Tea consumption and the risk of five major cancers: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies to summarize evidence of the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast, colorectal, liver, prostate, and stomach cancer. METHODS: We searched PubMed and two other databases. Prospective studies that reported risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer risk for ?3 categories of tea consumption were included. We estimated an overall RR with 95% CI for an increase of three cups/day of tea consumption, and, usingrestricted cubic splines, we examined a nonlinear association between tea consumption and cancer risk. RESULTS: Forty-one prospective studies, with a total of 3,027,702 participants and 49,103 cancer cases, were included. From the pooled overall RRs, no inverse association between tea consumption and risk of five major cancers was observed. However, subgroup analysis showed that increase in consumption of three cups of black tea per day was a significant risk factor for breast cancer (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32). CONCLUSION: Ourresults did not show a protective role of tea in five major cancers. Additional large prospective cohort studies are needed to make a convincing case for associations.
Project description:Tea has been suggested to decrease blood glucose levels and protect pancreatic ? cells in diabetic mice. However, human epidemiological studies showed inconsistent results for the association between tea consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to further explore the association between tea consumption and incidence of T2DM.Systematic review and meta-analysis.We performed a systematic literature search up to 30 August 2013 in PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Wanfang Database and CNKI database. Pooling relative risks (RRs) were estimated by random-effect models. Two kinds of subgroup analyses (according to sex and regions) were performed. Sensitive analyses were performed according to types of tea.Overall, no statistically significant relationship between tea consumption and risk of T2DM was found based on 12 eligible studies (pooling RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.03). Compared with the lowest/non-tea group, daily tea consumption (?3 cups/day) was associated with a lower T2DM risk (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.97). Subgroup analyses showed a difference between men and women. Overall, the RRs (95% CI) were 0.92 (0.84 to 1.00) for men, and 1.00 (0.96 to 1.05) for women, respectively. Tea consumption of ?3 cups/day was associated with decreased T2DM risk in women (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.00). Overall, the RRs (95% CIs) were 0.84 (0.71 to 1.00) for Asians, and 1.00 (0.97 to 1.04) for Americans and Europeans, respectively. No obvious change was found in sensitivity analyses.The results suggest that daily tea consumption (?3 cups/day) is associated with a lower T2DM risk. However, further studies are needed to enrich related evidence, especially with regard to types of tea or sex.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tea consumption has been extensively studied in relation to various diseases, several epidemiologic studies have been performed to investigate the association of tea consumption with type 2 diabetes; however, the results of these studies were not entirely consistent. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis of studies that assessed the association of tea consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search through November 2008 in PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The search was limited to English-language studies. Studies were excluded if they were type 1 diabetes, animal studies. Nine cohort studies were identified by two authors, and summary relative risks (RRs) were calculated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: We identified nine cohort studies, including 324,141 participants and 11,400 incident cases of type 2 diabetes with follow-up ranging from 5 to 18 years. The summary adjusted RR did not show that tea consumption was associated with a reduced type 2 diabetes risk (RR, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.92-1.01). Evidence from the results of our stratified analyses revealed that tea consumption > or =4 cups per day (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7-0.93) might play a role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. However, no statistically significant association was observed for sex and the follow-up durations stratified between tea consumption and type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis indicates that tea consumption > or =4 cups per day may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Previous reports, mostly from retrospective studies, suggested possible protective effects of both tea and coffee against endometrial cancer, but recent reports from prospective studies generally showed weaker or null associations.We investigated endometrial cancer risk in relation to tea and coffee consumption in a large prospective study and did a meta-analysis of published results.Daily consumption of tea and coffee was recorded in 560,356 participants (without a hysterectomy) in the UK Million Women Study of whom 4067 women developed endometrial cancer during 5.2 million person-years of follow up (average: 9.3 y per woman).With the use of Cox proportional hazards regression, we showed no significant association between endometrial cancer risk and consumption of either tea (multivariate adjusted RR per cup daily: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.02) or coffee (RR per cup daily: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.01). Our meta-analyses showed no significant association between endometrial cancer risk and tea consumption and a weak association for coffee consumption in prospective studies, but there may have been selective publication of only part of the evidence.There is little or no association between tea consumption and endometrial cancer risk. If there is any association with coffee consumption, it appears to be weak.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Coffee and tea consumption is associated with a decreased type 2 diabetes risk in non-pregnant adults. We examined the relation between first trimester coffee and tea consumption and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk.<h4>Design</h4>Population-based cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Denmark 1996-2002.<h4>Population</h4>Non-diabetic women with singleton pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 71,239).<h4>Methods</h4>Estimated adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for the association between first trimester coffee and tea or estimated total caffeine and GDM.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>GDM ascertained from the National Hospital Discharge Register or maternal interview.<h4>Results</h4>Coffee or tea intake was reported in 81.2% (n = 57,882) and 1.3% (n = 912) of pregnancies were complicated by GDM. Among non-consumers, 1.5% of pregnancies were complicated by GDM. Among coffee drinkers, GDM was highest among women who drank ?8 cups/day (1.8%) with no significant difference across intake levels (P = 0.10). Among tea drinkers, there was no difference in GDM across intake levels (1.2%; P = 0.98). After adjustment for age, socio-occupational status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking, and cola, there was suggestion of a protective, but non-significant association with increasing coffee (RR ?8 versus 0 cups/day = 0.89 [95%CI 0.64-1.25]) and tea (RR ?8 versus 0 cups/day = 0.77 [95%CI 0.55-1.08]). Results were similar by smoking status, except a non-significant 1.45-fold increased risk with ?8 coffee cups/day for non-smokers. There was a non-significant reduced GDM risk with increasing total caffeine.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggest that moderate first trimester coffee and tea intake were not associated with GDM increased risk and possibly may have a protective effect.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tea and coffee are the most commonly consumed beverages in the worldwide. The relationship between tea and coffee consumption on the risk of laryngeal cancer was still unclear. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by searching electronic database (Medline and EMBASE) and reviewing the reference lists of relevant articles until Oct. 2013. Observational studies that reported RRs and 95% CIs for the link of tea and coffee consumption on the risk of laryngeal cancer were eligible. A meta-analysis was obtained to combine study-specific RRs with a random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 2,803 cases and 503,234 controls in 10 independent studies were identified. The overall analysis of all 10 studies, including the case-control and cohort studies, found that tea drinking was not associated with laryngeal carcinoma (RR?=?1.03; 95% CI: 0.66-1.61). However, coffee consumption was significantly associated with the laryngeal carcinoma (RR?=?1.47; 95% CI: 1.03-2.11). A dose-response relationship between coffee intake and laryngeal carcinoma was detected; however, no evidence of dose-response link between tea consumption and laryngeal carcinoma risk was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this meta-analysis of observational studies demonstrate that coffee consumption would increase the laryngeal cancer risk, while tea intake was not associated with risk of laryngeal carcinoma.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: This updated meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search updated July 2012 to identify observational studies providing quantitative estimates for breast cancer risk in relation to coffee consumption. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model, and generalized least square trend estimation was used to assess dose-response relationships. RESULTS: A total of 26 studies (16 cohort and 10 case-control studies) on coffee intake with 49497 breast cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RR showed a borderline significant influence of highest coffee consumption (RR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.93-1.00), low-to moderate coffee consumption (RR = 0.99; 95% CI 0.95-1.04), or an increment of 2 cups/day of coffee consumption (RR = 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-1.00) on the risk of breast cancer. In stratified analysis, a significant inverse association was observed in ER-negative subgroup. However, no significant association was noted in the others. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that increased coffee intake is not associated with a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer, but we observe an inverse association in ER-negative subgroup analysis. More large studies are needed to determine subgroups to obtain more valuable data on coffee drinking and breast cancer risk.
Project description:PURPOSE:We examined the association between caffeine and caffeinated beverage consumption in relation to the risk of exfoliation glaucoma or exfoliation glaucoma suspect (EG/EGS). METHODS:We followed 78,977 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 41,202 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) who were at least 40 years of age, did not have glaucoma, and reported undergoing eye examinations from 1980 (NHS) or 1986 (HPFS) to 2008. Information on consumption of caffeine-containing beverages and potential confounders were repeatedly ascertained in validated follow-up questionnaires. Confirmation with medical record review revealed 360 incident EG/EGS cases. Multivariate rate ratios (RRs) for EG/EGS were calculated in each cohort and then pooled using meta-analytic techniques. RESULTS:Compared with participants whose cumulatively updated total caffeine consumption was <125 mg/day, participants who consumed ≥ 500 mg/day had a trend toward increased risk of EG/EGS that was not statistically significant (RR = 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98-2.08); P trend = 0.06). Compared to abstainers, those who drank ≥ 3 cups of caffeinated coffee daily were at increased risk of EG/EGS (RR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.09-2.54; P trend = 0.02). These results were not materially altered after adjustment for total fluid intake. Associations were stronger among women with a family history of glaucoma (P interaction = 0.06 for coffee; P interaction = 0.03 for caffeine). We did not find associations with consumption of other caffeinated products (caffeinated soda, caffeinated tea, decaffeinated coffee or chocolate) and risk of EG/EGS (P trend ≥ 0.31). CONCLUSIONS:We observed a positive association between heavier coffee consumption with risk of EG/EGS in this large prospective study.
Project description:Epidemiological studies have provided controversial evidence between beverage consumption and the risk of ulcerative colitis (UC). This study aimed to determine the role of beverage consumption in the development of UC. A systematic search was conducted in public databases to identify all relevant studies, and study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model. Sixteen studies were identified with a total of 3689 cases and 335,339 controls. Alcohol consumption showed no significant association with UC risk (RR for the highest vs the lowest consumption level: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.65-1.39). Coffee consumption tended to be inversely associated with UC risk (RR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.33-1.05), but it was not significant and confounded by smoking adjustment. Soft drinks consumption was associated with UC risk (RR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24-2.30), and tea consumption was inversely associated with UC risk (RR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.58-0.83). In conclusion, high consumption of soft drinks might increase the risk of UC, while tea consumption might decrease the risk.
Project description:Laboratory studies have observed chemopreventive effects of black and green tea on breast cancer development, but few epidemiologic studies have identified such effects. We investigated the association between tea consumption and breast cancer risk using data from 45,744?U.S. and Puerto Rican women participating in the Sister Study. Frequency and serving size of black and green tea consumption were measured at cohort enrollment. Breast cancer diagnoses were reported during follow-up and confirmed by medical record review. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further investigated potential variation according to estrogen receptor (ER) status, menopausal status and body mass index (BMI). Overall, 81.6 and 56.0% of women drank black or green tea, respectively. A total of 2,809 breast cancer cases were identified in the cohort. The multivariable model suggested an inverse association between black (?5 vs. 0 cups/week: HR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78, 1.00, p-trend = 0.08) and green tea (?5 vs. 0 cups/week: HR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.70, 0.95, p-trend?<?0.01) consumption and breast cancer risk. We did not observe differences by ER characteristics, menopausal status or BMI. In conclusion, our study suggests drinking at least five cups of green or black tea per week may be associated with decreased breast cancer risk.
Project description:A meta-analysis was performed to assess the association of coffee consumption with colorectal cancer and to investigate the shape of the association. Relevant prospective cohort studies were identified by a comprehensive search of the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases from their inception through August 2015. Either a random-effects model or fixed-effects model was used to compute the pooled risk estimates when appropriate. Linear and nonlinear dose-response meta-analyses were also performed. Nineteen prospective cohort studies involving 2,046,575 participants and 22,629 patients with colorectal cancer were included. The risk of colon cancer was decreased by 7% for every 4 cups per day of coffee (RR=0.93, 95%CI, 0.88-0.99; P=0.199). There was a threshold approximately five cups of coffee per day, and the inverse association for colorectal cancer appeared to be stronger at a higher range of intake. However, a nonlinear association of rectal cancer with coffee consumption was not observed (P for nonlinearity = 0.214). In conclusion, coffee consumption is significantly associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer at ? 5 cups per day of coffee consumption. The findings support the recommendations of including coffee as a healthy beverage for the prevention of colorectal cancer.