Whole abdominopelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy for desmoplastic small round cell tumor after surgery.
ABSTRACT: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSCRT) is an uncommon pediatric tumor with a poor prognosis. Aggressive multimodality therapy is the current treatment approach; however. treatment toxicity is of concern. We report our results with whole abdominopelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (WAP-IMRT) as a component of multimodality therapy for DSCRT at a single institution.Medical records of all patients with DSCRT who received WAP-IMRT as part of definitive treatment at MD Anderson (2006-2010) were identified and reviewed.Eight patients with DSRCT received WAP-IMRT with a median follow-up of 15.2 months. All patients received multiple courses of chemotherapy followed by surgical debulking of intra-abdominal disease; seven also had intraoperative hyperthermic cisplatin. WAP-IMRT was delivered to a total dose of 30 Gy postoperatively; four patients received a simultaneous boost (6-10 Gy) to sites of gross residual disease. Seven patients received concurrent chemotherapy during WAP-IMRT. No Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 4 nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea occurred during RT. Red-cell transfusions were given to two patients to maintain hemoglobin levels >10 g/dL. Grade 4 cytopenia requiring growth factor support occurred in only one patient; no other significant cytopenias were noted. WAP-IMRT resulted in 25% lower radiation doses to the lumbosacral vertebral bodies and pelvic bones than conventional RT plans. The median time to local or distant failure after WAP-IMRT was 8.73 months in seven patients. One patient who had completed RT 20 months before the last follow-up remains alive without evidence of disease. Five patients (63%) experienced treatment failure in the abdomen. Distant failure occurred in three patients (37.5%).WAP-IMRT with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy was well tolerated after aggressive surgery for DSCRT. Enhanced bone sparing with IMRT probably accounts for the low hematologic toxicity (vs. conventional WAP-RT). This modality should be considered as an additional local-regional control option for DSRCT.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT) is a rare disease affecting predominantly children and young adults and for which the benefit of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) after complete cytoreductive surgery (CCRS) remains unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>To identify patients with DSRCT without extraperitoneal metastases (EPM) who underwent CCRS between 1991 and 2015, a retrospective nation-wide survey was conducted by crossing the prospective and retrospective databases of the French Network for Rare Peritoneal Malignancies, French Reference Network in Sarcoma Pathology, French Sarcoma Clinical Network and French Pediatric Cancer Society.<h4>Results</h4>Among the 107 patients with DSRCT, 48 had no EPM and underwent CCRS. The median peritoneal cancer index (PCI) was 9 (range: 2-27). Among these 48 patients, 38 (79%) had pre- and/or postoperative chemotherapy and 23 (48%) postoperative whole abdominopelvic radiotherapy (WAP-RT). Intraperitoneal chemotherapy was administered to 11 patients (23%): two received early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EPIC) and nine HIPEC. After a median follow-up of 30 months, the median overall survival (OS) of the entire cohort was 42 months. The 2-y and 5-y OS were 72% and 19%. The 2-y and 5-y disease-free survival (DFS) were 30% and 12%. WAP-RT was the only variable associated with longer peritoneal recurrence-free survival and DFS after CCRS. The influence of HIPEC/EPIC on OS and DFS was not statistically conclusive.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The benefit of HIPEC is still unknown and should be evaluated in a prospective trial. The value of postoperative WAP-RT seems to be confirmed.
Project description:The aim of the study was to compare incidences of late gastrointestinal adverse events and clinical outcomes between 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer patients. Between March 2007 and May 2014, 73 cervical cancer patients with high-risk prognostic factors (pelvic lymph node metastasis and/or parametrial invasion) underwent postoperative pelvic radiation therapy (RT) after radical hysterectomy. Of these patients, 33 (45%) and 40 (55%) received 3DCRT and IMRT, respectively. Because the gastrointestinal obstruction rate after postoperative pelvic 3DCRT was high, no concurrent chemotherapy was applied until 2015. The median follow-up period for patients with 3DCRT and IMRT was 82 months (6-113) and 50 months (5-74), respectively. There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) (4-year OS: 85% vs 78%, P = 0.744) or disease-free survival (DFS) (4-year DFS: 73% vs 64%, P = 0.696) between the two groups. Eleven (33%) and 13 (33%) patients experienced recurrence after 3DCRT and IMRT, respectively. The patients who had vaginal invasion from the postoperative pathological finding more frequently had loco-regional recurrence than the patients who did not have vaginal invasion (2.3% vs 17%, P = 0.033). Gastrointestinal obstruction was observed in 9 (27%) and 3 (7.5%) patients for 3DCRT and for IMRT, respectively (P = 0.026). Severe gastrointestinal obstruction that required surgery was observed in 6 (19%) patients, all of whom received adjuvant RT by 3DCRT. IMRT could reduce the incidence of late severe gastrointestinal obstruction after postoperative pelvic RT with a non-inferior clinical efficacy compared with 3DCRT.
Project description:This study evaluated the survival benefit of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared with 3-dimension conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in a large national cohort of patients with early-stage extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL). This retrospective study reviewed patients with early-stage NKTCL treated with high-dose radiation therapy (RT; ?45 Gy) at 16 Chinese institutions. Patients were stratified into 1 of 4 risk groups based on the number of risk factors: low risk (no factors), intermediate-low risk (1 factor), intermediate-high risk (2 factors), and high-risk (3-5 factors). Of the 1691 patients, 981 (58%) received IMRT, and 710 (42%) received 3D-CRT. Unadjusted 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 75.9% and 67.6%, respectively, for IMRT compared with 68.9% (P = .004) and 58.2% (P < .001), respectively, for 3D-CRT. After propensity score match and multivariable analyses to account for confounding factors, IMRT remained significantly associated with improved OS and PFS. The OS and PFS benefits of IMRT persisted in patients treated with modern chemotherapy regimens. Compared with 3D-CRT, IMRT significantly improved OS and PFS for high-risk and intermediate-high-risk patients but provided limited benefits for low-risk or intermediate-low-risk patients. A risk-adapted survival benefit profile of IMRT can be used to select patients and make treatment decisions.
Project description:Purpose NRG Oncology/RTOG 1203 was designed to compare patient-reported acute toxicity and health-related quality of life during treatment with standard pelvic radiation or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in women with cervical and endometrial cancer. Methods Patients were randomly assigned to standard four-field radiation therapy (RT) or IMRT radiation treatment. The primary end point was change in patient-reported acute GI toxicity from baseline to the end of RT, measured with the bowel domain of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC). Secondary end points included change in patient-reported urinary toxicity, change in GI toxicity measured with the Patient-Reported Outcome Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, and quality of life measured with the Trial Outcome Index. Results From 2012 to 2015, 289 patients were enrolled, of whom 278 were eligible. Between baseline and end of RT, the mean EPIC bowel score declined 23.6 points in the standard RT group and 18.6 points in the IMRT group ( P = .048), the mean EPIC urinary score declined 10.4 points in the standard RT group and 5.6 points in the IMRT group ( P = .03), and the mean Trial Outcome Index score declined 12.8 points in the standard RT group and 8.8 points in the IMRT group ( P = .06). At the end of RT, 51.9% of women who received standard RT and 33.7% who received IMRT reported frequent or almost constant diarrhea ( P = .01), and more patients who received standard RT were taking antidiarrheal medications four or more times daily (20.4% v 7.8%; P = .04). Conclusion Pelvic IMRT was associated with significantly less GI and urinary toxicity than standard RT from the patient's perspective.
Project description:Radiation therapy (RT) represents an integral part of a multimodality treatment plan in the definitive, preoperative and postoperative management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Technological advances in RT have enabled a shift from two-dimensional radiotherapy to more conformal techniques. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), the current minimum technological standard for treating NSCLC, allows for more accurate delineation of tumor burden by using computed tomography-based treatment planning instead of two-dimensional radiographs. Intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) and proton therapy represent advancements over 3DCRT that aim to improve the conformity of RT and provide the possibility for dose escalation to the tumor by minimizing radiation dose to organs at risk. Both techniques likely confer benefits to certain anatomic subgroups of NSCLC requiring RT. This article reviews pertinent studies evaluating the use of IMRT and proton therapy in locally advanced NSCLC, and outlines challenges, indications for use, and areas for future research.
Project description:Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is frequently utilized after prostatectomy without strong evidence for an improvement in outcomes compared to conformal radiation therapy (RT). We analyzed a large group of patients treated with RT after radical prostatectomy (RP) to compare complications after IMRT and CRT. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database was queried to identify male Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years or older who underwent prostatectomy with 1+ adverse pathologic features and received postprostatectomy RT between 1995 and 2007. Chi-square test was used to compare baseline characteristics between the treatment groups. First complication events, based upon administrative procedure or diagnosis codes occurring >1 year after start of RT, were compared for IMRT versus CRT groups. Propensity score adjustment was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models of time to first complication were performed. A total of 1686 patients were identified who received RT after RP (IMRT = 634, CRT = 1052). Patients treated with IMRT were more likely to be diagnosed after 2004 (P < 0.001), have minimally invasive prostatectomy (P < 0.001) and have positive margins (P = 0.019). IMRT use increased over time. After propensity score adjustment, IMRT was associated with lower rate of gastrointestinal (GI) complications, and higher rate of genitourinary-incontinence complications, compared to CRT. The observed outcomes after IMRT must be considered when determining the optimal approach for postprostatectomy RT and warrant additional study.
Project description:Purpose:Preoperative chemoradiation is being currently evaluated in 2 randomized international trials. However, chemoradiation for gastric cancer can be associated with relatively high rates of acute toxicity. We compared rates of toxicity, toxicity-related events, and oncologic outcomes in patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and those treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT). Methods and Materials:We retrospectively reviewed records of 202 patients with consecutive gastric cancer treated with preoperative intent radiation therapy at our institution from 1998 to 2018. Patients with gastroesophageal junction involvement and those with metastatic disease were excluded. Eighty-two patients received 3DCRT, and 120 patients received IMRT. The median radiation dose was 45 Gy, and 99% received concurrent chemotherapy. Results:There were no significant differences between the 3DCRT and IMRT groups regarding sex, race, histology, tumor location, histology, or nodal stage. The rate of grade 3 to 4 acute toxicity was significantly lower in patients treated with IMRT compared with 3DCRT (49% vs 70%, P = .004). The composite rate of toxicity-related events (hospitalization, feeding tube use, intravenous rehydration, or radiation therapy breaks) was also significantly lower in patients treated with IMRT compared with 3DCRT (56% vs 85%, P <.001). In addition, 68% of patients who received IMRT and 73% of patients who received 3DCRT underwent subsequent surgical resection (P = .245). Among patients who underwent surgery, the 3-year overall survival rates were not significantly different between those treated with IMRT and 3DCRT (71% vs 69%, P = .786). Patients receiving IMRT had a significantly higher absolute nadir lymphocyte count compared with patients receiving 3DCRT (median, 0.21 vs 0.16 K/UL; P = .047). Conclusions:Our study suggests that IMRT might significantly reduce rates of grade 3 to 4 acute toxicity and toxicity-related events compared with 3DCRT, with no significant difference in oncologic outcomes. IMRT is an appropriate and possibly preferable radiation modality in patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation for gastric cancer.
Project description:Pelvic and paraortic lymph nodal regions are frequent sites of relapse in women with endometrial cancer who have not undergone adjuvant external beam radiation. We investigated outcomes after definitive management of nodal relapses of endometrial cancer with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).Between 2002-2012, 38 patients with endometrial cancer who had no prior external beam radiation were treated definitively using IMRT for regionally confined pelvic or paraortic nodal recurrences. Thirteen (34%) had chemotherapy prior to radiation, and 21 (55%) received concurrent chemotherapy. The nodal basins were typically treated to 45-50Gy, with a boost to the gross tumor to a median total of 64.7Gy (range 59-73Gy).The median overall survival from date of recurrence was 46.1months and the 2-year survival was 71%. Patients who received concurrent chemotherapy had a significantly longer median survival (61.9months versus 28.7months, p=0.034). In-field failures were more frequent in patients who received chemotherapy prior to radiation, had a shorter recurrence-free interval, received a lower radiation dose, and had higher tumor grade. Three patients (8%) experienced grade 3-4 late gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity.Long-term survival can be achieved in women with nodal recurrences of endometrial cancer. The use of concurrent chemotherapy and dose escalation with IMRT as feasible may improve survival for women with isolated nodal recurrences of endometrial cancer.
Project description:Multimodality therapy leads to improved outcomes for adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) over surgery alone. At our institution, adjuvant chemoradiation (chemoRT) using IMRT and SIB is standard of care for resected high-risk disease. In this study, we review our experience with a recent cohort of patients treated in this manner.We identified 18 patients with resected T3 and/or N1 adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus and GEJ who received adjuvant chemoRT. A large elective volume (PTV1) and a smaller high-risk volume (PTV2) were irradiated simultaneously using IMRT and an SIB technique. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Relevant clinical outcomes are reported.The median dose to 95% of PTV1 was 3747cGy and to 95% of PTV2 was 4876cGy. All RT was given in a median of 28 daily fractions. Four patients did not complete chemotherapy. At a median follow up of 952 days from the start of RT, 7 of 18 patients were dead; of these, 3 had developed local recurrence only; 3 had developed both local and distant recurrence; 1 died of a late toxicity, without recurrence. OS was 88% at 1year, 76% at 2 years and 58% at 3 years. Freedom from local recurrence was 88% at 1 year, 82% at 2 years and 82% at 3 years. Freedom from distant recurrence was 72% at 1 year, 67% at 2 years and 56% at 3 years. Toxicity was acceptable.Adjuvant concurrent chemoRT with IMRT and SIB is feasible for resected high-risk adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus and GEJ. Our results describe how modern treatment techniques can be employed as part of a treatment paradigm that is neither commonly used nor commonly described in the literature.
Project description:Peri-operative radiation of retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS) is an important component of multidisciplinary treatment. All retrospective series thus far included patients treated with older radiation therapy (RT) techniques including 2D and 3DRT. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows for selective dose escalation while sparing adjacent organs. We therefore report the first series of patients with RPS treated solely with IMRT, surgery and chemotherapy. We hypothesized that IMRT would permit safe dose escalation and superior rates of local control (LC) in this high-risk patient population.Thirty patients with RPS treated with curative intent between 2006 and 2015 were included in this retrospective study. RT was administered either pre- or post-operatively and IMRT was used in all patients. Statistical comparisons, LC, distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS) were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and univariate Cox regression.Median follow-up time after completion of RT was 36 months (range 1.4-112). Median tumor size was 14 cm (range 3.6 - 28 cm). The most prevalent histologies were liposarcoma in 10 (33%) patients and leiomyosarcoma in 10 (33%) with 21 patients (70%) having high-grade disease. Twenty-eight (93%) patients had surgical resection with 47% having positive margins. Chemotherapy was administered in 9 (30%) patients. RT was delivered pre-operatively in 11 (37%) patients, and post-operatively in 19 (63%) with 60% of patients receiving a simultaneous integrated boost. Pre-operative median RT dose to the high-risk area was 55 Gy (range, 43-66 Gy) while median post-operative dose was 60.4 Gy (range, 45-66.6 Gy). There was one acute grade 3 and one late grade 3 toxicity and no grade 4 or 5 toxicities. Three year actuarial LC, freedom from DM, and OS rates were 84%, 64%, and 68% respectively. Positive surgical margins were associated with a higher risk of local recurrence (p?=?0.02) and decreased OS (p?=?0.04). Pre-operative RT was associated with improved LC (p?=?0.1) with a 5-year actuarial LC of 100%. Administration of chemotherapy, timing of RT, histology or grade was not predictive of OS.Patients with RPS treated with peri-operative IMRT at our institution had excellent local control and low incidences of toxicity.