4)4/DNA complexes. The non-planar shape of the TMPyP2 and TMPyP3 molecules results in both a reduced affinity for the end binding interaction and the elimination of the intercalation binding mode.
Project description:Quadruplexes are involved in the regulation of gene expression and are part of telomeres at the ends of chromosomes. In addition, they are useful in therapeutic and biotechnological applications, including nucleic acid diagnostics. In the presence of K(+) ions, two 15-mer sequences d(GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG) (thrombin binding aptamer) and d(GGGTGGGTGGGTGGG) (G3T) fold into antiparallel and parallel quadruplexes, respectively. In the present study, we measured the fluorescence intensity of one or more 2-aminopurine or 6-methylisoxanthopterin base analogs incorporated at loop-positions of quadruplex forming sequences to develop a detection method for DNA sequences in solution. Before quadruplex formation, the fluorescence is efficiently quenched in all cases. Remarkably, G3T quadruplex formation results in emission of fluorescence equal to that of a free base in all three positions. In the case of thrombin binding aptamer, the emission intensity depends on the location of the fluorescent nucleotides. Circular dichroism studies demonstrate that the modifications do not change the overall secondary structure, whereas thermal unfolding experiments revealed that fluorescent analogs significantly destabilize the quadruplexes. Overall, these studies suggest that quadruplexes containing fluorescent nucleotide analogs are useful tools in the development of novel DNA detection methodologies.