Signal transduction by activated mNotch: importance of proteolytic processing and its regulation by the extracellular domain.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies imply that the intracellular domain of Notch1 must translocate to the nucleus for its activity. In this study, we demonstrate that a mNotch1 mutant protein that lacks its extracellular domain but retains its membrane-spanning region becomes proteolytically processed on its intracellular surface and, as a result, the activated intracellular domain (mNotchIC) is released and can move to the nucleus. Proteolytic cleavage at an intracellular site is blocked by protease inhibitors. Intracellular cleavage is not seen in cells transfected with an inactive variant, which includes the extracellular lin-Notch-glp repeats. Collectively, the studies presented here support the model that mNotch1 is proteolytically processed and the cleavage product is translocated to the nucleus for mNotch1 signal transduction.
Project description:The KIAA0319 gene has been associated with reading disability in several studies. It encodes a plasma membrane protein with a large, highly glycosylated, extracellular domain. This protein is proposed to function in adhesion and attachment and thought to play an important role during neuronal migration in the developing brain. We have previously proposed that endocytosis of this protein could constitute an important mechanism to regulate its function. Here we show that KIAA0319 undergoes ectodomain shedding and intramembrane cleavage. At least five different cleavage events occur, four in the extracellular domain and one within the transmembrane domain. The ectodomain shedding processing cleaves the extracellular domain, generating several small fragments, including the N-terminal region with the Cys-rich MANEC domain. It is possible that these fragments are released to the extracellular medium and trigger cellular responses. The intramembrane cleavage releases the intracellular domain from its membrane attachment. Our results suggest that this cleavage event is not carried out by ?-secretase, the enzyme complex involved in similar processing in many other type I proteins. The soluble cytoplasmic domain of KIAA0319 is able to translocate to the nucleus, accumulating in nucleoli after overexpression. This fragment has an unknown role, although it could be involved in regulation of gene expression. The absence of DNA-interacting motifs indicates that such a function would most probably be mediated through interaction with other proteins, not by direct DNA binding. These results suggest that KIAA0319 not only has a direct role in neuronal migration but may also have additional signaling functions.
Project description:Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, contains two immunodominant proteins, rOmpA and rOmpB, in the outer membrane. Both rOmpA and rOmpB are conserved throughout spotted fever group rickettsiae as members of a family of autotransporter proteins. Previously, it was demonstrated that rOmpB is proteolytically processed, with the cleavage site residing near the autotransporter domain at the carboxy-terminal end of the protein, cleaving the 168-kDa precursor into apparent 120-kDa and 32-kDa fragments. The 120- and 32-kDa fragments remain noncovalently associated on the surface of the bacterium, with implications that the 32-kDa fragment functions as the membrane anchor domain. Here we present evidence for a similar posttranslational processing of rOmpA. rOmpA is expressed as a predicted 224-kDa precursor yet is observed on SDS-PAGE as a 190-kDa protein. A small rOmpA fragment of ?32 kDa was discovered during surface proteome analysis and identified as the carboxy-terminal end of the protein. A rabbit polyclonal antibody was generated to the autotransporter region of rOmpA and confirmed a 32-kDa fragment corresponding to the calculated mass of a proteolytically cleaved rOmpA autotransporter region. N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed a cleavage site on the carboxy-terminal side of Ser-1958 in rOmpA. An avirulent strain of R. rickettsii Iowa deficient in rOmpB processing was also defective in the processing of rOmpA. The similarities of the cleavage sites and the failure of R. rickettsii Iowa to process either rOmpA or rOmpB suggest that a single enzyme may be responsible for both processing events.IMPORTANCE Members of the spotted fever group of rickettsiae, including R. rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, express at least four autotransporter proteins that are protective antigens or putative virulence determinants. One member of this class of proteins, rOmpB, is proteolytically processed to a passenger domain and an autotransporter domain that remain associated on the rickettsial outer membrane. The protease responsible for this posttranslation processing remains unknown. Here we show that another autotransporter, rOmpA, is similarly processed by R. rickettsii Similarities in sequence at the cleavage site and predicted secondary protein structure suggest that all four R. rickettsii autotransporters may be processed by the same outer membrane protease.
Project description:The ?-, ?-, and ?-protocadherins (Pcdh?, Pcdh?, and Pcdh?) comprise a large family of single-pass transmembrane proteins predominantly expressed in the nervous system. These proteins contain six cadherin-like extracellular domains, and proteolysis of Pcdh? and Pcdh? by the ?-secretase complex releases their intracellular domains into the cytoplasm where they may function locally and/or enter the nucleus and affect gene expression. Thus, cleavage of Pcdhs may function to link intercellular contacts and intracellular signaling. Here we report that shedding of the Pcdh? extracellular domain and subsequent processing by ?-secretase require endocytosis and that Pcdhs interact with the regulator of vesicular sorting ESCRT-0 in undifferentiated cells. We also find that the accumulation of Pcdh cleavage products is regulated during development. Differentiation leads to an increase in the interactions between Pcdh proteins and a decrease in the accumulation of cleavage products. We conclude that Pcdh processing requires endocytosis and that the level of cleavage products is regulated during neuronal differentiation.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a major negative regulator of bone growth that inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes. Activating mutations of its c isoform cause dwarfism in humans; somatic mutations can drive oncogenic transformation in multiple myeloma and bladder cancer. How these distinct activities arise is not clear. FGFR3 was previously shown to undergo proteolytic cleavage in the bovine rib growth plate, but this was not explored further. Here, we show that FGF1 induces regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) of FGFR3. The ectodomain is proteolytically cleaved (S1) in response to ligand-induced receptor activation, but unlike most RIP target proteins, it requires endocytosis and does not involve a metalloproteinase. S1 cleavage generates a C-terminal domain fragment that initially remains anchored in the membrane, is phosphorylated, and is spatially distinct from the intact receptor. Ectodomain cleavage is followed by intramembrane cleavage (S2) to generate a soluble intracellular domain that is released into the cytosol and can translocate to the nucleus. We identify the S1 cleavage site and show that ?-secretase mediates the S2 cleavage event. In this way we demonstrate a mechanism for the nuclear localization of FGFR3 in response to ligand activation, which may occur in both development and disease.
Project description:The 75 kDa neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and two neurotrophin receptor homologs (NRH1, NRH2) constitute a subfamily of the nerve growth factor/tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. NRH1 coexists with p75NTR in fish, amphibians, and birds but is absent in mammals, whereas NRH2 exists only in mammals. Unlike p75NTR and NRH1, NRH2 lacks a canonical extracellular ligand binding domain. The similarity of NRH2 to the product of metalloproteinase cleavage of p75NTR prompted us to examine the cleavage of p75NTR in greater detail. p75NTR, NRH1, and NRH2 undergo multiple proteolytic cleavages that ultimately release cytoplasmic fragments. For p75NTR, cleavage in the extracellular domain by a PMA-inducible membrane metalloproteinase is followed by cleavage within or near the transmembrane domain, releasing the intracellular domain into the cytoplasm. This processing resembles the alpha- and gamma-secretase-mediated processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein and the similar processing of Notch. Although neurotrophins did not regulate p75NTR processing, the alpha- and gamma-secretase-mediated cleavage of p75 is modulated by receptor tyrosine kinases (Trks) TrkA and TrkB but not TrkC. Surprisingly, although NRH1 and NRH2 also undergo proteolytic cytoplasmic release of intracellular domains, a different protease mediates the cleavage. Furthermore, whereas the p75NTR soluble intracellular domain accumulates only in the presence of proteasome inhibitors, the equivalent fragment of NRH2 is stable and localizes in the nucleus. Because soluble intracellular domains of p75NTR and NRH2 were found to activate NF-kappaB in concert with TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6), we propose that cleavage of these proteins may serve conserved cytoplasmic and nuclear signaling functions through distinct proteases.
Project description:Ligands present on neighboring cells activate receptors of the LIN-12/Notch family by inducing a proteolytic cleavage event that releases the intracellular domain. Mutations that appear to eliminate sel-5 activity are able to suppress constitutive activity of lin-12(d) mutations that are point mutations in the extracellular domain of LIN-12, but cannot suppress lin-12(intra), the untethered intracellular domain. These results suggest that sel-5 acts prior to or during ligand-dependent release of the intracellular domain. In addition, sel-5 suppression of lin-12(d) mutations is tissue specific: loss of sel-5 activity can suppress defects in the anchor cell/ventral uterine precursor cell fate decision and a sex myoblast/coelomocyte decision, but cannot suppress defects in two different ventral hypodermal cell fate decisions in hermaphrodites and males. sel-5 encodes at least two proteins, from alternatively spliced mRNAs, that share an amino-terminal region and differ in the carboxy-terminal region. The amino-terminal region contains the hallmarks of a serine/threonine kinase domain, which is most similar to mammalian GAK1 and yeast Pak1p.
Project description:Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is an economically significant swine pathogen that colonizes the respiratory ciliated epithelial cells. Cilium adherence is mediated by P97, a surface protein containing a repeating element (R1) that is responsible for binding. Here, we show that the cilium adhesin is proteolytically processed on the surface. Proteomic analysis of strain J proteins identified cleavage products of 22, 28, 66, and 94 kDa. N-terminal sequencing showed that the 66- and 94-kDa proteins possessed identical N termini and that the 66-kDa variant was generated by cleavage of the 28-kDa product from the C terminus. The 22-kDa product represented the N-terminal 195 amino acids of the cilium adhesin preprotein, confirming that the hydrophobic leader signal sequence is not cleaved during translocation across the membrane. Comparative studies of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed that the major cleavage products of the cilium adhesin are similar, although P22 and P28 appear to be processed further in strain 232. Immunoblotting studies using antisera raised against peptide sequences within P22 and P66/P94 indicate that processing is complex, with cleavage occurring at different frequencies within multiple sites, and is strain specific. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that fragments containing the cilium-binding site remained associated with the cell surface whereas cleavage products not containing the R1 element were located elsewhere. Not all secreted proteins undergo multiple cleavage, however, as evidenced by the analysis of the P102 gene product. The ability of M. hyopneumoniae to selectively cleave its secreted proteins provides this pathogen with a remarkable capacity to alter its surface architecture.
Project description:Tolerance of Aspergillus nidulans to alkalinity and elevated cation concentrations requires both SltA and SltB. Transcription factor SltA and the putative pseudokinase/protease signaling protein SltB comprise a regulatory pathway specific to filamentous fungi. In vivo, SltB is proteolytically cleaved into its two principal domains. Mutational analysis defines a chymotrypsin-like serine protease domain that mediates SltB autoproteolysis and proteolytic cleavage of SltA. The pseudokinase domain might modulate the protease activity of SltB. Three forms of the SltA transcription factor coexist in cells: a full-length, 78-kDa version and a processed, 32-kDa form, which is found in phosphorylated and unphosphorylated states. The SltA32kDa version mediates transcriptional regulation of sltB and, putatively, genes required for tolerance to cation stress and alkalinity. The full-length form, SltA78kDa, apparently has no transcriptional function. In the absence of SltB, only the primary product of SltA is detectable, and its level equals that of SltA78kDa. Mutations in sltB selected as suppressors of null vps alleles and resulting in cation/alkalinity sensitivity either reduced or eliminated SltA proteolysis. There is no evidence for cation or alkalinity regulation of SltB cleavage, but activation of sltB expression requires SltA. This work identifies the molecular mechanisms governing the Slt pathway.
Project description:Lassa virus glycoprotein is synthesised as a precursor (preGP-C) into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. After cotranslational cleavage of the signal peptide, the immature GP-C is posttranslationally processed into the N-terminal subunit GP-1 and the C-terminal subunit GP-2 by the host cell subtilase SKI-1/S1P. The glycoprotein precursor contains eleven potential N-glycosylation sites. In this report, we investigated the effect of each N-glycan on proteolytic cleavage and cell surface transport by disrupting the consensus sequences of eleven potential N-glycan attachment sites individually. Five glycoprotein mutants with disrupted N-glycosylation sites were still proteolytically processed, whereas the remaining N-glycosylation sites are necessary for GP-C cleavage. Despite the lack of proteolytic processing, all cleavage-defective mutants were transported to the cell surface and remained completely endo H-sensitive. The findings indicate that N-glycans are needed for correct conformation of GP-C in order to be cleaved by SKI-1/S1P.
Project description:TRPM7 is a ubiquitous ion channel and kinase, a unique "chanzyme," required for proper early embryonic development. It conducts Zn(2+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) as well as monovalent cations and contains a functional serine/threonine kinase at its carboxyl terminus. Here, we show that in normal tissues and cell lines, the kinase is proteolytically cleaved from the channel domain in a cell-type-specific manner. These TRPM7 cleaved kinase fragments (M7CKs) translocate to the nucleus and bind multiple components of chromatin-remodeling complexes, including Polycomb group proteins. In the nucleus, the kinase phosphorylates specific serines/threonines of histones. M7CK-dependent phosphorylation of H3Ser10 at promoters of TRPM7-dependent genes correlates with their activity. We also demonstrate that cytosolic free [Zn(2+)] is TRPM7 dependent and regulates M7CK binding to transcription factors containing zinc-finger domains. These findings suggest that TRPM7-mediated modulation of intracellular Zn(2+) concentration couples ion-channel signaling to epigenetic chromatin covalent modifications that affect gene expression patterns. PAPERCLIP: