PZMO7-Derived shuttle vectors for heterologous protein expression and proteomic applications in the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis has attracted considerable scientific and commercial interest due to its exceptional physiological properties. Shuttle vectors derived from native plasmids have previously been successfully used for heterologous gene expression in this bacterium for a variety of purposes, most notably for metabolic engineering applications. RESULTS: A quantitative PCR (qPCR) approach was used to determine the copy numbers of two endogenous double stranded DNA plasmids: pZMO1A (1,647 bp) and pZMO7 (pZA1003; 4,551 bp) within the NCIMB 11163 strain of Z. mobilis. Data indicated pZMO1A and pZMO7 were present at ca. 3-5 and ca. 1-2 copies per cell, respectively. A ca. 1,900 bp fragment from plasmid pZMO7 was used to construct two Escherichia coli - Z. mobilis shuttle vectors (pZ7C and pZ7-184). The intracellular stabilities and copy numbers of pZ7C and pZ7-184 were characterized within the NCIMB 11163, ATCC 29191 and (ATCC 10988-derived) CU1 Rif2 strains of Z. mobilis. Both shuttle vectors could be stably maintained within the ATCC 29191 strain (ca. 20-40 copies per cell), and the CU1 Rif2 strain (ca. 2-3 copies per cell), for more than 50 generations in the absence of an antibiotic selectable marker. A selectable marker was required for shuttle vector maintenance in the parental NCIMB 11163 strain; most probably due to competition for replication with the endogenous pZMO7 plasmid molecules. N-terminal glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusions of four endogenous proteins, namely the acyl-carrier protein (AcpP); 2-dehydro-3-deoxyphosphooctonate aldolase (KdsA); DNA polymerase III chi subunit (HolC); and the RNA chaperone protein Hfq; were successfully expressed from pZ7C-derived shuttle vectors, and their protein-protein binding interactions were analyzed in Z. mobilis ATCC 29191. Using this approach, proteins that co-purified with AcpP and KdsA were identified. CONCLUSIONS: We show that a shuttle vector-based protein affinity 'pull-down' approach can be used to probe protein interaction networks in Z. mobilis cells. Our results demonstrate that protein expression plasmids derived from pZMO7 have significant potential for use in future biological or biotechnological applications within Z. mobilis.
Project description:Zymomonas mobilis has the special Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway and it has excellent industrial characteristics, including low cell mass formation, high-specific productivity,ethanol yield, notable ethanol tolerance and wide pH range, a relatively small genome size. In this study, the genome sequences of NRRL B-14023 and NRRL B-12526 were sequenced and compared with other strains to explore their evolutionary relationships and the genetic basis of Z. mobilis. The comparative genomic analyses revealed that the 8 strains share a conserved core chromosomal backbone. ZM4, NRRL B-12526, NRRL B-14023, NCIMB 11163 and NRRL B-1960 share 98% sequence identity across the whole genome sequences. Highly similar plasmids and CRISPR repeats were detected in these strains. A whole-genome phylogenetic tree of the 8 strains indicated that NRRL B-12526, NRRL B-14023 and ATCC 10988 had a close evolutionary relationship with the strain ZM4. Furthermore, strains ATCC29191 and ATCC29192 had distinctive CRISPR with a far distant relationship. The size of the pan-genome was 1945 genes, including 1428 core genes and 517 accessory genes. The genomes of Z. mobilis were highly conserved; particularly strains ZM4, NRRL B-12526, NRRL B-14023, NCIMB 11163 and NRRL B-1960 had a close genomic relationship. This comparative study of Z. mobilis presents a foundation for future functional analyses and applications.
Project description:Zymomonas mobilis is an ethanol-producing alphaproteobacterium currently considered a major candidate organism for bioethanol production. Here we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis strain NCIMB 11163, a British ale-infecting isolate. This is the first Z. mobilis strain whose genome, chromosomal and plasmid, is presented in its entirety.
Project description:Exponentially growing cells of Zymomonas mobilis normally exhibit a lag period of up to 3 h when they are transferred from a liquid medium containing 2% glucose to a liquid medium containing 10% glucose. A mutant of Z. mobilis (CU1) exhibited a lag period of more than 20 h when it was grown under the same conditions, whereas it failed to grow on a solid medium containing 10% glucose. The glucose-defective phenotype of mutant CU1 was due to a spontaneous insertion in a putative gene (ORF4) identified as part of an operon (glc) which includes three additional putative genes (ORF1, ORF2, and ORF3) with no obvious involvement in the glucose tolerance mechanism. The common promoter controlling glc operon transcription, designated P(glc), was found to be osmoregulated and stimulated by the putative product of ORF4 in an autoregulated fashion, as indicated by expression of the gfp reporter gene. Additionally, reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that the gene cluster produces a single mRNA, which verified the operon organization of this transcription unit. Further transcriptional analysis demonstrated that glc operon expression is regulated by the concentration of glucose, which supported the hypothesis that this operon is directly involved in the uncharacterized glucose tolerance mechanism of Z. mobilis.
Project description:Zymomonas mobilis is an alphaproteobacterium studied for bioethanol production. Different strains of this organism have been hitherto sequenced; they all belong to the Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis taxon. Here we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of strain ATCC 29192, a cider-spoiling agent isolated in the United Kingdom. ATCC 29192 is the lectotype of the second-best-characterized subspecies of Z. mobilis, Z. mobilis subsp. pomaceae. The nucleotide sequence of ATCC 29192 deviates from that of Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis representatives, which justifies its distinct taxonomic positioning and proves particularly useful for comparative and functional genomic analyses.
Project description:Zymomonas mobilis is an ethanologenic bacterium that has been studied for use in biofuel production. Of the sequenced Zymomonas strains, ATCC 29191 has been described as the phenotypic centrotype of Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis, the taxon that harbors the highest ethanol-producing Z. mobilis strains. ATCC 29191 was isolated in Kinshasa, Congo, from palm wine fermentations. This strain is reported to be a robust levan producer, while in recent years it has been employed in studies addressing Z. mobilis respiration. Here we announce the finishing and annotation of the ATCC 29191 genome, which comprises one chromosome and three plasmids.
Project description:Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 10988 is the type strain of the Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis taxon, members of which are some of the most rigorous ethanol-producing bacteria. Isolated from Agave cactus fermentations in Mexico, ATCC 10988 is one of the first Z. mobilis strains to be described and studied. Its robustness in sucrose-substrate fermentations, physiological characteristics, large number of plasmids, and overall genomic plasticity render this strain important to the study of the species. Here we report the finishing and annotation of the ATCC 10988 chromosomal and plasmid genome.
Project description:Shuttle vectors carrying the origins of replication that function in Escherichia coli and two capnophilic rumen bacteria, Mannheimia succiniciproducens and Actinobacillus succinogenes, were constructed. These vectors were found to be present at ca. 10 copies per cell. They were found to be stably maintained in rumen bacteria during the serial subcultures in the absence of antibiotic pressure for 216 generations. By optimizing the electroporation condition, the transformation efficiencies of 3.0 x 10(6) and 7.1 x 10(6) transformants/mug DNA were obtained with M. succiniciproducens and A. succinogenes, respectively. A 1.7-kb minimal replicon was identified that consists of the rep gene, four iterons, A+T-rich regions, and a dnaA box. It was found that the shuttle vector replicates via the theta mode, which was confirmed by sequence analysis and Southern hybridization. These shuttle vectors were found to be suitable as expression vectors as the homologous fumC gene encoding fumarase and the heterologous genes encoding green fluorescence protein and red fluorescence protein could be expressed successfully. Thus, the shuttle vectors developed in this study should be useful for genetic and metabolic engineering of succinic acid-producing rumen bacteria.
Project description:Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two Megasphaera elsdenii strains, ATCC 25940 and NCIMB 702410. M. elsdenii is an anaerobic bacterium capable of producing butanoate and hexanoate and is a member of the Negativicutes.
Project description:We describe the self-selection of replication origins of undescribed cryptic plasmids from Thermus aquaticus Y-VII-51B (ATCC 25105) and a Thermus sp. strain (ATCC 27737) by random insertion of a thermostable kanamycin adenyltransferase cartridge. Once selected, these autonomous replication origins were cloned into the Escherichia coli vector pUC9 or pUC19. The bifunctional plasmids were analyzed for their sizes, relationships, and properties as shuttle vectors for Thermus-Escherichia cloning. Seven different vectors with diverse kanamycin resistance levels, stabilities, transformation efficiencies, and copy numbers were obtained. As a general rule, those from T. aquaticus (pLU1 to pLU4) were more stable than those from the Thermus sp. (pMY1 to pMY3). To probe their usefulness, we used one of the plasmids (pMY1) to clone in E. coli a modified form of the cellulase gene (celA) from Clostridium thermocellum in which the native signal peptide was replaced in vitro by that from the S-layer gene of T. thermophilus HB8. The hybrid product was expressed and exported by E. coli. When the gene was transferred by transformation into T. thermophilus, the cellulase protein was also expressed and secreted at 70 degrees C.
Project description:Propionic acid (PA) is an important chemical building block and is widely applied for organic synthesis, food, feedstuff, and pharmaceuticals. To date, the strains that can efficiently produce PA have included Propionibacterium thoenii, P. freudenreichii, and P. acidipropionici. In this report, we show that P. jensenii ATCC 4868 is also able to produce PA in much higher yields than the previously reported strains. To further improve the production capacity, a P. jensenii-Escherichia coli shuttle vector was developed for the metabolic engineering of P. jensenii. Specifically, a 6.9-kb endogenous plasmid, pZGX01, was isolated from P. acidipropionici ATCC 4875 and sequenced. Since the sequencing analysis indicated that pZGX01 could encode 11 proteins, the transcriptional levels of the corresponding genes were also investigated. Then, a P. jensenii-Escherichia coli shuttle vector was constructed using the pZGX01 plasmid, the E. coli pUC18 plasmid, and a chloramphenicol resistance gene. Interestingly, not only could the developed shuttle vector be transformed into P. jensenii ATCC 4868 and 4870, but it also could be transformed into freudenreichii ATCC 6207 subspecies of P. freudenreichii. Finally, the glycerol dehydrogenase gene (gldA) from Klebsiella pneumoniae was expressed in P. jensenii ATCC 4868 with the constructed shuttle vector. In a 3-liter batch culture, the PA production by the engineered P. jensenii ATCC 4868 strain reached 28.23 ± 1.0 g/liter, which was 26.07% higher than that produced by the wild-type strain (22.06 ± 1.2 g/liter). This result indicated that the constructed vector can be used a useful tool for metabolic engineering of P. jensenii.