Type III restriction endonucleases are heterotrimeric: comprising one helicase-nuclease subunit and a dimeric methyltransferase that binds only one specific DNA.
ABSTRACT: Fundamental aspects of the biochemistry of Type III restriction endonucleases remain unresolved despite being characterized by numerous research groups in the past decades. One such feature is the subunit stoichiometry of these hetero-oligomeric enzyme complexes, which has important implications for the reaction mechanism. In this study, we present a series of results obtained by native mass spectrometry and size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering consistent with a 1:2 ratio of Res to Mod subunits in the EcoP15I, EcoPI and PstII complexes as the main holoenzyme species and a 1:1 stoichiometry of specific DNA (sDNA) binding by EcoP15I and EcoPI. Our data are also consistent with a model where ATP hydrolysis activated by recognition site binding leads to release of the enzyme from the site, dissociation from the substrate via a free DNA end and cleavage of the DNA. These results are discussed critically in the light of the published literature, aiming to resolve controversies and discuss consequences in terms of the reaction mechanism.
Project description:For efficient DNA cleavage, the Type III restriction endonuclease EcoP15I communicates with two inversely oriented recognition sites in an ATP-dependent process. EcoP15I consists of methylation (Mod) and restriction (Res) subunits forming a multifunctional enzyme complex able to methylate or to cleave DNA. In this study, we determined by different analytical methods that EcoP15I contains a single Res subunit in a Mod(2)Res stoichiometry. The Res subunit comprises a translocase (Tr) domain carrying functional motifs of superfamily 2 helicases and an endonuclease domain with a PD..D/EXK motif. We show that the isolated Tr domain retains ATP-hydrolyzing activity and binds single- and double-stranded DNA in a sequence-independent manner. To localize the regions of DNA binding, we screened peptide arrays representing the entire Res sequence for their ability to interact with DNA. We discovered four DNA-binding regions in the Tr domain and two DNA-binding regions in the endonuclease domain. Modelling of the Tr domain shows that these multiple DNA-binding regions are located on the surface, free to interact with DNA. Interestingly, the positions of the DNA-binding regions are conserved among other Type III restriction endonucleases.
Project description:EcoP15I is the prototype of the Type III restriction enzyme family, composed of two modification (Mod) subunits to which two (or one) restriction (Res) subunits are then added. The Mod subunits are responsible for DNA recognition and methylation, while the Res subunits are responsible for ATP hydrolysis and cleavage. Despite extensive biochemical and genetic studies, there is still no structural information on Type III restriction enzymes. We present here small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and analytical ultracentrifugation analysis of the EcoP15I holoenzyme and the Mod(2) subcomplex. We show that the Mod(2) subcomplex has a relatively compact shape with a radius of gyration (R(G)) of ?37.4 Å and a maximal dimension of ?110 Å. The holoenzyme adopts an elongated crescent shape with an R(G) of ?65.3 Å and a maximal dimension of ?218 Å. From reconstructed SAXS envelopes, we postulate that Mod(2) is likely docked in the middle of the holoenzyme with a Res subunit at each end. We discuss the implications of our model for EcoP15I action, whereby the Res subunits may come together and form a "sliding clamp" around the DNA.
Project description:Type III R-M enzymes were identified >40 years ago and yet there is no structural information on these multisubunit enzymes. Here we report the structure of a Type III R-M system, consisting of the entire EcoP15I complex (Mod2Res1) bound to DNA. The structure suggests how ATP hydrolysis is coupled to long-range diffusion of a helicase on DNA, and how a dimeric methyltransferase functions to methylate only one of the two DNA strands. We show that the EcoP15I motor domains are specifically adapted to bind double-stranded DNA and to facilitate DNA sliding via a novel 'Pin' domain. We also uncover unexpected 'division of labour', where one Mod subunit recognizes DNA, while the other Mod subunit methylates the target adenine--a mechanism that may extend to adenine N6 RNA methylation in mammalian cells. Together the structure sheds new light on the mechanisms of both helicases and methyltransferases in DNA and RNA metabolism.
Project description:We report on the discovery of a new organized lipid-nucleic acid phase upon intercalation of blunt duplexes of short DNA (sDNA) within cationic multilayer fluid membranes. End-to-end interactions between sDNA leads to columnar stacks. At high membrane charge density, with the inter-sDNA column spacing (dsDNA) comparable but larger than the diameter of sDNA, a 2D columnar phase (i.e., a 2D smectic) is found similar to the phase in cationic liposome-DNA complexes with long lambda-phage DNA. Remarkably, with increasing dsDNA as the membrane charge density is lowered, a transition is observed to a 3D columnar phase of stacked sDNA. This occurs even though direct DNA-DNA electrostatic interactions across layers are screened by diffusing cationic lipids near the phosphate groups of sDNA. Softening of the membrane bending rigidity (?), which further promotes membrane undulations, significantly enhances the 3D columnar phase. These observations are consistent with a model by Schiessel and Aranda-Espinoza where local membrane undulations, due to electrostatically induced membrane wrapping around sDNA columns, phase lock from layer-to-layer, thereby precipitating coherent "crystal-like" undulations coupled to sDNA columns with long-range position and orientation order. The finding that this new phase is stable at large dsDNA and enhanced with decreasing ? is further supportive of the model where the elastic cost of membrane deformation per unit area around sDNA columns (? ?h2/dsDNA4, h2 = sum of square of amplitudes of the inner and outer monolayer undulations) is strongly reduced relative to the favorable electrostatic attractions of partially wrapped membrane around sDNA columns. The findings have broad implications in the design of membrane-mediated assembly of functional nanoparticles in 3D.
Project description:The restriction endonuclease CglI from Corynebacterium glutamicum recognizes an asymmetric 5'-GCCGC-3' site and cleaves the DNA 7 and 6/7 nucleotides downstream on the top and bottom DNA strands, respectively, in an NTP-hydrolysis dependent reaction. CglI is composed of two different proteins: an endonuclease (R.CglI) and a DEAD-family helicase-like ATPase (H.CglI). These subunits form a heterotetrameric complex with R2H2 stoichiometry. However, the R2H2·CglI complex has only one nuclease active site sufficient to cut one DNA strand suggesting that two complexes are required to introduce a double strand break. Here, we report studies to evaluate the DNA cleavage mechanism of CglI. Using one- and two-site circular DNA substrates we show that CglI does not require two sites on the same DNA for optimal catalytic activity. However, one-site linear DNA is a poor substrate, supporting a mechanism where CglI complexes must communicate along the one-dimensional DNA contour before cleavage is activated. Based on experimental data, we propose that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis by CglI produces translocation on DNA preferentially in a downstream direction from the target, although upstream translocation is also possible. Our results are consistent with a mechanism of CglI action that is distinct from that of other ATP-dependent restriction-modification enzymes.
Project description:We report the formation of liquid crystalline (LC) phases of short double-stranded DNA with nonpairing (nonsticky) overhangs, confined between two-dimensional (2D) lipid bilayers of cationic liposome-DNA complexes. In a landmark study (Science2007, 318, 1276), Nakata et al. reported on the discovery of strong end-to-end stacking interactions between short DNAs (sDNAs) with blunt ends, leading to the formation of 3D nematic (N) and columnar LC phases. Employing synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering, we have studied the interplay between shape anisotropy-induced and DNA end-to-end interaction-induced N ordering for 11, 24, and 48 bp sDNA rods with single-stranded oligo-thymine (T) overhangs modulating the end-to-end interactions. For suppressed stacking interactions with 10-T overhangs, the volume fraction of sDNA at which the 2D isotropic (I)-to-N transition occurs for 24 and 48 bp sDNA rods depended on their length-to-width (L/D) shape anisotropy, qualitatively consistent with Onsager's theory for the entropic alignment of rigid rods. As the overhang length is reduced from 10 to 5 and 2 T for 24 and 48 bp sDNA, the N-to-I transition occurs at lower volume fractions, indicating the onset of some degree of end-to-end stacking interactions. The 11 bp sDNA rods with 5- and 10-T overhangs remain in the I phase, consistent with their small shape anisotropy (L/D ? 1.9) below the limit for Onsager LC ordering. Unexpectedly, in contrast to the behavior of 24 and 48 bp sDNA, the end-to-end interactions between 11 bp sDNA rods with 2-T overhangs set in dramatically, and a novel 2D columnar N phase (N(C)) with finite-length columns formed. The building blocks of this phase are comprised of 1D stacks of (on average) four 11 bp DNA-2T rods with an effective L(stacked)/D ? 8.2. Our findings have implications for the DNA-directed assembly of nanoparticles on 2D platforms via end-to-end interactions and in designing optimally packed LC phases of short anisotropic biomolecules (such as peptides and short-interfering RNAs) on nanoparticle membranes, which are used in gene silencing and chemical delivery.
Project description:Many DNA-modifying enzymes act in a manner that requires communication between two noncontiguous DNA sites. These sites can be brought into contact either by a diffusion-mediated chance interaction between enzymes bound at the two sites, or by active translocation of the intervening DNA by a site-bound enzyme. EcoP15I, a type III restriction enzyme, needs to interact with two recognition sites separated by up to 3,500 bp before it can cleave DNA. Here, we have studied the behavior of EcoP15I, using a novel fast-scan atomic force microscope, which uses a miniaturized cantilever and scan stage to reduce the mechanical response time of the cantilever and to prevent the onset of resonant motion at high scan speeds. With this instrument, we were able to achieve scan rates of up to 10 frames per s under fluid. The improved time resolution allowed us to image EcoP15I in real time at scan rates of 1-3 frames per s. EcoP15I translocated DNA in an ATP-dependent manner, at a rate of 79 +/- 33 bp/s. The accumulation of supercoiling, as a consequence of movement of EcoP15I along the DNA, could also be observed. EcoP15I bound to its recognition site was also seen to make nonspecific contacts with other DNA sites, thus forming DNA loops and reducing the distance between the two recognition sites. On the basis of our results, we conclude that EcoP15I uses two distinct mechanisms to communicate between two recognition sites: diffusive DNA loop formation and ATPase-driven translocation of the intervening DNA contour.
Project description:Lyotropic phases of amphiphiles are a prototypical example of self-assemblies. Their structure is generally determined by amphiphile shape and their phase transitions are primarily governed by composition. In this paper, we demonstrate a new paradigm for membrane shape control where the electrostatic coupling of charged membranes to short DNA (sDNA), with tunable temperature-dependent end-to-end stacking interactions, enables switching between the inverted gyroid cubic structure (QII(G)) and the inverted hexagonal phase (HII(C)). We investigated the structural shape transitions induced in the QII(G) phase upon complexation with a series of sDNAs (5, 11, 24, and 48 bp) with three types of end structure ("sticky" adenine (A)-thymine (T) (dAdT) overhangs, no overhang (blunt), and "nonsticky" dTdT overhangs) using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering. Very short 5 bp sDNA with dAdT overhangs and blunt ends induce coexistence of the QII(G) and the HII(C) phase, with the fraction of QII(G) increasing with temperature. Phase coexistence for blunt 5 bp sDNA is observed from 27 °C to about 65 °C, where the HII(C) phase disappears and the temperature dependence of the lattice spacing of the QII(G) phase indicates that the sDNA duplexes melt into single strands. The only other sDNA for which melting is observed is 5 bp sDNA with dTdT overhangs, which forms the QII(G) phase throughout the studied range of temperature (27 °C to 85.2 °C). The longer 11 bp sDNA forms coexisting QII(G) and HII(C) phases (with the fraction of QII(G) again increasing with temperature) only for "nonsticky" dTdT overhangs, while dAdT overhangs and blunt ends exclusively template the HII(C) phase. For 24 and 48 bp sDNAs the HII(C) phase replaces the QII(G) phase at all investigated temperatures, independent of sDNA end structure. Our work demonstrates how the combined effects of sDNA length and end structure (which determine the temperature-dependent stacking length) tune the phase behavior of the complexes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that sDNAs and sDNA stacks with lengths comparable to or larger than the cubic unit cell length disfavor the highly curved channels present in the QII(G) phase, thus driving the QII(G)-to-HII(C) phase transition. As the temperature is increased, the breaking of stacks due to thermal fluctuations restores increasing percentages of the QII(G) phase.
Project description:To be useful in optoelectronic devices and sensors, a platform comprising stable fluorescence materials is essential. Here we constructed quantum dots (QDs) embedded DNA thin films which aims for stable fluorescence through the stabilization of QDs in the high aspect ratio salmon DNA (SDNA) matrix. Also for maximum luminescence, different concentration and configurations of core- and core/alloy/shell-type QDs were embedded within SDNA. The QD-SDNA thin films were constructed by drop-casting and investigated their optoelectronic properties. The infrared, UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies confirm the embedment of QDs in the SDNA matrix. Absolute PL quantum yield of the QD-SDNA thin film shows the ~70% boost due to SDNA matrix compared to QDs alone in aqueous phase. The linear increase of PL photon counts from few to order of 5 while increasing [QD] reveals the non-aggregation of QDs within SDNA matrix. These systematic studies on the QD structure, absorbance, and concentration- and thickness-dependent optoelectronic characteristics demonstrate the novel properties of the QD-SDNA thin film. Consequently, the SDNA thin films were suggested to utilize for the generalised optical environments, which has the potential as a matrix for light conversion and harvesting nano-bio material as well as for super resolution bioimaging- and biophotonics-based sensors.
Project description:DNA is considered as a useful building bio-material, and it serves as an efficient template to align functionalized nanomaterials. Riboflavin (RF)-doped synthetic double-crossover DNA (DX-DNA) lattices and natural salmon DNA (SDNA) thin films were constructed using substrate-assisted growth and drop-casting methods, respectively, and their topological, chemical and electro-optical characteristics were evaluated. The critical doping concentrations of RF ([RF]C, approx. 5?mM) at given concentrations of DX-DNA and SDNA were obtained by observing the phase transition (from crystalline to amorphous structures) of DX-DNA and precipitation of SDNA in solution above [RF]C. [RF]C are verified by analysing the atomic force microscopy images for DX-DNA and current, absorbance and photoluminescence (PL) for SDNA. We study the physical characteristics of RF-embedded SDNA thin films, using the Fourier transform infrared spectrum to understand the interaction between the RF and DNA molecules, current to evaluate the conductance, absorption to understand the RF binding to the DNA and PL to analyse the energy transfer between the RF and DNA. The current and UV absorption band of SDNA thin films decrease up to [RF]C followed by an increase above [RF]C. By contrast, the PL intensity illustrates the reverse trend, as compared to the current and UV absorption behaviour as a function of the varying [RF]. Owing to the intense PL characteristic of RF, the DNA lattices and thin films with RF might offer immense potential to develop efficient bio-sensors and useful bio-photonic devices.