Multiple Functional Motifs Are Required for the Tumor Suppressor Activity of a Constitutively-Active ErbB4 Mutant.
ABSTRACT: ErbB4 (HER4) is a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which includes the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR/ErbB1), ErbB2 (HER2/Neu), and ErbB3 (HER3). Mounting evidence indicates that ErbB4, unlike EGFR or ErbB2, functions as a tumor suppressor in many human malignancies. Previous analyses of the constitutively-dimerized and -active ErbB4 Q646C mutant indicate that ErbB4 kinase activity and phosphorylation of ErbB4 Tyr1056 are both required for the tumor suppressor activity of this mutant in human breast, prostate, and pancreatic cancer cell lines. However, the cytoplasmic region of ErbB4 possesses additional putative functional motifs, and the contributions of these functional motifs to ErbB4 tumor suppressor activity have been largely underexplored. Here we demonstrate that ErbB4 BH3 and LXXLL motifs, which are thought to mediate interactions with Bcl family proteins and steroid hormone receptors, respectively, are required for the tumor suppressor activity of the ErbB4 Q646C mutant. Furthermore, abrogation of the site of ErbB4 cleavage by gamma-secretase also disrupts the tumor suppressor activity of the ErbB4 Q646C mutant. This last result suggests that ErbB4 cleavage and subcellular trafficking of the ErbB4 cytoplasmic domain may be required for the tumor suppressor activity of the ErbB4 Q646C mutant. Indeed, here we demonstrate that mutants that disrupt ErbB4 kinase activity, ErbB4 phosphorylation at Tyr1056, or ErbB4 cleavage by gamma-secretase also disrupt ErbB4 trafficking away from the plasma membrane and to the cytoplasm. This supports a model for ErbB4 function in which ErbB4 tumor suppressor activity is dependent on ErbB4 trafficking away from the plasma membrane and to the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and/or the nucleus.
Project description:ErbB4 is a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. This family includes ErbB2 (HER2/Neu), a validated therapeutic target in breast cancer. Several studies indicate that ErbB4 functions as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer, whereas others indicate that ErbB4 functions as an oncogene. Here the authors explore the context in which ErbB4 functions as an oncogene. Silencing expression of either ErbB2 or ErbB4 in breast tumor cell lines results in reduced stimulation of anchorage independence and cell motility by the ErbB4 agonist neuregulin 2?. ErbB2 tyrosine kinase activity, but not ErbB4 tyrosine kinase activity, is required for neuregulin 2? to stimulate cell proliferation. Moreover, sites of ErbB4 tyrosine phosphorylation, but not sites of ErbB2 tyrosine phosphorylation, are required for neuregulin 2? to couple to cell proliferation. These data suggest that targeting ErbB2 expression or tyrosine kinase activity may be effective in treating ErbB4-dependent breast tumors, even those tumors that lack ErbB2 overexpression.
Project description:The ErbB1 and ErbB2 receptors are oncogenes with therapeutic significance in human cancer, whereas the transforming potential of the related ErbB4 receptor has remained controversial. Here, we have addressed whether four alternatively spliced ErbB4 isoforms differ in regulating cellular responses relevant for tumor growth. We show that the two tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE)-cleavable ErbB4 isoforms (the juxtamembrane [JM]-a isoforms) were overexpressed in a subset of primary human breast cancers together with TACE. The overexpression of the JM-a cytoplasmic (CYT)-2 ErbB4 isoform promoted ErbB4 phosphorylation, survival of interleukin-3-dependent cells, and proliferation of breast cancer cells even in the absence of ligand stimulation, whereas activation of the other three ErbB4 isoforms required ligand stimulation. Ligand-independent cellular responses to ErbB4 JM-a CYT-2 overexpression were regulated by both tyrosine kinase activity and a two-step proteolytic generation of an intracellular receptor fragment involving first a TACE-like proteinase, followed by gamma-secretase activity. These data suggest a novel transforming mechanism for the ErbB4 receptor in human breast cancer that is 1) specific for a single receptor isoform and 2) depends on proteinase cleavage and kinase activity but not ligand activation of the receptor.
Project description:Neuregulin (NRG) stimulation of ErbB4 signaling is important for type II cell surfactant synthesis. ErbB4 may mediate gene expression via a non-canonical pathway involving enzymatic cleavage releasing its intracellular domain (4ICD) for nuclear trafficking and gene regulation. The accepted model for release of 4ICD is consecutive cleavage by Tumor necrosis factor alpha Converting Enzyme (TACE) and ?-secretase enzymes. Here, we show that 4ICD mediates surfactant synthesis and its release by ?-secretase is not dependent on previous TACE cleavage. We used siRNA to silence Presenilin-1 (PSEN-1) expression in a mouse lung type II epithelial cell line (MLE12 cells), and both siRNA knockdown and chemical inhibition of TACE. Knockdown of PSEN-1 significantly decreased baseline and NRG-stimulated surfactant phospholipid synthesis, expression of the surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C, as well as 4ICD levels, with no change in ErbB4 ectodomain shedding. Neither siRNA knockdown nor chemical inhibition of TACE inhibited 4ICD release or surfactant synthesis. PSEN-1 cleavage of ErbB4 for non-canonical signaling through 4ICD release does not require prior cleavage by TACE.
Project description:A constitutively active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant, EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII), has been detected at high frequencies in certain human cancers. This study evaluated transactivation and trafficking of erbB family members as a result of constitutive EGFR activity in a cancer cell line. Expression of EGFRvIII modulated erbB family members through different mechanisms; the erbB3 mRNA level was reduced, whereas wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR) and erbB2 protein levels were diminished, with no change in their mRNA levels, and there was no change in the erbB4 expression level. Both EGFR and erbB2 were internalized as a result of EGFRvIII's activity and redistributed to the cell surface upon addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of wtEGFR/EGFRvIII catalytic activity. Acute activation of EGFRvIII by removing AG1478 from cells increased phosphorylation of both wtEGFR and erbB2 and caused differential trafficking of EGFRvIII's activation partners; wtEGFR was directed primarily to lysosomal compartments and partially to recycling compartments, whereas erbB2 was directed primarily to recycling compartments and partially to lysosomal compartments. Our data demonstrate that the constitutive activity of EGFRvIII is sufficient to trigger endocytosis and trafficking of wtEGFR and erbB2, which may play a role in activating signaling pathways that are triggered during receptor endocytosis.
Project description:The ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase possesses both tumour suppressor and oncogenic activities. Thus pharmacological agents are needed to help elucidate ErbB4 functions. However, limitations of existing ErbB4 agonists and antagonists have led us to seek novel ErbB4 antagonists. The Q43L mutant of the ErbB4 agonist NRG2? (neuregulin 2?) stimulates ErbB4 tyrosine phosphorylation, yet fails to stimulate ErbB4 coupling to cell proliferation. Thus in the present paper we hypothesize that NRG2?/Q43L may be an ErbB4 antagonist. NRG2?/Q43L competitively antagonizes agonist stimulation of ErbB4 coupling to cell proliferation. NRG2?/Q43L stimulates less ErbB4 tyrosine phosphorylation than does NRG2?. In addition, NRG2? stimulation of cell proliferation requires PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) activity and NRG2? stimulates greater Akt phosphorylation than does NRG2?/Q43L. Moreover, EGFR [EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptor] kinase activity (but not that of ErbB4) is critical for coupling ErbB4 to proliferation. Experiments utilizing ErbB4 splicing isoforms and mutants suggest that NRG2? and NRG2?/Q43L may differentially stimulate ErbB4 coupling to the transcriptional co-regulator YAP (Yes-associated protein). Finally, NRG2?/Q43L competitively antagonizes agonist stimulation of EGFR and ErbB2/ErbB3, indicating that NRG2?/Q43L is a pan-ErbB antagonist. Thus we postulate that NRG2?/Q43L and other antagonistic ligands stimulate ErbB tyrosine phosphorylation on a set of residues distinct from that stimulated by agonists, thus suggesting a novel mechanism of ErbB receptor regulation. Moreover, NRG2?/Q43L and related ligand-based antagonists establish a paradigm for the discovery of anti-ErbB therapeutics.
Project description:Gamma-secretase is a multisubunit complex with intramembrane proteolytic activity. In humans it was identified in genetic screens of patients suffering from familial forms of Alzheimer's disease, and since then it was shown to mediate cleavage of more than 80 substrates, including amyloid precursor protein or Notch receptor. Moreover, in animals, ?-secretase was shown to be involved in regulation of a wide range of cellular events, including cell signalling, regulation of endocytosis of membrane proteins, their trafficking, and degradation. Here we show that genes coding for ?-secretase homologues are present in plant genomes. Also, amino acid motifs crucial for ?-secretase activity are conserved in plants. Moreover, all ?-secretase subunits: PS1/PS2, APH-1, PEN-2, and NCT colocalize and interact with each other in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. The intracellular localization of ?-secretase subunits in Arabidopsis protoplasts revealed a distribution in endomembrane system compartments that is consistent with data from animal studies. Together, our data may be considered as a starting point for analysis of ?-secretase in plants.
Project description:Maturation of pulmonary fetal type II cells to initiate adequate surfactant production is crucial for postnatal respiratory function. Little is known about specific mechanisms of signal transduction controlling type II cell maturation. The ErbB4 receptor and its ligand neuregulin (NRG) are critical for lung development. ErbB4 is cleaved at the cell membrane by the ?-secretase enzyme complex whose active component is either presenilin-1 (PSEN-1) or presenilin-2. ErbB4 cleavage releases the 80kDa intracellular domain (4ICD), which associates with chaperone proteins such as YAP (Yes-associated protein) and translocates to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. We hypothesized that PSEN-1 and YAP have a development-specific expression in fetal type II cells and are important for ErbB4 signaling in surfactant production. In primary fetal mouse E16, E17, and E18 type II cells, PSEN-1 and YAP expression increased at E17 and E18 over E16. Subcellular fractionation showed a strong cytosolic and a weaker membrane location of both PSEN-1 and YAP. This was enhanced by NRG stimulation. Co-immunoprecipitations showed ErbB4 associated separately with PSEN-1 and with YAP. Their association, phosphorylation, and co-localization were induced by NRG. Confocal immunofluorescence and nuclear fractionation confirmed these associations in a time-dependent manner after NRG stimulation. Primary ErbB4-deleted E17 type II cells were transfected with a mutant ErbB4 lacking the ?-secretase binding site. When compared to transfection with wild-type ErbB4, the stimulatory effect of NRG on surfactant protein mRNA expression was lost. We conclude that PSEN-1 and YAP have crucial roles in ErbB4 signal transduction during type II cell maturation.
Project description:The receptor tyrosine kinase ERBB4, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, is unusual in that ERBB4 can undergo intramembrane proteolysis, releasing a soluble intracellular domain (ICD) that modulates transcription in the nucleus. We found that ERBB4 activated the transcriptional coactivator YAP, which promotes organ and tissue growth and is inhibited by the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. Overexpressing ERBB4 in cultured mammary epithelial cells or adding the ERBB4 ligand neuregulin 1 (NRG1) to breast cancer cell cultures promoted the expression of genes regulated by YAP, such as CTGF. Knocking down YAP or ERBB4 prevented the induction of CTGF expression by NRG1, as did treating cells with the ERBB inhibitors lapatinib or erlotinib, which reduced ERBB4 cleavage. NRG1 stimulated YAP activity to an extent comparable to that of EGF (epidermal growth factor) or LPA (lysophosphatidic acid), known activators of YAP. NRG1 stimulated YAP-dependent cell migration in breast cancer cell lines. These observations connect the unusual nuclear function of a growth factor receptor with a mechanosensory pathway and suggest that NRG1-ERBB4-YAP signaling contributes to the aggressive behavior of tumor cells.
Project description:Some epidemiological studies suggest an inverse correlation between cancer incidence and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we demonstrated experimental evidences for this inverse relationship. In the co-expression network analysis using the microarray data and GEO profile of gene expression omnibus data analysis, we showed that the expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a tumor promoting protein was significantly increased in human squamous lung cancer, but decreased in mutant presenilin 2 (PS2) containing AD patient. We also found in animal model that mutant PS2 transgenic mice displayed a reduced incidence of spontaneous and carcinogen-induced lung tumor development compared to wildtype transgenic mice. Agreed with network and GEO profile study, we also revealed that significantly reduced expression of PRDX6 and activity of iPLA2 in these animal models. PS2 mutations increased their interaction with PRDX6, thereby increasing iPLA2 cleavage via increased ?-secretase leading to loss of PRDX6 activity. However, knockdown or inhibition of ?-secretase abolished the inhibitory effect of mutant PSs. Moreover, PS2 mutant skin fibroblasts derived from patients with AD showed diminished iPLA2 activity by the elevated ?-secretase activity. Thus, the present data suggest that PS2 mutations suppress lung tumor development by inhibiting the iPLA2 activity of PRDX6 via a ?-secretase cleavage mechanism and may explain the inverse relationship between cancer and AD incidence.
Project description:Despite numerous recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying receptor tyrosine kinase down-regulation and degradation in response to growth factor binding, relatively little is known about ligand-independent receptor tyrosine kinase degradation mechanisms. In a screen for proteins that might regulate the trafficking or localization of the ErbB3 receptor, we have identified a tripartite or RBCC (RING, B-box, coiled-coil) protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic tail of the receptor in an activation-independent manner. We have named this protein Nrdp1 for neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1. Northern blotting reveals ubiquitous distribution of Nrdp1 in human adult tissues, but message is particularly prominent in heart, brain, and skeletal muscle. Nrdp1 interacts specifically with the neuregulin receptors ErbB3 and ErbB4 and not with epidermal growth factor receptor or ErbB2. When coexpressed in COS7 cells, Nrdp1 mediates the redistribution of ErbB3 from the cell surface to intracellular compartments and induces the suppression of ErbB3 and ErbB4 receptor levels but not epidermal growth factor receptor or ErbB2 levels. A putative dominant-negative form of Nrdp1 potentiates neuregulin-stimulated Erk1/2 activity in transfected MCF7 breast tumor cells. Our observations suggest that Nrdp1 may act to regulate steady-state cell surface neuregulin receptor levels, thereby influencing the efficiency of neuregulin signaling.