Drug-resistant and hospital-associated Enterococcus faecium from wastewater, riverine estuary and anthropogenically impacted marine catchment basin.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Enterococci, ubiquitous colonizers of humans and other animals, play an increasingly important role in health-care associated infections (HAIs). It is believed that the recent evolution of two clinically relevant species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium occurred in a big part in a hospital environment, leading to formation of high-risk enterococcal clonal complexes (HiRECCs), which combine multidrug resistance with increased pathogenicity and epidemicity. The aim of this study was to establish the species composition in wastewater, its marine recipient as well as a river estuary and to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of collected isolates. Molecular methods were additionally applied to test the presence of HiRRECC-related E. faecium. RESULTS: Two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), their marine outfalls and Vistula river that influence significantly the quality of waters in Gulf of Gdansk were sampled to investigate the presence of Enterococcus spp. Four-hundred-twenty-eight isolates were obtained, including E. faecium (244 isolates, 57.0%), E. hirae (113 isolates, 26.4%) and E. faecalis (63 isolates, 14.7%); other species (E. gallinarum/casseliflavus, E. durans and E. avium) accounted for 1.9%. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed the presence of isolates resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline, amipicillin, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides (high-level resistance), especially among E. faecium, where such isolates were usually characterized by multilocus sequence types associated with nosocomial lineages 17, 18 and 78 of this species representing HiRECC, formerly called CC17. These isolates not only carried several resistance determinants but were also enriched in genes encoding pathogenicity factors (Esp, pili) and genes associated with mobile genetic elements (MGE), a feature also typical for nosocomial HiRECC. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that WWTPs constitute an important source of enterococcal strains carrying antimicrobial resistance determinants, often associated with the presence of MGE, for the recipient water environment, thus increasing a pool of such genes for other organisms. The presence of HiRECCs in wastewaters and marine/river environment may indicate that adaptations gained in hospitals may be also beneficial for survival of such clones in other settings. There is an obvious need to monitor the release and spread of such strains in order to elucidate better ways to curb their dissemination.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered hotspots for the environmental dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) are candidates for gauging the degree of AMR bacteria in wastewater. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are recognized indicators of fecal contamination in water. Comparative genomics of enterococci isolated from conventional activated sludge (CAS) and biological aerated filter (BAF) WWTPs was conducted. RESULTS:VRE isolates, including E. faecalis (n?=?24), E. faecium (n?=?11), E. casseliflavus (n?=?2) and E. gallinarum (n?=?2) were selected for sequencing based on WWTP source, species and AMR phenotype. The pangenomes of E. faecium and E. faecalis were both open. The genomic fraction related to the mobilome was positively correlated with genome size in E. faecium (p?<?0.001) and E. faecalis (p?<?0.001) and with the number of AMR genes in E. faecium (p?=?0.005). Genes conferring vancomycin resistance, including vanA and vanM (E. faecium), vanG (E. faecalis), and vanC (E. casseliflavus/E. gallinarum), were detected in 20 genomes. The most prominent functional AMR genes were efflux pumps and transporters. A minimum of 16, 6, 5 and 3 virulence genes were detected in E. faecium, E. faecalis, E. casseliflavus and E. gallinarum, respectively. Virulence genes were more common in E. faecalis and E. faecium, than E. casseliflavus and E. gallinarum. A number of mobile genetic elements were shared among species. Functional CRISPR/Cas arrays were detected in 13 E. faecalis genomes, with all but one also containing a prophage. The lack of a functional CRISPR/Cas arrays was associated with multi-drug resistance in E. faecium. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated differential clustering of isolates based on original source but not WWTP. Genes related to phage and CRISPR/Cas arrays could potentially serve as environmental biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS:There was no discernible difference between enterococcal genomes from the CAS and BAF WWTPs. E. faecalis and E. faecium have smaller genomes and harbor more virulence, AMR, and mobile genetic elements than other Enterococcus spp.
Project description:Intestinal commensal bacteria are considered good indicators for monitoring antimicrobial resistance. We investigated the antimicrobial resistance profiles and resistance trends of <i>Enterococcus faecium</i> and <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i> isolated from food animals in Korea between 2010 and 2019. <i>E. faecium</i> and <i>E. faecalis,</i> isolated from chickens and pigs, respectively, presented a relatively high resistance rate to most of the tested antimicrobials. We observed high ciprofloxacin (67.9%), tetracycline (61.7%), erythromycin (59.5%), and tylosin (53.0%) resistance in <i>E. faecium</i> isolated from chickens. Similarly, more than half of the <i>E. faecalis</i> isolates from pigs and chickens were resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline and tylosin. Notably, we observed ampicillin, daptomycin, tigecycline and linezolid resistance in a relatively small proportion of enterococcal isolates. Additionally, the enterococcal strains exhibited an increasing but fluctuating resistance trend (<i>p</i> < 0.05) to some of the tested antimicrobials including daptomycin and/or linezolid. <i>E. faecalis</i> showed higher Multidrug resistance (MDR) rates than <i>E. faecium</i> in cattle (19.7% vs. 8.6%, respectively) and pigs (63.6% vs. 15.6%, respectively), whereas a comparable MDR rate (≈60.0%) was noted in <i>E. faecium</i> and <i>E. faecalis</i> isolated from chickens. Collectively, the presence of antimicrobial-resistant <i>Enterococcus</i> in food animals poses a potential risk to public health.
Project description:We isolated Enterococcus species that colonized in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in order to investigate their genetic relatedness and antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 219 isolates were obtained and a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed they were classified into Enterococcus avium, E. casseliflavus, E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, or E. mundtii. Multilocus sequence typing of E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates indicated that some of the isolates showed an evolutionary distance that was far from the primary founders. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the enterococcal isolates suggested that the significant transmission of antimicrobial resistance via human intervention had not yet occurred.
Project description:Due to Australia's management of antimicrobial use in poultry, particularly the discontinued use of avoparcin for nearly 20?years, it is hypothesized that vancomycin-resistant enterococci associated with human disease are not derived from poultry isolates. This study evaluated antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of five enterococcal species isolated from Australian meat chickens, genomic features of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, and the phylogenetic relationship of the poultry-derived E. faecium with isolates from human sepsis cases. All enterococcal isolates from chicken ceca were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. E. faecium and E. faecalis underwent whole-genome sequencing. E. faecium was compared at the core genome level to a collection of human isolates (n?=?677) obtained from cases of sepsis over a 2-year period spanning 2015 to 2016. Overall, 205 enterococci were isolated consisting of five different species. E. faecium was the most frequently isolated species (37.6%), followed by E. durans (29.7%), E. faecalis (20%), E. hirae (12.2%), and E. gallinarum (0.5%). All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and gentamicin, while one isolate was linezolid resistant (MIC 16?mg/liter). Core genome analysis of the E. faecium demonstrated two clades consisting predominantly of human or chicken isolates in each clade, with minimal overlap. Principal component analysis for total gene content revealed three clusters comprised of vanA-positive, vanB-positive, and both vanA- and vanB-negative E. faecium populations. The results of this study provide strong evidence that Australian chicken E. faecium isolates are unlikely to be precursor strains to the currently circulating vancomycin-resistant strains being isolated in Australian hospitals.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate human invasive isolates of enterococci, obtained through prospective surveillance in Poland. The consecutive enterococcal isolates were collected in 30 hospitals between May 2010 and June 2011, and studied by species identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and, for Enterococcus faecium by detection of markers specific for the hospital meroclone, multilocus VNTR analysis (MLVA) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Additionally, the genomic difference regions (GDRs) characteristic for lineage 78 were searched by PCR. Among 259 isolates, a nearly equal number of Enterococcus faecalis (n?=?140; 54.1 %) and E. faecium (n?=?112; 43.2 %) was found. The observed 14-day mortality rate of infected patients reached 18.1 %. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and daptomycin. High-level aminoglycoside resistance occurred in over 50 % of isolates. Vancomycin resistance mediated by vanA or vanB was detected in 7.1 % of E. faecium; 71.4 % of isolates were multidrug resistant. E. faecium isolates ubiquitously carried molecular markers of hospital-associated meroclone (IS16, esp(Efm), intA of ICEEfm1) and multilocus sequence typing showed the domination of representatives of lineages 78 and 17/18 (52.7 % and 46.4 %, respectively). Isolates of lineage 78 were significantly enriched in all the GDRs studied. The recent spread of E. faecium from this lineage contributed to the observed increase of E. faecium in enterococcal invasive infections in hospitals in Poland.
Project description:Enterococci have emerged as important opportunistic pathogens in intensive care units (ICUs). In this study, enterococcal population size and Enterococcus isolates colonizing the intestinal tract of ICU patients receiving Selective Digestive Decontamination (SDD) were investigated. All nine patients included in the study showed substantial shifts in the enterococcal 16S rRNA gene copy number in the gut microbiota during the hospitalization period. Furthermore, 41 Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated and characterized from these patients at different time points during and after ICU hospitalization, including E. faecalis (n = 13), E. faecium (n = 23), and five isolates that could not unequivocally assigned to a specific species (E. sp. n = 5) Multi locus sequence typing revealed a high prevalence of ST 6 in E. faecalis isolates (46%) and ST 117 in E. faecium (52%). Furthermore, antibiotic resistance phenotypes, including macrolide and vancomycin resistance, as well as virulence factor-encoding genes [asa1, esp-fm, esp-fs, hyl, and cyl (B)] were investigated in all isolates. Resistance to ampicillin and tetracycline was observed in 25 (61%) and 19 (46%) isolates, respectively. Furthermore, 30 out of 41 isolates harbored the erm (B) gene, mainly present in E. faecium isolates (78%). The most prevalent virulence genes were asa1 in E. faecalis (54%) and esp (esp-fm, 74%; esp-fs, 39%). Six out of nine patients developed nosocomial enterococcal infections, however, corresponding clinical isolates were unfortunately not available for further analysis. Our results show that multiple Enterococcus species, carrying several antibiotic resistance and virulence genes, occurred simultaneously in patients receiving SDD therapy, with varying prevalence dynamics over time. Furthermore, simultaneous presence and/or replacement of E. faecium STs was observed-, reinforcing the importance of screening multiple isolates to comprehensively characterize enterococcal diversity in ICU patients.
Project description:The presence, distribution and expression of cassette chromosome recombinase (ccr) genes, which are homologous to the staphylococcal ccrAB genes and are designated ccrAB(Ent) genes, were examined in enterococcal isolates (n=421) representing 13 different species. A total of 118 (28?%) isolates were positive for ccrAB(Ent) genes by PCR, and a number of these were confirmed by Southern hybridization with a ccrA(Ent) probe (n=76) and partial DNA sequencing of ccrA(Ent) and ccrB(Ent) genes (n=38). ccrAB(Ent) genes were present in Enterococcus faecium (58/216, 27?%), Enterococcus durans (31/38, 82?%), Enterococcus hirae (27/52, 50?%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (1/4, 25?%) and Enterococcus gallinarum (1/2, 50?%). In the eight other species tested, including Enterococcus faecalis (n=94), ccrAB(Ent) genes were not found. Thirty-eight sequenced ccrAB(Ent) genes from five different enterococcal species showed 94-100?% nucleotide sequence identity and linkage PCRs showed heterogeneity in the ccrAB(Ent) flanking chromosomal genes. Expression analysis of ccrAB(Ent) genes from the E. faecium DO strain showed constitutive expression as a bicistronic mRNA. The ccrAB(Ent) mRNA levels were lower during log phase than stationary phase in relation to total mRNA. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on 39 isolates. ccrAB(Ent) genes were detected in both hospital-related (10/29, 34?%) and non-hospital (4/10, 40?%) strains of E. faecium. Various sequence types were represented by both ccrAB(Ent) positive and negative isolates, suggesting acquisition or loss of ccrAB(Ent) in E. faecium. In summary, ccrAB(Ent) genes, potentially involved in genome plasticity, are expressed in E. faecium and are widely distributed in the E. faecium and E. casseliflavus species groups.
Project description:The success of Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis evolving as multi-resistant nosocomial pathogens is associated with their ability to acquire and share adaptive traits, including mobile genetic elements (MGE) encoding antimicrobial resistance. Here, we define the mobilome in representative successful hospital associated genetic lineages, E. faecium ST17 (n=10) and ST78 (n=10), E. faecalis ST6 (n=10) and ST40 (n=10) using DNA microarray analyses. The hybridization patterns of 272 targets representing plasmid backbones (n=85), transposable elements (n=85), resistance determinants (n=67), prophages (n=29), and CRISPR-cas sequences (n=6) separated the strains according to species, and for E. faecalis also according to STs. Although plasmids belonging to the RCR-, Rep_3-, RepA_N- and Inc18-families were well represented with no significant differences in prevalence, the presence of specific replicon classes differed highly between the species; E. faecium was dominated by rep17/pRUM, rep2/pRE25, rep14/EFNP1 and rep20/pLG1 and E. faecalis by rep9/pCF10, rep2/pRE25 and rep7. Tn916-elements conferring tetracycline resistance (tetM) were found in all E. faecalis strains, but only in two E. faecium strains. A significant higher prevalence of IS256-, IS3-, ISL3-, IS200/IS605-, IS110-, IS982-, and IS4-transposases were detected in E. faecium, and of IS110-, IS982- and IS1182-transposases in E. faecalis ST6 compared to ST40. Notably, the transposases of IS981, ISEfm1 and IS1678 which have only been reported in few enterococcal isolates, were well represented in the E. faecium strains. E. faecalis ST40 strains harboured possible functional CRISPR-Cas systems, and still resistance and prophage sequences were generally well represented. Gene targets defined as the enterococcal mobilome, including plasmids, IS elements and transposons, resistance determinants, prophage sequences and CRISPR-Cas systems were highly prevalent, underlining their potential importance in the evolution of hospital associated STs. An association between axe-txe to the RepA_N-family and M-OM-^I-M-NM-5-M-NM-6 to the Inc18-family, implicates the contribution of TA-systems in stable plasmid maintenance carrying virulence and resistance determinants in enterococci. The concurrent presence of defined MGE and their associated resistance markers was generally confirmed and illustrates the importance of horizontal gene transfer in the development of multidrug resistant enterococci. All together 272 DNA targets representing mobile genetic elements and antimicrobial resistance determinants associated with enterococci were spotted on a CustomArray 4x2K microarray from CustomArray Inc. Each fourplex microarray slide contain four identical sectors that were stripped and re-hybridized up to six times. Each target was represented by 1-5 probes each. The total of 1250 probes were Tm balanced by altering their lenght between 35 and 40 nucleotides. Total DNA of 41 samples were hybridized and a control strain, the fully sequenced E. faecalis V585, was included in one of the four sectors on each slide in each set of hybridization to monitor the overall array and hybridization quality.
Project description:The enterococcal community from feces of seven dogs treated with antibiotics for 2-9 days in the veterinary intensive care unit (ICU) was characterized. Both, culture-based approach and culture-independent 16S rDNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing, revealed an abnormally large enterococcal community: 1.4±0.8×10(8) CFU gram(-1) of feces and 48.9±11.5% of the total 16,228 sequences, respectively. The diversity of the overall microbial community was very low which likely reflects a high selective antibiotic pressure. The enterococcal diversity based on 210 isolates was also low as represented by Enterococcus faecium (54.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (45.4%). E. faecium was frequently resistant to enrofloxacin (97.3%), ampicillin (96.5%), tetracycline (84.1%), doxycycline (60.2%), erythromycin (53.1%), gentamicin (48.7%), streptomycin (42.5%), and nitrofurantoin (26.5%). In E. faecalis, resistance was common to tetracycline (59.6%), erythromycin (56.4%), doxycycline (53.2%), and enrofloxacin (31.9%). No resistance was detected to vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin in either species. Many isolates carried virulence traits including gelatinase, aggregation substance, cytolysin, and enterococcal surface protein. All E. faecalis strains were biofilm formers in vitro and this phenotype correlated with the presence of gelE and/or esp. In vitro intra-species conjugation assays demonstrated that E. faecium were capable of transferring tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance traits to human clinical strains. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of E. faecium strains showed very low genotypic diversity. Interestingly, three E. faecium clones were shared among four dogs suggesting their nosocomial origin. Furthermore, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of nine representative MLVA types revealed that six sequence types (STs) originating from five dogs were identical or closely related to STs of human clinical isolates and isolates from hospital outbreaks. It is recommended to restrict close physical contact between pets released from the ICU and their owners to avoid potential health risks.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study investigated the distribution of acquired antibiotic resistance genes in Enterococcus species isolated from clinical patients in Baotou, China.<h4>Result</h4>A total of 73 enterococca lisolates from clinical samples were collected from December 2016 to September 2017. Of the 73 enterococcal isolates, 36 (49.3%), 35 (47.9%), 1 (1.4%), and 1 (1.4%) were identified as E. faecium, E. faecalis, E. gallinarum, and E. raffinosus, respectively. The resistance rates of the enterococci to nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, gentamicin (high-level), ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and erythromycin were 24.7%, 49.3%, 50.7%, 54.8%, 74.0% and 89.0%, respectively. The most prevalent aminoglycoside resistance genes were aac(6')-Ie-aph(2?)-Ia (64.9%) and aph(3')IIIa (64.9%). The most common erythromycin ribosome methylation gene was erm(B) (67.7%), followed by erm(A) (4.6%) and erm(C) (1.5%). The tetracycline resistance gene tetM was found to be present in 100.0% of the tetracycline-resistant strains of enterococci. Thus, E. faecium and E. faecalis were identified as the species of greatest clinical importance associated with hospital-acquired enterococcal infections in Baotou, China. The antimicrobial resistance genes aac(6')-Ie-aph(2?)-Ia, aph(3')IIIa, tetM, and erm(B) were significantly more prevalent among the enterococcal isolates. Therefore, action should be taken to monitor drug resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes to manage multi-drug-resistant enterococcal infections.