BRD7, a tumor suppressor, interacts with p85? and regulates PI3K activity.
ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity is important for regulating cell growth, survival, and motility. We report here the identification of bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) as a p85?-interacting protein that negatively regulates PI3K signaling. BRD7 binds to the inter-SH2 (iSH2) domain of p85 through an evolutionarily conserved region located at the C terminus of BRD7. Via this interaction, BRD7 facilitates nuclear translocation of p85?. The BRD7-dependent depletion of p85 from the cytosol impairs formation of p85/p110 complexes in the cytosol, leading to a decrease in p110 proteins and in PI3K pathway signaling. In contrast, silencing of endogenous BRD7 expression by RNAi increases the steady-state level of p110 proteins and enhances Akt phosphorylation after stimulation. These data suggest that BRD7 and p110 compete for the interaction to p85. The unbound p110 protein is unstable, leading to the attenuation of PI3K activity, which suggests how BRD7 could function as a tumor suppressor.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) proteins actively trigger signaling pathways leading to cell growth, proliferation and survival. These proteins have multiple isoforms and consist of a catalytic p110 subunit and a regulatory p85 subunit. The iSH2 domain of the p85? isoform has been implicated in the binding of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A viruses. Here, the crystal structure of human p85? iSH2 determined to 3.3?Å resolution is reported. The structure reveals that this domain mainly consists of a coiled-coil motif. Comparison with the published structure of the bovine p85? iSH2 domain bound to the influenza A virus nonstructural protein 1 indicates that little or no structural change occurs upon complex formation. By comparing this human p85? iSH2 structure with the bovine p85? iSH2 domain, which shares 99% sequence identity, and by comparing the multiple conformations observed within the asymmetric unit of the bovine iSH2 structure, it was found that this coiled-coil domain exhibits a certain degree of conformational variability or `plasticity' in the interhelical turn region. It is speculated that this plasticity of p85? iSH2 may play a role in regulating its functional and molecular-recognition properties.
Project description:Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are essential for cell growth, migration, and survival. The structure of a p110?/p85? complex identifies an inhibitory function for the C-terminal SH2 domain (cSH2) of the p85 regulatory subunit. Mutagenesis of a cSH2 contact residue activates downstream signaling in cells. This inhibitory contact ties up the C-terminal region of the p110? catalytic subunit, which is essential for lipid kinase activity. In vitro, p110? basal activity is tightly restrained by contacts with three p85 domains: the cSH2, nSH2, and iSH2. RTK phosphopeptides relieve inhibition by nSH2 and cSH2 using completely different mechanisms. The binding site for the RTK's pYXXM motif is exposed on the cSH2, requiring an extended RTK motif to reach and disrupt the inhibitory contact with p110?. This contrasts with the nSH2 where the pY-binding site itself forms the inhibitory contact. This establishes an unusual mechanism by which p85 SH2 domains contribute to RTK signaling specificities.
Project description:We previously proposed a model of Class IA PI3K regulation in which p85 inhibition of p110alpha requires (i) an inhibitory contact between the p85 nSH2 domain and the p110alpha helical domain, and (ii) a contact between the p85 nSH2 and iSH2 domains that orients the nSH2 so as to inhibit p110alpha. We proposed that oncogenic truncations of p85 fail to inhibit p110 due to a loss of the iSH2-nSH2 contact. However, we now find that within the context of a minimal regulatory fragment of p85 (the nSH2-iSH2 fragment, termed p85ni), the nSH2 domain rotates much more freely (tau(c) approximately 12.7 ns) than it could if it were interacting rigidly with the iSH2 domain. These data are not compatible with our previous model. We therefore tested an alternative model in which oncogenic p85 truncations destabilize an interface between the p110alpha C2 domain (residue N345) and the p85 iSH2 domain (residues D560 and N564). p85ni-D560K/N564K shows reduced inhibition of p110alpha, similar to the truncated p85ni-572(STOP). Conversely, wild-type p85ni poorly inhibits p110alphaN345K. Strikingly, the p110alphaN345K mutant is inhibited to the same extent by the wild-type or truncated p85ni, suggesting that mutation of p110alpha-N345 is not additive with the p85ni-572(STOP) mutation. Similarly, the D560K/N564K mutation is not additive with the p85ni-572(STOP) mutant for downstream signaling or cellular transformation. Thus, our data suggests that mutations at the C2-iSH2 domain contact and truncations of the iSH2 domain, which are found in human tumors, both act by disrupting the C2-iSH2 domain interface.
Project description:Regulation of the class IA PI 3-kinase involves inhibition and stabilization of the catalytic subunit (p110) by the regulatory subunit (p85). Regulation is achieved by two major contacts: a stable interface involving the adapter-binding domain (ABD) of p110 and the inter-SH2 (iSH2) domain of p85 and a regulatory interaction between the N-terminal SH2 (nSH2) domain of p85 and the helical domain of p110. In the present study, we have examined the relative orientation of the nSH2 and iSH2 of p85alpha using site-directed spin labeling and pulsed EPR. Surprisingly, both distance measurements and distance distributions suggest that the nSH2 domain is highly disordered relative to the iSH2 domain. Molecular modeling based on EPR distance restraints suggests that the nSH2 domain moves in a hinge-like manner, sampling a torus space around the proximal end of the iSH2 domain. These data have important implications for the mechanism by which p85/p110 dimers are regulated by phosphopeptides.
Project description:Cancer-specific mutations in the iSH2 (inter-SH2) and nSH2 (N-terminal SH2) domains of p85alpha, the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), show gain of function. They induce oncogenic cellular transformation, stimulate cellular proliferation, and enhance PI3K signaling. Quantitative determinations of oncogenic activity reveal large differences between individual mutants of p85alpha. The mutant proteins are still able to bind to the catalytic subunits p110alpha and p110beta. Studies with isoform-specific inhibitors of p110 suggest that expression of p85 mutants in fibroblasts leads exclusively to an activation of p110alpha, and p110alpha is the sole mediator of p85 mutant-induced oncogenic transformation. The characteristics of the p85 mutants are in agreement with the hypothesis that the mutations weaken an inhibitory interaction between p85alpha and p110alpha while preserving the stabilizing interaction between p85alpha iSH2 and the adapter-binding domain of p110alpha.
Project description:Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is an important therapeutic target. Mutations in PIK3CA, which encodes p110?, the catalytic subunit of PI3K, occur in endometrioid endometrial cancers (EEC) and nonendometrioid endometrial cancers (NEEC). The goal of this study was to determine whether PIK3R1, which encodes p85?, the inhibitory subunit of PI3K, is mutated in endometrial carcinoma. We carried out exonic sequencing of PIK3R1 from 42 EECs and 66 NEECs. The pattern of PIK3R1 mutations was compared with the patterns of PIK3CA, PTEN, and KRAS mutations. The biochemical effect of seven PIK3R1 mutations was examined by stable expression in U2OS cells, followed by coimmunoprecipitation analysis of p110?, and Western blotting of phospho-AKT(Ser473) (p-AKT(Ser473)). We found that PIK3R1 was somatically mutated in 43% of EECs and 12% of NEECs. The majority of mutations (93.3%) were localized to the p85?-nSH2 and -iSH2 domains. Several mutations were recurrent. PIK3R1 mutations were significantly (P = 0.0015) more frequent in PIK3CA-wild type EECs (70%) than in PIK3CA mutant EECs (18%). Introduction of wild-type p85? into U2OS cells reduced the level of p-AKT(Ser473) compared with the vector control. Five p85? mutants, p85?delH450-E451, p85?delK459, p85?delY463-L466, p85?delR574-T576, and the p85?N564D positive control, were shown to bind p110? and led to increased levels of p-AKT(Ser473). The p85?R348X and p85?K511VfsX2 mutants did not bind p110? and showed no appreciable change in p-AKT(Ser473) levels. In conclusion, our study has revealed a new mode of PI3K alteration in primary endometrial tumors and warrants future studies to determine whether PIK3R1 mutations correlate with clinical outcome to targeted therapies directed against the PI3K pathway in EEC and NEEC.
Project description:In higher eukaryotes, cell proliferation is regulated by class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), which transduces stimuli received from neighboring receptors by local generation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 in cellular membranes. PI3K is a heterodimeric protein consisting of a regulatory and a catalytic subunit (p85 and p110 respectively). Heterologous expression of p110? in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to toxicity by conversion of essential PtdIns(4,5)P2 into futile PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, providing a humanized yeast model for functional studies on this pathway. Here, we report expression and functional characterization in yeast of all regulatory and catalytic human PI3K isoforms, and exploitation of the most suitable setting to functionally assay panels of tumor- and germ line-associated PI3K mutations, with indications to the limits of the system. The activity of p110? in yeast was not compromised by truncation of its N-terminal adaptor-binding domain (ABD) or inactivation of the Ras-binding domain (RBD). In contrast, a cluster of positively charged residues at the C2 domain was essential. Expression of a membrane-driven p65? oncogenic-truncated version of p85?, but not the full-length protein, led to enhanced activity of ?, ?, and ? p110 isoforms. Mutations impairing the inhibitory regulation exerted by the p85? iSH2 domain on the C2 domain of p110? yielded the latter non-responsive to negative regulation, thus reproducing this oncogenic mechanism in yeast. However, p85? germ line mutations associated with short stature, hyperextensibility of joints and/or inguinal hernia, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and teething delay (SHORT) syndrome did not increase PI3K activity in this model, supporting the idea that SHORT syndrome-associated p85? mutations operate through mechanisms different from the canonical disruption of inhibitory p85-p110 interactions typical of cancer.
Project description:Class I PI3-kinases signal downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors and have been implicated in tumorigenesis. Although the oncogenic potential of the PI3-kinase subunit p110? requires its mutational activation, other p110 isoforms can induce transformation when overexpressed in the wild-type state. In wild-type p110?, N345 in the C2 domain forms hydrogen bonds with D560 and N564 in the inter-SH2 (iSH2) domain of p85, and mutations of p110? or p85 that disrupt this interface lead to increased basal activity and transformation. Sequence analysis reveals that N345 in p110? aligns with K342 in p110?. This difference makes wild-type p110? analogous to a previously described oncogenic mutant, p110?-N345K. We now show that p110? is inhibited by p85 to a lesser extent than p110? and is not differentially inhibited by wild-type p85 versus p85 mutants that disrupt the C2-iSH2 domain interface. Similar results were seen in soft agar and focus-formation assays, where p110? was similar to p110?-N345K in transforming potential. Inhibition of p110? by p85 was enhanced by a K342N mutation in p110?, which led to decreased activity in vitro, decreased basal Akt and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1) activation, and decreased transformation in NIH 3T3 cells. Moreover, unlike wild-type p110?, p110?-K342N was differentially regulated by wild-type and mutant p85, suggesting that the inhibitory C2-iSH2 interface is functional in this mutant. This study shows that the enhanced transforming potential of p110? is the result of its decreased inhibition by p85, due to the disruption of an inhibitory C2-iSH2 domain interface.
Project description:Calmodulin (CaM) is a calcium sensor protein that directly interacts with the dual-specificity (lipid and protein) kinase PI3K? through the SH2 domains of the p85 regulatory subunit. In adenocarcinomas, the CaM interaction removes the autoinhibition of the p110 catalytic subunit of PI3K?, leading to activation of PI3K? and promoting cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Here we demonstrate that the cSH2 domain of p85? engages its two CaM-binding motifs in the interaction with the N- and C-lobes of CaM as well as the flexible central linker, and our nuclear magnetic resonance experiments provide structural details. We show that in response to binding CaM, cSH2 exposes its tryptophan residue at the N-terminal region to the solvent. Because of the flexible nature of both CaM and cSH2, multiple binding modes of the interactions are possible. Binding of CaM to the cSH2 domain can help release the inhibition imposed on the p110 subunit, similar to the binding of the phosphorylated motif of RTK, or phosphorylated CaM (pCaM), to the SH2 domains. Amino acid sequence analysis shows that CaM-binding motifs are common in SH2 domains of non-RTKs. We speculate that CaM can also activate these kinases through similar mechanisms.
Project description:Our understanding of isoform-specific activities of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is still rudimentary, and yet, deep knowledge of these non-redundant functions in the PI3K family is essential for effective and safe control of PI3K in disease. The two major isoforms of the regulatory subunits of PI3K are p85? and p85?, encoded by the genes PIK3R1 and PIK3R2, respectively. These isoforms show distinct functional differences that affect and control cellular PI3K activity and signaling [1-4]. In this study, we have further explored the differences between p85? and p85? by genetic truncations and substitutions. We have discovered unexpected activities of the mutant proteins that reflect regulatory functions of distinct p85 domains. These results can be summarized as follows: Deletion of the SH3 domain increases oncogenic and PI3K signaling activity. Deletion of the combined SH3-RhoGAP domains abolishes these activities. In p85?, deletion of the cSH2 domain reduces oncogenic and signaling activities. In p85?, such a deletion has an activating effect. The deletions of the combined cSH2 and iSH2 domains and also the deletion of the cSH2, iSH2 and nSH2 domains yield results that go in the same direction, generally activating in p85? and reducing activity in p85?. The contrasting functions of the cSH2 domains are verified by domain exchanges with the cSH2 domain of p85? exerting an activating effect and the cSH2 domain of p85? an inactivating effect, even in the heterologous isoform. In the cell systems studied, protein stability was not correlated with oncogenic and signaling activity. These observations significantly expand our knowledge of the isoform-specific activities of p85? and p85? and of the functional significance of specific domains for regulating the catalytic subunits of class IA PI3K.