Response of mesenchymal stem cells to shear stress in tissue-engineered vascular grafts.
ABSTRACT: AIM: Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into endothelial cells. The effect of shear stress on MSC differentiation is incompletely understood, and most studies have been based on two-dimensional systems. We used a model of tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) to investigate the effects of shear stress on MSC differentiation. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from canine bone marrow. The TEVG was constructed by seeding MSCs onto poly-epsilon-caprolactone and lactic acid (PCLA) scaffolds and subjecting them to shear stress provided by a pulsatile bioreactor for four days (two days at 1 dyne/cm(2) to 15 dyne/cm(2) and two days at 15 dyne/cm(2)). RESULTS: Shear stress significantly increased the expression of endothelial cell markers, such as platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), VE-cadherin, and CD34, at both the mRNA and protein levels as compared with static control cells. Protein levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and calponin were substantially reduced in shear stress-cultured cells. There was no significant change in the expression of alpha-SMA, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) or calponin at the mRNA level. CONCLUSION: Shear stress upregulated the expression of endothelial cell-related markers and downregulated smooth muscle-related markers in canine MSCs. This study may serve as a basis for further investigation of the effects of shear stress on MSC differentiation in TEVGs.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:One of the rate-limiting barriers within the field of vascular tissue engineering is the lengthy fabrication time associated with expanding appropriate cell types in culture. One particularly attractive cell type for this purpose is the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (AD-MSC), which is abundant and easily harvested from liposuction procedures. Even this cell type has its drawbacks, however, including the required culture period for expansion, which could pose risks of cellular transformation or contamination. Eliminating culture entirely would be ideal to avoid these concerns. In this study, we used the raw population of cells obtained after digestion of human liposuction aspirates, known as the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), as an abundant, culture-free cell source for tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs). METHODS:SVF cells and donor-paired cultured AD-MSCs were first assessed for their abilities to differentiate into vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) after angiotensin II stimulation and to secrete factors (eg, conditioned media) that promote SMC migration. Next, both cell types were incorporated into TEVG scaffolds, implanted as an aortic graft in a Lewis rat model, and assessed for their patency and composition. RESULTS:In general, the human SVF cells were able to perform the same functions as AD-MSCs isolated from the same donor by culture expansion. Specifically, cells within the SVF performed two important functions; namely, they were able to differentiate into SMCs (SVF calponin expression: 16.4% ± 7.7% vs AD-MSC: 19.9%% ± 1.7%) and could secrete promigratory factors (SVF migration rate relative to control: 3.1 ± 0.3 vs AD-MSC: 2.5 ± 0.5). The SVF cells were also capable of being seeded within biodegradable, elastomeric, porous scaffolds that, when implanted in vivo for 8 weeks, generated patent TEVGs (SVF: 83% patency vs AD-MSC: 100% patency) populated with primary vascular components (eg, SMCs, endothelial cells, collagen, and elastin). CONCLUSIONS:Human adipose tissue can be used as a culture-free cell source to create TEVGs, laying the groundwork for the rapid production of cell-seeded grafts.
Project description:This study describes the effect of zinc on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells under different shear stress regimens, which may trigger atherogenesis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to steady shear stress (15 dynes/cm(2) or 1 dyne/cm(2)) or reversing shear stress (time average 1 dyne/cm(2)) for 24 h. In all shear stress regimes, zinc deficiency enhanced THP-1 cell adhesion, while heparinase III reduced monocyte adhesion following reversing shear stress exposure. Unlike other shear stress regimes, reversing shear stress alone enhanced monocyte adhesion, which may be associated with increased H(2)O(2) and superoxide together with relatively low levels of nitric oxide (NO) production. L-N(G)-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) treatment increased monocyte adhesion under 15 dynes/cm(2) and under reversing shear stress. After reversing shear stress, monocyte adhesion dramatically increased with heparinase III treatment followed by a zinc scavenger. Static culture experiments supported the reduction of monocyte adhesion by zinc following endothelial cell cytokine activation. These results suggest that endothelial cell zinc levels are important for the inhibition of monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and may be one of the key factors in the early stages of atherogenesis.
Project description:Cell surface coating is a methodology wherein specific molecules are transiently anchored onto cell membrane to modulate cell behavior. Cell surface coating was tested as a method to deliver mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to endothelial cells via binding to intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). MSCs coated with palmitated protein G (PPG) followed by antibodies to ICAM-1 (Ab(ICAM-1)), and incubated on ICAM-I coated coverslips showed a 40-fold increase in cell binding over PPG-only controls. Ab(ICAM-1)-coated MSCs incubated with human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), with and without exposure to TNFalpha (to upregulate ICAM-1 expression), showed 2.6-fold increased binding to control HUVECs over PPG-only controls, and a 16-fold increase in binding to TNFalpha-treated HUVECs. Pretreatment of HUVECs with ICAM-1 antibody promoted the attachment of PPG-only MSCs while reducing the attachment of Ab(ICAM-1)-MSCs by approximately 50%. In flow chamber studies on TNFalpha-stimulated HUVECs, PPG-only, and MSC-only lost 80-90% of their initial binding at 4 dyne/cm(2), while Ab(ICAM-1)-MSCs maintained 100% binding at 4 dyne/cm(2) and 40% binding at 25 dyne/cm(2). These results demonstrate that cell surface coating promotes the attachment of MSCs to endothelial cells, and provides a methodology for the delivery of stem cells to sites of inflammation.
Project description:Many preclinical evaluations of autologous small-diameter tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) utilize cells from healthy humans or animals. However, these models hold minimal relevance for clinical translation, as the main targeted demographic is patients at high cardiovascular risk such as individuals with diabetes mellitus or the elderly. Stem cells such as adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) represent a clinically ideal cell type for TEVGs, as these can be easily and plentifully harvested and offer regenerative potential. To understand whether AD-MSCs sourced from diabetic and elderly donors are as effective as those from young nondiabetics (i.e., healthy) in the context of TEVG therapy, we implanted TEVGs constructed with human AD-MSCs from each donor type as an aortic interposition graft in a rat model. The key failure mechanism observed was thrombosis, and this was most prevalent in grafts using cells from diabetic patients. The remainder of the TEVGs was able to generate robust vascular-like tissue consisting of smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, collagen, and elastin. We further investigated a potential mechanism for the thrombotic failure of AD-MSCs from diabetic donors; we found that these cells have a diminished potential to promote fibrinolysis compared to those from healthy donors. Together, this study served as proof of concept for the development of a TEVG based on human AD-MSCs, illustrated the importance of testing cells from realistic patient populations, and highlighted one possible mechanistic explanation as to the observed thrombotic failure of our diabetic AD-MSC-based TEVGs.
Project description:Implantable and extracorporeal cardiovascular devices are commonly made from titanium (Ti) (e.g. Ti-coated Nitinol stents and mechanical circulatory assist devices). Endothelializing the blood-contacting Ti surfaces of these devices would provide them with an antithrombogenic coating that mimics the native lining of blood vessels and the heart. We evaluated the viability and adherence of peripheral blood-derived porcine endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), seeded onto thin Ti layers on glass slides under static conditions and after exposure to fluid shear stresses. EPCs attached and grew to confluence on Ti in serum-free medium, without preadsorption of proteins. After attachment to Ti for 15 min, less than 5% of the cells detached at a shear stress of 100 dyne / cm(2). Confluent monolayers of EPCs on smooth Ti surfaces (Rq of 10 nm), exposed to 15 or 100 dyne/cm(2) for 48 h, aligned and elongated in the direction of flow and produced nitric oxide dependent on the level of shear stress. EPC-coated Ti surfaces had dramatically reduced platelet adhesion when compared to uncoated Ti surfaces. These results indicate that peripheral blood-derived EPCs adhere and function normally on Ti surfaces. Therefore EPCs may be used to seed cardiovascular devices prior to implantation to ameliorate platelet activation and thrombus formation.
Project description:Understanding the role of mechanical forces on cell behavior is critical for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and disease initiation studies. Current hemodynamic bioreactors are largely limited to 2D substrates or the application of general flow conditions at a tissue level, which eliminates the investigation of some essential physiological and pathological responses. One example is the mesenchymal transformation of endothelial cells in response to shear stress. Endothelial to mesenchymal transformation (EndMT) is a valve morphogenic mechanism associated with aortic valve disease initiation. The aortic valve experiences oscillatory shear on the disease-susceptible fibrosa, and the role of hemodynamics on adult EndMT is unknown. The goal of this work was to develop and characterize a microfluidic bioreactor that applies physiologically relevant laminar or oscillatory shear stresses to endothelial cells and permits the quantitative analysis of 3D cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. In this study, porcine aortic valve endothelial cells were seeded onto 3D collagen I gels and exposed to different magnitudes of steady or oscillatory shear stress for 48?h. Cells elongated and aligned perpendicular to laminar, but not oscillatory shear. Low steady shear stress (2?dyne/cm(2) ) and oscillatory shear stress upregulated EndMT (ACTA2, Snail, TGFB1) and inflammation (ICAM1, NFKB1) related gene expression, EndMT-related (?SMA) protein expression, and matrix invasion when compared with static controls or cells exposed to high steady shear (10 and 20?dyne/cm(2) ). Our system enables direct testing of the role of shear stress on endothelial cell mesenchymal transformation in a dynamic, 3D environment and shows that hemodynamics regulate EndMT in adult valve endothelial cells.
Project description:Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) regulate homeostasis and trafficking of cells of the blood lineage. In response to traumatic injury or infection, MSCs are believed to mobilize from the bone marrow, but it is largely unknown how egress into circulation impacts MSC function. Here we show that biomechanical forces associated with trafficking of MSCs from the bone marrow into the vasculature contribute uniquely to genetic signaling that reinforces MSC repression of immune cell activation. Laminar wall shear stress (LSS) typical of fluid frictional forces present on the lumen of arterioles stimulates increases in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mediators, as well as an array of chemokines capable of immune cell recruitment. Importantly, LSS promotes a signaling cascade through COX2 that elevates prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) biosynthesis, permitting MSCs to suppress immune cell activation in the presence of inflammatory cues. Pharmacological inhibition of COX2 depleted PGE2 and impaired the ability of MSCs to block tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production, supporting a key role for PGE2 in the MSC immunomodulatory response to LSS. Preconditioning of MSCs by LSS ex vivo was an effective means of enhancing therapeutic efficacy in a rat model of traumatic brain injury, as evidenced by decreased numbers of apoptotic and M1-type activated microglia in the hippocampus and by retention of endogenous MSCs in the bone marrow. We conclude that biomechanical forces provide critical cues to MSCs residing at the vascular interface which influence MSC immunomodulatory and paracrine functions, thus providing unique opportunities for functional enhancement of MSCs used in therapeutic applications. Overall design: We hypothesized that fluid shear stress caused by vascular flow might alter mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) signaling and function. To mimic arterial force at the vascular wall, we cultured human bone marrow-derived MSCs in microfluidics capable of producing uniform laminar flow at a wall shear stress (LSS) of 15 dyne/cm^2. Bone marrow MSCs were derived from whole bone marrow from independent human donors (AllCells). Cells were passaged into microfluidic IBIDI channels (μ-Slide VI 0.4) at a density of 3x10^6 cells/ml and permitted to attach to the culture surface for 18 hours. Following attachment, a peristaltic pump (REGLO analog MS4/12, Ismatec) was used to produce LSS of 15 dyne/cm2 for 6 hours. Lysis for RNA isolation was conducted immediately after LSS within the microfluidics.
Project description:We hypothesized that shear stress stimulates the release of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) from arteriolar endothelium, which directly hyperpolarize smooth muscle. To test this hypothesis, a perfusion system, consisting of two separate, serially connected chambers (A and B), was used. A donor vessel, isolated from gracilis muscle of female NO-deficient mice and rats, was cannulated in chamber A. In chamber B, an endothelium-denuded detector vessel isolated from mesentery of these animals was cannulated. In the presence of indomethacin, 5, 10, and 20 dyne/cm2 shear stress elicited dilation of donor vessels, followed by dilation of detector vessels. Changes in membrane potential of the detector vessel smooth muscle cells in response to the perfusate from 5 and 10 dyne/cm2 shear stress-stimulated donor vessels was also recorded (by approximately -12 to -15 and -20 to -30 mV, respectively). Exposing detector vessels to 30 mmol/L KCl or pretreating them with iberiotoxin abolished their hyperpolarization and dilation to the flow of perfusate. Pretreatment of donor vessels with PPOH, an inhibitor of cytochrome P-450/epoxygenase, eliminated dilator responses in both donor and detector vessels, as well as the hyperpolarization of detector vessels. GC-MS analysis showed increasing release of EETs into the perfusate collected from 1, 5, and 10 dyne/cm2 shear stress-stimulated arterioles, which was abolished by PPOH. Thus, EETs, released from endothelial cells of donor vessels stimulated with shear stress, hyperpolarize smooth muscle of downstream detector vessels, confirming their identity as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors and suggesting that gap junctional communication may not be necessary for shear stress-stimulated EDHF-mediated vasodilation.
Project description:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by multiple rapid and irregular atrial depolarization, leading to rapid ventricular responses exceeding 100 beats per minute (bpm). We hypothesized that rapid and irregular pacing reduced intravascular shear stress (ISS) with implication to modulating endothelial responses. To simulate AF, we paced the left atrial appendage of New Zealand White rabbits (n = 4) at rapid and irregular intervals. Surface electrical cardiograms were recorded for atrial and ventricular rhythm, and intravascular convective heat transfer was measured by microthermal sensors, from which ISS was inferred. Rapid and irregular pacing decreased arterial systolic and diastolic pressures (baseline, 99/75 mmHg; rapid regular pacing, 92/73; rapid irregular pacing, 90/68; p < 0.001, n = 4), temporal gradients ([Formula: see text] from 1,275 ± 80 to 1,056 ± 180 dyne/cm(2) s), and reduced ISS (from baseline at 32.0 ± 2.4 to 22.7 ± 3.5 dyne/cm(2)). Computational fluid dynamics code demonstrated that experimentally inferred ISS provided a close approximation to the computed wall shear stress at a given catheter to vessel diameter ratio, shear stress range, and catheter position. In an in vitro flow system in which time-averaged shear stress was maintained at [Formula: see text] , we further demonstrated that rapid pulse rates at 150 bpm down-regulated endothelial nitric oxide, promoted superoxide (O 2 (.-) ) production, and increased monocyte binding to endothelial cells. These findings suggest that rapid pacing reduces ISS and [Formula: see text] , and rapid pulse rates modulate endothelial responses.
Project description:Mechanical loading plays an important role in the regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis as well as pathogenesis of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. The human annulus fibrosus (hAF) in the IVD is subjected to contact shear stress during body motion. However, the effects of shear stress on hAF cells remain unclear. This aim of the study was to investigate the expression of the ECM (COLI, COLIII and aggrecan) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, MMP-3 and ADAMTS-4) genes in hAF cells following fluid-induced shear stress in a custom-fabricated bio-microfluidic device.hAF cells were harvested from degenerated disc tissues in routine spine surgery, staged by magnetic resonance imaging, expanded in monolayers and then seeded onto the bio-microfluidic device. The experimental groups were subjected to 1 and 10 dyne/cm(2) shear stress for 4 h, and no shear stress was applied to the control group. We used real time polymerase chain reaction for gene expression.Shear stress of 1 dyne/cm(2) exerted an anabolic effect on COLI and COLIII genes and catabolic effects on the aggrecan gene, while 10 dyne/cm(2) had an anabolic effect on the COLI gene and a catabolic effect on COLIII and aggrecan genes. The COLI gene was upregulated in a stress-dependent manner. Expression of MMP-1 was significantly higher in the 10 dyne/cm(2) group compared to the control group (P < 0.05), but was similar in the control and 1 dyne/cm(2) groups. Expression of MMP-3 and ADAMTS-4 were similar in all three groups.Taken together, hAF cells responded to shear stress. The findings help us understand and clarify the effects of shear stress on IVD degeneration as well as the development of a new therapeutic strategy for IVD degeneration.