Id2 and Id3 define the potency of cell proliferation and differentiation responses to transforming growth factor beta and bone morphogenetic protein.
ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factors beta (TGF-betas) inhibit growth of epithelial cells and induce differentiation changes, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). On the other hand, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) weakly affect epithelial cell growth and do not induce EMT. Smad4 transmits signals from both TGF-beta and BMP pathways. Stimulation of Smad4-deficient epithelial cells with TGF-beta 1 or BMP-7 in the absence or presence of exogenous Smad4, followed by cDNA microarray analysis, revealed 173 mostly Smad4-dependent, TGF-beta-, or BMP-responsive genes. Among 25 genes coregulated by both factors, inhibitors of differentiation Id2 and Id3 showed long-term repression by TGF-beta and sustained induction by BMP. The opposing regulation of Id genes is critical for proliferative and differentiation responses. Hence, ectopic Id2 or Id3 expression renders epithelial cells refractory to growth inhibition and EMT induced by TGF-beta, phenocopying the BMP response. Knockdown of endogenous Id2 or Id3 sensitizes epithelial cells to BMP, leading to robust growth inhibition and induction of transdifferentiation. Thus, Id genes sense Smad signals and create a permissive or refractory nuclear environment that defines decisions of cell fate and proliferation.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to normal tissue patterning and carcinoma invasiveness. We show that transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta/activin members, but not bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) members, can induce EMT in normal human and mouse epithelial cells. EMT correlates with the ability of these ligands to induce growth arrest. Ectopic expression of all type I receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily establishes that TGF-beta but not BMP pathways can elicit EMT. Ectopic Smad2 or Smad3 together with Smad4 enhanced, whereas dominant-negative forms of Smad2, Smad3, or Smad4, and wild-type inhibitory Smad7, blocked TGF-beta-induced EMT. Transcriptomic analysis of EMT kinetics identified novel TGF-beta target genes with ligand-specific responses. Using a TGF-beta type I receptor that cannot activate Smads nor induce EMT, we found that Smad signaling is critical for regulation of all tested gene targets during EMT. One such gene, Id2, whose expression is repressed by TGF-beta1 but induced by BMP-7 is critical for regulation of at least one important myoepithelial marker, alpha-smooth muscle actin, during EMT. Thus, based on ligand-specific responsiveness and evolutionary conservation of the gene expression patterns, we begin deciphering a genetic network downstream of TGF-beta and predict functional links to the control of cell proliferation and EMT.
Project description:Inhibitor of differentiation (Id) proteins are DNA-binding transcription factors involved in cellular proliferation, migration, inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrosis. However, their expression and role in the cornea is unknown. The present study was undertaken to characterize the expression of Id proteins and their interactions with the pro-fibrotic cytokine Transforming Growth Factor ?1 (TGF?1) and anti-fibrotic cytokine, bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) in human cornea. Human donor corneas procured from Eye Bank were used. Id proteins were localized in human corneal sections using immunofluorescence. Primary cultures of human corneal fibroblasts (HCF) were established and treated with either TGF?1 (5 ng/ml) or BMP7 (10 ng/ml) for 24 h in serum free medium. Expression of Id's in response to TGF?1, BMP7 and TGF?1 + BMP7 was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Id1 and Id2 proteins were ubiquitously expressed in the epithelial cells and stromal keratocytes in human cornea. The Id1 was localized to the basal epithelial cells as seen by immunohistochemistry. HCF expressed all known mammalian Id genes (Id1-Id4). In addition, Id1 and Id2 are selectively expressed in HCF. Treatment of human recombinant TGF?1 (5 ng/ml) to serum-starved HCF showed a significant increase in Id genes (Id1, Id2 and Id4) at 2 h time point compared to BMP7 treatment, which showed time dependent increase in the expression of Id1-Id3 at 24-48 h. Combined treatment with TGF?1 + BMP7 to HCF showed a significant increase in Id1 transcript and an increasing trend in Id3 and Id4 expression. The results of this study suggest that Id family of genes (Id1-Id4) are localized in the human cornea and expressed in the corneal fibroblasts. Also, Id's were differentially regulated with TGF?1 and/or BMP7 in a time dependent manner and might serve as a therapeutic target in corneal fibrosis.
Project description:Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling has been linked to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Inhibitors of differentiation (ID) proteins (ID1-4) are a family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that are downstream targets of the BMP signaling pathway, but the role that ID proteins play in the development of PH is unknown. To address this, we evaluated pulmonary expression of ID proteins in a mouse model of hypoxia-induced PH. There is selective induction of ID1 and ID3 expression in hypoxic pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vivo, and ID1 and ID3 expression are increased by hypoxia in cultured pulmonary VSMCs in a BMP-dependent fashion. ID4 protein is barely detectable in the mouse lung, and while ID2 is induced in hypoxic peripheral VSMCs in vivo, it is not increased by hypoxia or BMP signaling in cultured pulmonary VSMCs. In addition, the PH response to chronic hypoxia is indistinguishable between wild type and Id1 null mice. This is associated with a compensatory increase in ID3 but not ID2 expression in pulmonary VSMCs of Id1 null mice. These findings indicate that ID1 is dispensable for mounting a normal pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia, but suggest that ID3 may compensate for loss of ID1 expression in pulmonary VSMCs. Taken together, these findings indicate that ID1 and ID3 expression are regulated in a BMP-dependent fashion in hypoxic pulmonary VSMCs, and that ID1 and ID3 may play a cooperative role in regulating BMP-dependent VSMC responses to chronic hypoxia.
Project description:We report that the dominant human missense mutations G303E and G296S in GATA4, a cardiac-specific transcription factor gene, cause atrioventricular septal defects and valve abnormalities by disrupting a signaling cascade involved in endocardial cushion development. These GATA4 missense mutations, but not a mutation causing secundum atrial septal defects (S52F), demonstrated impaired protein interactions with SMAD4, a transcription factor required for canonical bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor-? (BMP/TGF-?) signaling. Gata4 and Smad4 genetically interact in vivo: atrioventricular septal defects result from endothelial-specific Gata4 and Smad4 compound haploinsufficiency. Endothelial-specific knockout of Smad4 caused an absence of valve-forming activity: Smad4-deficient endocardium was associated with acellular endocardial cushions, absent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation, reduced endocardial proliferation, and loss of Id2 expression in valve-forming regions. We show that Gata4 and Smad4 cooperatively activated the Id2 promoter, that human GATA4 mutations abrogated this activity, and that Id2 deficiency in mice could cause atrioventricular septal defects. We suggest that one determinant of the phenotypic spectrum caused by human GATA4 mutations is differential effects on GATA4/SMAD4 interactions required for endocardial cushion development.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial event in cancer progression and embryonic development, is induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in mouse mammary NMuMG epithelial cells. Id proteins have previously been reported to inhibit major features of TGF-beta-induced EMT. In this study, we show that expression of the deltaEF1 family proteins, deltaEF1 (ZEB1) and SIP1, is gradually increased by TGF-beta with expression profiles reciprocal to that of E-cadherin. SIP1 and deltaEF1 each dramatically down-regulated the transcription of E-cadherin in NMuMG cells through direct binding to the E-cadherin promoter. Silencing of the expression of both SIP1 and deltaEF1, but not either alone, completely abolished TGF-beta-induced E-cadherin repression. However, expression of mesenchymal markers, including fibronectin, N-cadherin, and vimentin, was not affected by knockdown of SIP1 and deltaEF1. TGF-beta-induced the expression of Ets1, which in turn activated deltaEF1 promoter activity. Moreover, up-regulation of SIP1 and deltaEF1 expression by TGF-beta was suppressed by knockdown of Ets1 expression. In addition, Id2 suppressed the TGF-beta- and Ets1-induced up-regulation of deltaEF1. Taken together, these findings suggest that the deltaEF1 family proteins, SIP1 and deltaEF1, are necessary, but not sufficient, for TGF-beta-induced EMT and that Ets1 induced by TGF-beta may function as an upstream transcriptional regulator of SIP1 and deltaEF1.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates epithelial tissue homeostasis by activating processes that control cell cycle arrest, differentiation and apoptosis. Disruption of the TGF-beta signaling pathway often occurs in colorectal cancers. Earlier, we have shown that TGF-beta induces apoptosis through the transcription factor Smad3. Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays were used to identify TGF-beta/Smad3 target genes that regulate apoptosis in rat intestinal epithelial cells (RIE-1). We found that TGF-beta repressed the expression of the inhibitor of differentiation (Id) gene family. Knockdown of Id1 and Id2 gene expression induced apoptosis in RIE-1 cells, whereas overexpression of Id2 attenuated TGF-beta-induced apoptosis. TranSignal Protein/DNA arrays were used to identify the hypoxia-inducing factor-1 (HIF-1) as a downstream target of TGF-beta. HIF-1 is a basic helix-loop-helix protein, and overexpression of Id2 blocked HIF-1 activation by TGF-beta. Furthermore, knockdown of HIF-1 blocked TGF-beta-induced apoptosis. Thus, we have identified HIF-1 as a novel mediator downstream of Id2 in the pathway of TGF-beta-induced apoptosis.
Project description:Valvular heart disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Revealing the cellular processes and molecules that regulate valve formation and remodeling is required to develop effective therapies. A key step in valve formation during heart development is the epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) of a subpopulation of endocardial cells in the atrioventricular cushion (AVC). The type III transforming growth factor-? receptor (TGF?R3) regulates AVC endocardial cell EMT in vitro and mesenchymal cell differentiation in vivo. Little is known concerning the signaling mechanisms downstream of TGF?R3. Here we use endocardial cell EMT in vitro to determine the role of 2 well-characterized downstream TGF? signaling pathways in TGF?R3-dependent endocardial cell EMT. Targeting of Smad4, the common mediator Smad, demonstrated that Smad signaling is required for EMT in the AVC and TGF?R3-dependent EMT stimulated by TGF?2 or BMP-2. Although we show that Smads 1, 2, 3, and 5 are required for AVC EMT, overexpression of Smad1 or Smad3 is not sufficient to induce EMT. Consistent with the activation of the Par6/Smurf1 pathway downstream of TGF?R3, targeting ALK5, Par6, or Smurf1 significantly inhibited EMT in response to either TGF?2 or BMP-2. The requirement for ALK5 activity, Par6, and Smurf1 for TGF?R3-dependent endocardial cell EMT is consistent with the documented role of this pathway in the dissolution of tight junctions. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TGF?R3-dependent endocardial cell EMT stimulated by either TGF?2 or BMP-2 requires Smad4 and the activation of the Par6/Smurf1 pathway.
Project description:Purpose:To investigate the role of Gremlin-1, which is an endogenous antagonist of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway, in inducing epithelium-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in fetal RPE cells after repeated wounds. Methods:Subconfluent repetitive passages in fetal RPE cells were regarded as a model of repeated wounds. A phase contrast microscope was used to observe the morphology and pigment formation in cells. The expression of GREM1 (Gene ID: 26585; OMIM 603054) and EMT- or RPE-related genes in cells was evaluated with quantitative PCR (qPCR). Recombinant human protein Gremlin-1 (0.1 ?g/ml) was added every day to investigate the molecular effects of Gremlin-1 on fetal RPE cells. The cell migration rate was investigated using a cell wound scratch assay, and western blotting was used to analyze the representative proteins (P-cadherin, ZO-1, vimentin, Smad4, and phosphorylated-Smads). In addition, transfection of siRNA was used to explore the rescue effects on EMT cells through the downregulation of GREM1. Finally, LDN193189, which is a type of pan-inhibitor of BMP receptors, was used to verify whether complete blocking of the BMP pathway interferes with the redifferentiation in low-passage fetal cells, even if the cells were treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?) inhibitors. Results:In fetal RPE cells, the expression of GREM1 were gradually upregulated with repetitive passages, and at the same time, the function-specific genes in fetal RPE cells (TJP1, PMEL, BEST1, RPE65, and MERTK) were downregulated while the EMT-specific genes were upregulated. In addition, GREM1 had a similar expression pattern as SNAI1, which is a key transcription factor to trigger EMT. Recombinant human Gremlin-1 promoted EMT with the upregulation of SNAI1 and elevated the cell migration rate in a cell scratch assay, as well as decreased the expression of two key transcription factors of RPE embryonic development (MITF and OTX2) and the RPE marker, RPE65. Furthermore, the EMT marker, vimentin, and the TGF-? pathway downstream transcription factor phosphorylated-Smad2 (p-Smad2) increased, but the epithelial marker, ZO-1, was reduced. Additionally, Smad4, which plays a role as a Snail1 cooperator by binding Smad3, was also increased. In contrast, GREM1 silencing increased the expression of MITF and OTX2, which means there was better redifferentiation in subconfluent fetal RPE cells, but it had little influence on p-Smad2 compared to the negative control group. Finally, by adding LDN193189, the BMP signaling pathway was blocked, and this block led to poor redifferentiation in low-passage cells, although the cells were treated with TGF-? inhibitors. In addition, as positive feedback to block the BMP pathway, GREM1 was subsequently upregulated. Conclusions:In fetal RPE cells, Gremlin-1 induces EMT and inhibits redifferentiation by promoting the TGF-? pathway and inhibiting the BMP pathway. GREM1 silencing alleviates EMT and increases the redifferentiation of cells by relieving the blockade of the BMP pathway. However, GREM1 silencing has no effects on the TGF-? pathway. Thus, Gremlin-1 may serve as a novel target to treat proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and inhibit subretinal fibrosis, which is a risk factor for influencing the therapeutic effects of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) on neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD).
Project description:The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) is crucial for tissue differentiation in development and drives essential steps in cancer and fibrosis. EMT is accompanied by reprogramming of gene expression and has been associated with the epithelial stem-cell state in normal and carcinoma cells. The cytokine transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) drives this program in cooperation with other signaling pathways and through TGF-β-activated SMAD3 as the major effector. TGF-β-induced SMAD3 activation is inhibited by SMAD7 and to a lesser extent by SMAD6, and SMAD6 and SMAD7 both inhibit SMAD1 and SMAD5 activation in response to the TGF-β-related bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). We previously reported that, in response to BMP, protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) methylates SMAD6 at the BMP receptor complex, thereby promoting its dissociation from the receptors and enabling BMP-induced SMAD1 and SMAD5 activation. We now provide evidence that PRMT1 also facilitates TGF-β signaling by methylating SMAD7, which complements SMAD6 methylation. We found that PRMT1 is required for TGF-β-induced SMAD3 activation, through a mechanism similar to that of BMP-induced SMAD6 methylation, and thus promotes the TGF-β-induced EMT and epithelial stem-cell generation. This critical mechanism positions PRMT1 as an essential mediator of TGF-β signaling that controls the EMT and epithelial cell stemness through SMAD7 methylation.
Project description:Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signals predominantly through a receptor complex comprising ALK5 and TbetaRII to activate receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) Smad2 and Smad3. In endothelial cells, however, TGF-beta can additionally activate Smad1 and Smad5. Here, we report that TGF-beta also strongly induces phosphorylation of Smad1/5 in many different normal epithelial cells, epithelium-derived tumor cells, and fibroblasts. We demonstrate that TbetaRII and ALK5, as well as ALK2 and/or ALK3, are required for TGF-beta-induced Smad1/5 phosphorylation. We show that the simultaneous activation of the R-Smads Smad2/3 and Smad1/5 by TGF-beta results in the formation of mixed R-Smad complexes, containing, for example, phosphorylated Smad1 and Smad2. The prevalence of these mixed R-Smad complexes explains why TGF-beta-induced Smad1/5 phosphorylation does not result in transcriptional activation via bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-responsive elements, which bind activated Smad1/5-Smad4 complexes that are induced by BMP stimulation. Thus, TGF-beta induces two parallel pathways: one signaling via Smad2-Smad4 or Smad3-Smad4 complexes and the other signaling via mixed R-Smad complexes. Finally, we assess the function of the novel arm of TGF-beta signaling and show that TGF-beta-induced Smad1/5 activation is not required for the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-beta but is specifically required for TGF-beta-induced anchorage-independent growth.