Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors as promising cancer therapeutics.
ABSTRACT: The year of 2005 was a watershed in the history of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors due to the important findings of selective killing in BRCA-deficient cancers by PARP inhibition. The findings made PARP inhibition one of the most promising new therapeutic approaches to cancers, especially to those with specific defects. With AZD2281 and BSI-201 entering phase III clinical trials, the final application of PARP inhibitors in clinic would come true soon. This current paper will review the major advances in targeting PARP for cancer therapy and discuss the existing questions, the answers to which may influence the future of PARP inhibitors as cancer therapeutics.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are involved in many aspects of the cellular response to various forms of damage. PARP-1 and PARP-2, the most abundant PARPs, are central to the response to specific types of DNA damage, especially single-strand breaks. Inhibition of PARP activity may sensitize the cell to exogenous agents such as chemotherapy and radiation. In circumstances where rescue pathways are deficient, particularly the homologous recombination (HR)-directed DNA repair pathway, inhibition of PARP may result in "synthetic lethality." BRCA mutation-associated breast cancers are a paradigm of HR-directed repair deficient tumors. Early clinical trials have demonstrated significant activity of single-agent PARP inhibitors in BRCA-deficient breast and ovarian cancer. Because of phenotypic similarities between some "triple-negative" breast cancers (TNBC) and the most prevalent type of breast cancer seen in BRCA1 mutation carriers, some have hypothesized that TNBC might also be specifically sensitive to PARP inhibition. The activity of single-agent PARP inhibitors in TNBC has not been reported. One trial did suggest significant enhancement of the activity of platinum-based combination chemotherapy, without incremental toxicity. These studies indicate that PARP inhibition is an exciting new approach to the treatment of breast cancers in women with underlying BRCA mutations and possibly in sporadic cancers with defects in HR-directed repair. Future studies will be necessary to determine whether the effectiveness of PARP inhibitors in nonhereditary cancer requires an underlying HR defect or whether these agents may improve the activity of conventional chemotherapy by other means. In addition, studies will be required to determine whether PARP inhibitors may induce synthetic lethality in tumors with defects in pathways other than the BRCA-dependent DNA repair pathway. If either or both of these prove to be the case, then PARP inhibition may benefit a wide spectrum of cancer patients.
Project description:Despite standard treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), that involves cytoreductive surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy, and initial high response rates to these, up to 80 % of patients experience relapses with a median progression-free survival of 12-18 months. There remains an urgent need for novel targeted therapies to improve clinical outcomes in ovarian cancer. Of the many targeted therapies currently under evaluation, the most promising strategies developed thus far are antiangiogenic agents and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Particularly, PARP inhibitors are active in cells that have impaired repair of DNA by the homologous recombination (HR) pathway. Cells with mutated breast related cancer antigens (BRCA) function have HR deficiency, which is also present in a significant proportion of non-BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer ("BRCAness" ovarian cancer). The prevalence of germline BRCA mutations in EOC has historically been estimated to be around 10-15 %. However, recent reports suggest that this may be a gross underestimate, especially in women with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). The emergence of the DNA repair pathway as a rational target in various cancers led to the development of the PARP inhibitors. The concept of tumor-selective synthetic lethality heralded the beginning of an eventful decade, culminating in the approval by regulatory authorities both in Europe as a maintenance therapy and in the United States treatment for advanced recurrent disease of the first oral PARP inhibitor, olaparib, for the treatment of BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer patients. Other PARP inhibitors are clearly effective in this disease and, within the next years, the results of ongoing randomized trials will clarify their respective roles.This review will discuss the different PARP inhibitors in development and the potential use of this class of agents in the future. Moreover, combination strategies involving PARP inhibitors are likely to receive increasing attention. The utility of PARP inhibitors combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy is of doubtful value, because of enhanced toxicity of this combination; while, more promising strategies include the combination with antiangiogenic agents, or with inhibitors of the P13K/AKT pathway and new generation of immunotherapy.
Project description:Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) have demonstrated efficacy in women with BRCA-mutant ovarian cancer. However, only 15%-20% of ovarian cancers harbor BRCA mutations, therefore additional therapies are required. Here, we show that a subset of ovarian cancer cell lines and ex vivo models derived from patient biopsies are sensitive to a poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) inhibitor. Sensitivity is due to underlying DNA replication vulnerabilities that cause persistent fork stalling and replication catastrophe. PARG inhibition is synthetic lethal with inhibition of DNA replication factors, allowing additional models to be sensitized by CHK1 inhibitors. Because PARG and PARP inhibitor sensitivity are mutually exclusive, our observations demonstrate that PARG inhibitors have therapeutic potential to complement PARP inhibitor strategies in the treatment of ovarian cancer.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have proven to be successful agents in inducing synthetic lethality in several malignancies. Several PARP inhibitors have reached clinical trial testing for treatment in different cancers, and, recently, Olaparib (AZD2281) has gained both United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and the European Commission (EC) approval for use in BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancer treatment. The need to identify biomarkers, their interactions in DNA damage repair pathways, and their potential utility in identifying patients who are candidates for PARP inhibitor treatment is well recognized. In this review, we detail many of the biomarkers that have been investigated for their ability to predict both PARP inhibitor sensitivity and resistance in preclinical studies as well as the results of several clinical trials that have tested the safety and efficacy of different PARP inhibitor agents in BRCA and non-BRCA-mutated cancers.
Project description:Poly-(ADP-Ribose)-Polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are becoming important actors of anti-neoplasic agents landscape, with recent but narrow FDA's approvals for ovarian BRCA mutated cancers and prostatic cancer. Nevertheless, PARP inhibitors are also promising drugs for combined treatments particularly with radiotherapy. More than seven PARP inhibitors have been currently developed. Central Role of PARP in DNA repair, makes consider PARP inhibitor as potential radiosensitizers, especially for tumors with DNA repair defects, such as BRCA mutation, because of synthetic lethality. Furthermore the replication-dependent activity of PARP inhibitor helps to maintain the differential effect between tumoral and healthy tissues. Inhibition of chromatin remodeling, G2/M arrest, vasodilatory effect induced by PARP inhibitor, also participate to their radio-sensitization effect.Here, after highlighting mechanisms of PARP inhibitors radiosensitization we methodically searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Databases and meeting proceedings for human pre-clinical and clinical studies that evaluated PARP inhibitor radiosensitizing effect. Enhancement ratio, when available, was systematically reported.Sixty four studies finally met our selection criteria and were included in the analysis. Only three pre-clinical studies didn't find any radiosensitizing effect. Median enhancement ratio vary from 1,3 for prostate tumors to 1,5 for lung cancers. Nine phase I or II trials assessed safety data.PARP inhibitors are promising radiosensitizers, but need more clinical investigation. The next ten years will be determining for judging their real potential.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition is toxic to cells with mutations in the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 or BRCA2, a concept termed synthetic lethality. However, whether this approach is applicable to other human cancers with defects in other DNA repair genes has yet to be determined. The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene is altered in several human cancers including mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Here, we characterize a panel of MCL cell lines for ATM status and function and investigate the potential for synthetic lethality in MCL in the presence of small-molecule inhibitors of PARP-1. We show that Granta-519 and UPN2 cells have low levels of ATM protein, are defective in DNA damage-induced ATM-dependent signaling, are radiation sensitive, and have cell cycle checkpoint defects: all characteristics of defective ATM function. Significantly, Granta-519 and UPN2 cells were more sensitive to PARP-1 inhibition than were the ATM-proficient MCL cell lines examined. Furthermore, the PARP-1 inhibitor olaparib (known previously as AZD2281/KU-0059436) significantly decreased tumor growth and increased overall survival in mice bearing s.c. xenografts of ATM-deficient Granta-519 cells while producing only a modest effect on overall survival of mice bearing xenografts of the ATM-proficient cell line, Z138. Thus, PARP inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the treatment of MCL, and the concept of synthetic lethality extends to human cancers with ATM alterations.
Project description:Poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, first evaluated nearly a decade ago, are primarily used in malignancies with known defects in DNA repair genes, such as alterations in breast cancer, early onset 1/2 (BRCA1/2). While no specific mutations in BRCA1/2 have been reported in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), MPNST cells could be effectively targeted with a PARP inhibitor to drive cells to synthetic lethality due to their complex karyotype and high level of inherent genomic instability. In this study, we assessed the expression levels of PARP1 and PARP2 in MPNST patient tumor samples and correlated these findings with overall survival. We also determined the level of PARP activity in MPNST cell lines. In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of the PARP inhibitor AZD2281 (Olaparib) in MPNST cell lines. We observed decreased MPNST cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in vitro at doses similar to, or less than, the doses used in cell lines with established defective DNA repair genes. Furthermore, AZD2281 significantly reduced local growth of MPNST xenografts, decreased the development of macroscopic lung metastases, and increased survival of mice with metastatic disease. Our results suggest that AZD2281 could be an effective therapeutic option in MPNST and should be further investigated for its potential clinical use in this malignancy.
Project description:Genetic complexity and DNA damage repair defects are common in different cancer types and can induce tumor-specific vulnerabilities. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors exploit defects in the DNA repair pathway through synthetic lethality and have emerged as promising anticancer therapies, especially in tumors harboring deleterious germline or somatic breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA) mutations. However, the utility of PARP inhibitors could be expanded beyond germline BRCA1/2 mutated cancers by causing DNA damage with cytotoxic agents in the presence of a DNA repair inhibitor. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved PARP inhibitors include olaparib, rucaparib, and niraparib, while veliparib is in the late stage of clinical development. Talazoparib inhibits PARP catalytic activity, trapping PARP1/2 on damaged DNA, and it has been approved by the US FDA for the treatment of metastatic germline BRCA1/2 mutated breast cancers in October 2018. The talazoparib side effect profile more closely resembles traditional chemotherapeutics rather than other clinically approved PARP inhibitors. In this review, we discuss the scientific evidence that has emerged from both experimental and clinical studies in the development of talazoparib. Future directions will include optimizing combination therapy with chemotherapy, immunotherapies and targeted therapies, and in developing and validating biomarkers for patient selection and stratification, particularly in malignancies with 'BRCAness'.
Project description:BACKGROUND:DNA damage response (DDR) defects imply genomic instability and favor tumor progression but make the cells vulnerable to the pharmacological inhibition of the DNA repairing enzymes. Targeting cellular proteins like PARPs, which cooperate and complement molecular defects of the DDR process, induces a specific lethality in DDR defective cancer cells and represents an anti-cancer strategy. Normal cells can tolerate the DNA damage generated by PARP inhibition because of an efficient homologous recombination mechanism (HR); in contrast, cancer cells with a deficient HR are unable to manage the DSBs and appear especially sensitive to the PARP inhibitors (PARPi) effects. MAIN BODY:In this review we discuss the proof of concept for the use of PARPi in different cancer types and the success and failure of their inclusion in clinical trials. The PARP inhibitor Olaparib [AZD2281] has been approved by the FDA for use in pretreated ovarian cancer patients with defective BRCA1/2 genes, and by the EMEA for maintenance therapy in platinum sensitive ovarian cancer patients with defective BRCA1/2 genes. BRCA mutations are now recognised as the molecular targets for PARPi sensitivity in several tumors. However, it is noteworthy that the use of PARPi has shown its efficacy also in non-BRCA related tumors. Several trials are ongoing to test different PARPi in different cancer types. Here we review the concept of BRCAness and the functional loss of proteins involved in DDR/HR mechanisms in cancer, including additional molecules that can influence the cancer cells sensitivity to PARPi. Given the complexity of the existing crosstalk between different DNA repair pathways, it is likely that a single biomarker may not be sufficient to predict the benefit of PARP inhibitors therapies. Novel general assays able to predict the DDR/HR proficiency in cancer cells and the PARPi sensitivity represent a challenge for a personalized therapy. CONCLUSIONS:PARP inhibition is a potentially important strategy for managing a significant subset of tumors. The discovery of both germline and somatic DNA repair deficiencies in different cancer patients, together with the development of new PARP inhibitors that can kill selectively cancer cells is a potent example of targeting therapy to molecularly defined tumor subtypes.
Project description:Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are a class of small-molecule drugs suppressing PARP enzymes activity, inducing the death of cells deficient in homologous recombination repair (HRR). HRR deficiency is common in tumor cells with BRCA gene mutation. Since their first clinical trial in 2003, PARP inhibitors have shown benefit in the treatment of HRR-deficient tumors. Recently, several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have been conducted to investigate the potential benefit of administration of PARP inhibitors in cancer patients. However, the results remain controversial. To evaluate the efficiency and safety of PARP inhibitors in patients with cancer, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of RCTs. According to our study, PARP inhibitors could clearly improve progression-free survival (PFS), especially in patients with BRCA mutation. However, our study showed no significant difference in overall survival (OS) between the PARP inhibitors and controls, even in the BRCA mutation group. Little toxicity was reported in the rate of treatment correlated adverse events (AEs) in PARP inhibitor group compared with controls. In conclusion, PARP inhibitors do well in improving PFS with little toxicity, especially in patients with BRCA deficiency.