Innate lymphoid cells integrate stromal and immunological signals to enhance antibody production by splenic marginal zone B cells.
ABSTRACT: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) regulate stromal cells, epithelial cells and cells of the immune system, but their effect on B cells remains unclear. Here we identified ROR?t(+) ILCs near the marginal zone (MZ), a splenic compartment that contains innate-like B cells highly responsive to circulating T cell-independent (TI) antigens. Splenic ILCs established bidirectional crosstalk with MAdCAM-1(+) marginal reticular cells by providing tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin, and they stimulated MZ B cells via B cell-activation factor (BAFF), the ligand of the costimulatory receptor CD40 (CD40L) and the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (DLL1). Splenic ILCs further helped MZ B cells and their plasma-cell progeny by coopting neutrophils through release of the cytokine GM-CSF. Consequently, depletion of ILCs impaired both pre- and post-immune TI antibody responses. Thus, ILCs integrate stromal and myeloid signals to orchestrate innate-like antibody production at the interface between the immune system and circulatory system.
Project description:Marginal zone (MZ) B cells are positioned within the spleen to capture blood-borne antigen and immune complexes and deliver them to follicular dendritic cells in the B-cell follicles. We show that within the spleens of aged mice antigen capture by MZ B cells, and their ability to shuttle between the follicle and MZ, were impaired. The ability of aged MZ B cells to migrate towards the MZ chemoattractant sphingosine-1-phosphate was increased, suggesting that aged MZ B cells had a greater propensity to be retained within the MZ. An extrinsic impairment in aged B-cell migration towards the MZ was demonstrated using bone marrow chimeras. The follicular shuttling of MZ B cells derived from either young or aged bone marrow was similarly reduced in aged recipient spleens, showing that ageing effects on splenic stromal cells were responsible for the impaired follicular shuttling of MZ B cells. MZ B cells rapidly mount T-cell-independent (TI) antibody-responses to microbial polysaccharide antigen. In aged mice the ability to produce immunoglobulins in response to the TI type 1 antigen TNP-LPS was impaired. These ageing-related changes to the MZ and MZ B cells have implications for the clearance of blood-borne pathogens. Indeed elderly people have increased susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae, a TI antigen, and decreased responses to vaccination. A thorough analysis of the mechanisms that underpin the ageing-related decline in the status of the MZ and MZ B cells will help the design of novel treatments to improve immunity in the elderly.
Project description:Splenic Marginal Zone B cells mount innate-like T cell-independent (TI) antibody responses to blood-borne antigens upon receiving activation signals from TACI-engaging factors BAFF and APRIL. The transcriptome analysis of splenic Marginal Zone (MZ) B cells was performed to verify which transcriptional programs are enhanced in the innate-like MZ B cell subset and to study the involvement of mTOR in MZ B cells activated via TACI. Overall design: Unstimulated human Marginal Zone and Follicular/Naive B cells were FACSorted from spleens of seven (MZ) and three (FO) adult healthy subjects for RNA isolation and Agilent analysis. Moreover, APRIL (500ng/ml) and Rapamycin (10nM) were used to dissect the involvement of mTOR in the induction of Class Switch Recombination and antibody production in MZ B cells activated through TACI.
Project description:Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a fluid-phase pattern recognition receptor of the humoral innate immune system with ancestral antibody-like properties but unknown antibody-inducing function. In this study, we found binding of PTX3 to splenic marginal zone (MZ) B cells, an innate-like subset of antibody-producing lymphocytes strategically positioned at the interface between the circulation and the adaptive immune system. PTX3 was released by a subset of neutrophils that surrounded the splenic MZ and expressed an immune activation-related gene signature distinct from that of circulating neutrophils. Binding of PTX3 promoted homeostatic production of IgM and class-switched IgG antibodies to microbial capsular polysaccharides, which decreased in PTX3-deficient mice and humans. In addition, PTX3 increased IgM and IgG production after infection with blood-borne encapsulated bacteria or immunization with bacterial carbohydrates. This immunogenic effect stemmed from the activation of MZ B cells through a neutrophil-regulated pathway that elicited class switching and plasmablast expansion via a combination of T cell-independent and T cell-dependent signals. Thus, PTX3 may bridge the humoral arms of the innate and adaptive immune systems by serving as an endogenous adjuvant for MZ B cells. This property could be harnessed to develop more effective vaccines against encapsulated pathogens.
Project description:The spleen plays an integral protective role against encapsulated bacterial infections. Our understanding of the associated mechanisms is limited to thymus-independent (TI) antibody production by the marginal zone (MZ) B cells, leaving the contribution of other splenic compartments such as the red pulp (RP) largely unexplored despite asplenic patients succumbing to the infection in the first 24 h, suggesting important antibody-independent mechanisms. In this study, using time-lapse intravital imaging of the spleen, we identify a tropism for Streptococcus pneumoniae in this organ mediated by tissue-resident MZ and RP macrophages and a protective role for two distinct splenic neutrophil populations (Ly6Ghi and Ly6Gintermediate) residing in the splenic RP. Splenic mature neutrophils mediated pneumococcal clearance in the spleen by plucking bacteria off the surface of RP macrophages that caught the majority of bacteria in a complement-dependent manner. This neutrophil phagocytic capacity was further enhanced after TI antibody production. Resident immature neutrophils (Ly6Gintermediate) in the spleen undergo emergency proliferation and mobilization from their splenic niche after pneumococcal stimulation to increase the effector mature neutrophil pool. We demonstrate that splenic neutrophils together with two macrophage populations and MZ B cells regulate systemic S. pneumoniae clearance through complementary mechanisms.
Project description:The adenosine/uridine-rich element (ARE)-binding protein AUF1 functions to regulate the inflammatory response through the targeted degradation of cytokine and other mRNAs that contain specific AREs in their 3' noncoding region (3' NCR). To investigate the role of AUF1 in the immune system, we characterized the lymphoid compartments of AUF1-deficient mice.Mice lacking AUF1 exhibit an altered proportion and size of splenic B cell subsets. We show prominent apoptosis in splenic B cell follicles and reduced expression of Bcl-2, A1, and Bcl-XL correlate with increased turnover and significant reduction in the number and proportion of splenic FO B cells in AUF1-deficient mice. In addition, AUF1-deficient mice exhibit a sharp decrease in splenic size and lymphocyte cellularity. Bone marrow transfer studies demonstrate that AUF1 deficiency induces cell-autonomous defects in mature B cell subsets but not in the overall number of splenocytes. Reconstitution of irradiated adult AUF1-deficient mice with wild-type bone marrow restores the proportion of FO and marginal zone (MZ) B cells, but does not rescue the decrease in the number of splenocytes. Functionally, AUF1-deficient mice mount an attenuated response to T cell-independent (TI) antigen, which correlates with impaired MZ B cell function.These data indicate that AUF1 is important in the maintenance of splenic FO B cells and adequate humoral immune responses.
Project description:Macrophages are professional phagocytic cells that orchestrate innate immune responses and have considerable phenotypic diversity at different anatomical locations. However, the mechanisms that control the heterogeneity of tissue macrophages are not well characterized. Here we found that the nuclear receptor LXR? was essential for the differentiation of macrophages in the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen. LXR-deficient mice were defective in the generation of MZ and metallophilic macrophages, which resulted in abnormal responses to blood-borne antigens. Myeloid-specific expression of LXR? or adoptive transfer of wild-type monocytes restored the MZ microenvironment in LXR?-deficient mice. Our results demonstrate that signaling via LXR? in myeloid cells is crucial for the generation of splenic MZ macrophages and identify an unprecedented role for a nuclear receptor in the generation of specialized macrophage subsets.
Project description:Neutrophils use immunoglobulins to clear antigen, but their role in immunoglobulin production is unknown. Here we identified neutrophils around the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen, a B cell area specialized in T cell-independent immunoglobulin responses to circulating antigen. Neutrophils colonized peri-MZ areas after postnatal mucosal colonization by microbes and enhanced their B cell-helper function after receiving reprogramming signals, including interleukin 10 (IL-10), from splenic sinusoidal endothelial cells. Splenic neutrophils induced immunoglobulin class switching, somatic hypermutation and antibody production by activating MZ B cells through a mechanism that involved the cytokines BAFF, APRIL and IL-21. Neutropenic patients had fewer and hypomutated MZ B cells and a lower abundance of preimmune immunoglobulins to T cell-independent antigens, which indicates that neutrophils generate an innate layer of antimicrobial immunoglobulin defense by interacting with MZ B cells.
Project description:Prion diseases are a unique, infectious, neurodegenerative disorders that can affect animals and humans. Data from mouse transmissions show that efficient infection of the host after intravenous (IV) prion exposure is dependent upon the early accumulation and amplification of the prions on stromal follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in the B cell follicles. How infectious prions are initially conveyed from the blood-stream to the FDC in the spleen is uncertain. Addressing this issue is important as susceptibility to peripheral prion infections can be reduced by treatments that prevent the early accumulation of prions upon FDC. The marginal zone (MZ) in the spleen contains specialized subsets of B cells and macrophages that are positioned to continuously monitor the blood-stream and remove pathogens, toxins and apoptotic cells. The continual shuttling of MZ B cells between the MZ and the B-cell follicle enables them to efficiently capture and deliver blood-borne antigens and antigen-containing immune complexes to splenic FDC. We tested the hypothesis that MZ B cells also play a role in the initial shuttling of prions from the blood-stream to FDC. MZ B cells were temporarily depleted from the MZ by antibody-mediated blocking of integrin function. We show that depletion of MZ B cells around the time of IV prion exposure did not affect the early accumulation of blood-borne prions upon splenic FDC or reduce susceptibility to IV prion infection. In conclusion, our data suggest that the initial delivery of blood-borne prions to FDC in the spleen occurs independently of MZ B cells.
Project description:Contributing to host defenses from the adaptive immune system, splenic marginal zone (MZ) B cells, with their preactivated state and special topographical location, serve essential roles as primary defenders from blood-borne microbes. From studies designed to define the immunologic impact of protein A of Staphylococcus aureus (SpA), a virulence factor with targeted B cell antigen receptor-binding properties, we found that within minutes of in vivo exposure, SpA became surface associated with B lymphocytes and induced trafficking. Within several hours, MZ were completely effaced of affected B cells. This was rapidly followed by massive B cell apoptosis, with accelerated preferential deletion of targeted MZ B cells and impaired responsiveness to T independent immunogens. Subsequently, the temporal recovery of MZ B cells was significantly delayed compared to peripheral follicular B cells (B-2 cells). These studies elucidate the cellular program induced by a natural toxin that is shown to be highly efficient at depleting innate-like B cells important for defense from systemic infection.
Project description:Lipid rafts (LRs) play crucial roles in complex physiological processes, modulating innate and acquired immune responses to pathogens. The transmembrane C-type lectins human dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) and its mouse homolog SIGN-R1 are distributed in LRs and expressed on splenic marginal zone (MZ) macrophages. The DC-SIGN-C1q or SIGN-R1-C1q complex could mediate the immunoglobulin (Ig)-independent classical complement pathway against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Precise roles of LRs during this complement pathway are unknown. Here we show that LRs are indispensable for accelerating the DC-SIGN- or SIGN-R1-mediated classical complement pathway against S. pneumoniae, thus facilitating rapid clearance of the pathogen. The trimolecular complex of SIGN-R1-C1q-C4 was exclusively enriched in LRs of splenic MZ macrophages and their localization was essential for activating C3 catabolism and enhancing pneumococcal clearance, which were abolished in SIGN-R1-knockout mice. However, DC-SIGN replacement on splenic MZ macrophage's LRs of SIGN-R1-depleted mice reversed these defects. Disruption of LRs dramatically reduced pneumococcal uptake and decomposition. Additionally, DC- SIGN, C1q, C4, and C3 were obviously distributed in splenic LRs of cadavers. Therefore, LRs on splenic SIGN-R1+ or DC-SIGN+ macrophages could provide spatially confined and optimal bidirectional platforms, not only for usual intracellular events, for example recognition and phagocytosis of pathogens, but also an unusual extracellular event such as the complement system. These findings improve our understanding of the orchestrated roles of the spleen, unraveling a new innate immune system initiated from splenic MZ LRs, and yielding answers to several long-standing problems, including the need to understand the profound role of LRs in innate immunity, the need to identify how such a small portion of splenic SIGN-R1+ macrophages (<0.05% of splenic macrophages) effectively resist S. pneumoniae, and the need to understand how LRs can promote the protective function of DC-SIGN against S. pneumoniae in the human spleen.