Bacillus subtilis SalA (YbaL) negatively regulates expression of scoC, which encodes the repressor for the alkaline exoprotease gene, aprE.
ABSTRACT: During the course of screening for exoprotease-deficient mutants among Bacillus subtilis gene disruptants, a strain showing such a phenotype was identified. The locus responsible for this phenotype was the previously unknown gene ybaL, which we renamed salA. The predicted gene product encoded by salA belongs to the Mrp family, which is widely conserved among archaea, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. Disruption of salA resulted in a decrease in the expression of a lacZ fusion of the aprE gene encoding the major extracellular alkaline protease. The decrease was recovered by the cloned salA gene on a plasmid, demonstrating that the gene is involved in aprE expression. Determination of the cis-acting region of SalA on the upstream region of aprE, together with epistatic analyses with scoC, abrB, and spo0A mutations that also affect aprE expression, suggested that salA deficiency affects aprE-lacZ expression through the negative regulator ScoC. Northern and reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed enhanced levels of scoC transcripts in the salA mutant cells in the transition and early stationary phases. Concomitant with these observations, larger amounts of the ScoC protein were detected in the mutant cells by Western analysis. From these results we conclude that SalA negatively regulates scoC expression. It was also found that the expression of a salA-lacZ fusion was increased by salA deficiency, suggesting that salA is autoregulated.
Project description:The availability of the complete sequence of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome (F. Kunst et al., Nature 390:249-256, 1997) makes possible the construction of genome-wide DNA arrays and the study of this organism on a global scale. Because we have a long-standing interest in the effects of scoC on late-stage developmental phenomena as they relate to aprE expression, we studied the genome-wide effects of a scoC null mutant with the goal of furthering the understanding of the role of scoC in growth and developmental processes. In the present work we compared the expression patterns of isogenic B. subtilis strains, one of which carries a null mutation in the scoC locus (scoC4). The results obtained indicate that scoC regulates, either directly or indirectly, the expression of at least 560 genes in the B. subtilis genome. ScoC appeared to repress as well as activate gene expression. Changes in expression were observed in genes encoding transport and binding proteins, those involved in amino acid, carbohydrate, and nucleotide and/or nucleoside metabolism, and those associated with motility, sporulation, and adaptation to atypical conditions. Changes in gene expression were also observed for transcriptional regulators, along with sigma factors, regulatory phosphatases and kinases, and members of sensor regulator systems. In this report, we discuss some of the phenotypes associated with the scoC mutant in light of the transcriptome changes observed.
Project description:CodY and ScoC are Bacillus subtilis transcriptional regulators that control the expression of dozens of genes and operons. Using scoC-lacZ fusions and DNA-binding experiments, we show here that scoC is directly repressed by CodY. This effect creates multiple forms of cascade regulation. For instance, expression of the dtpT gene, which is directly and negatively controlled by ScoC and encodes a putative oligopeptide permease, was activated indirectly by CodY due to CodY-mediated repression of scoC. The opp operon, which encodes an oligopeptide permease that is essential for sporulation and genetic competence development, proved to be a direct target of repression by both ScoC and CodY but was not significantly affected in codY or scoC single mutants. The combined actions of CodY and ScoC maintain opp repression when either one of the regulators loses activity but limit the level of repression to that provided by one of the regulators acting alone. Under conditions of nitrogen limitation, repression by ScoC of dtpT and opp was partly prevented by TnrA. Thus, the functioning of ScoC is determined by other transcription factors via modulation of its expression or DNA binding.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive and endospore-forming bacterium broadly existing in a variety of environmental niches. Because it produces and secrets many industrially useful enzymes, a lot of studies have been done to understand the underlying mechanisms. Among them, scoC was originally identified as a pleiotropic transcription factor negatively regulating protease production and sporulation in B. subtilis. Nevertheless, its role in B. pumilus largely remains unknown. RESULTS:In this study we successfully disrupted scoC gene in B. pumilus BA06 and found increased total extracellular protease activity in scoC mutant strain. Surprisingly, we also found that scoC disruption reduced cell motility possibly by affecting flagella formation. To better understand the underlying mechanism, we performed transcriptome analysis with RNA sequencing. The result showed that more than one thousand genes were alternated at transcriptional level across multiple growth phases, and among them the largest number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at the transition time point (12 h) between the exponential growth and the stationary growth phases. In accordance with the altered phenotype, many protease genes especially the aprE gene encoding alkaline protease were transcriptionally regulated. In contrast to the finding in B. subtilis, the aprN gene encoding neutral protease was transcriptionally downregulated in B. pumilus, implicating that scoC plays strain-specific roles. CONCLUSIONS:The pleiotropic transcription factor ScoC plays multiple roles in various cellular processes in B. pumilus, some of which were previously reported in B. subtilis. The supervising finding is the identification of ScoC as a positive regulator for flagella formation and bacterial motility. Our transcriptome data may provide hints to understand the underlying mechanism.
Project description:Bacillus subtilis mutants with high expression of the bacilysin operon ywfBCDEFG were isolated. Comparative genome sequencing analysis revealed that all of these mutants have a mutation in the scoC gene. The disruption of scoC by genetic engineering also resulted in increased expression of ywfBCDEFG. Primer extension and gel mobility shift analyses showed that the ScoC protein binds directly to the promoter region of ywfBCDEFG. Our results indicate that the transition state regulator ScoC, together with CodY and AbrB, negatively regulates bacilysin production in B. subtilis.
Project description:Streptococcus salivarius 20P3 produces a 22-amino-acid residue lantibiotic, designated salivaricin A (SalA), that inhibits the growth of a range of streptococci, including all strains of Streptococcus pyogenes. Lantibiotic production is associated with the sal genetic locus comprising salA, the lantibiotic structural gene; salBCTX genes encoding peptide modification and export machinery proteins; and salYKR genes encoding a putative immunity protein and two-component sensor-regulator system. Insertional inactivation of salB in S. salivarius 20P3 resulted in abrogation of SalA peptide production, of immunity to SalA, and of salA transcription. Addition of exogenous SalA peptide to salB mutant cultures induced dose-dependent expression of salA mRNA (0.2 kb), demonstrating that SalA production was normally autoregulated. Inactivation of salR encoding the response regulator of the SalKR two-component system led to reduced production of, and immunity to, SalA. The sal genetic locus was also present in S. pyogenes SF370 (M type 1), but because of a deletion across the salBCT genes, the corresponding lantibiotic peptide, designated SalA1, was not produced. However, in S. pyogenes T11 (M type 4) the sal locus gene complement was apparently complete, and active SalA1 peptide was synthesized. Exogenously added SalA1 peptide from S. pyogenes T11 induced salA1 transcription in S. pyogenes SF370 and in an isogenic S. pyogenes T11 salB mutant and salA transcription in S. salivarius 20P3 salB. Thus, SalA and SalA1 are examples of streptococcal lantibiotics whose production is autoregulated. These peptides act as intra- and interspecies signaling molecules, modulating lantibiotic production and possibly influencing streptococcal population ecology in the oral cavity.
Project description:In Aeromonas hydrophila, the ahyI gene encodes a protein responsible for the synthesis of the quorum sensing signal N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). Inactivation of the ahyI gene on the A. hydrophila chromosome abolishes C4-HSL production. The exoprotease activity of A. hydrophila consists of both serine protease and metalloprotease activities; in the ahyI-negative strain, both are substantially reduced but can be restored by the addition of exogenous C4-HSL. In contrast, mutation of the LuxR homolog AhyR results in the loss of both exoprotease activities, which cannot be restored by exogenous C4-HSL. Furthermore, a substantial reduction in the production of exoprotease by the ahyI+ parent strain is obtained by the addition of N-acylhomoserine lactone analogs that have acyl side chains of 10, 12, or 14 carbons. The inclusion of N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone or N-(3-oxotetradecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone at 10 microM in overnight cultures of A. hydrophila abolishes exoprotease production in azocasein assays and reduces the activity of all the exoprotease species seen in zymograms.
Project description:The short coiled coil protein (SCOC) forms a complex with fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1 (FEZ1). This complex is involved in autophagy regulation. We determined the crystal structure of the coiled coil domain of human SCOC at 2.7 Å resolution. SCOC forms a parallel left handed coiled coil dimer. We observed two distinct dimers in the crystal structure, which shows that SCOC is conformationally flexible. This plasticity is due to the high incidence of polar and charged residues at the core a/d-heptad positions. We prepared two double mutants, where these core residues were mutated to either leucines or valines (E93V/K97L and N125L/N132V). These mutations led to a dramatic increase in stability and change of oligomerisation state. The oligomerisation state of the mutants was characterized by multi-angle laser light scattering and native mass spectrometry measurements. The E93V/K97 mutant forms a trimer and the N125L/N132V mutant is a tetramer. We further demonstrate that SCOC forms a stable homogeneous complex with the coiled coil domain of FEZ1. SCOC dimerization and the SCOC surface residue R117 are important for this interaction.
Project description:Sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) rates provide important information about biogeochemical processes in marine sediments and the activity of benthic microorganisms and fauna. Therefore, several databases of SCOC data have been compiled since the mid-1990s. However, these earlier databases contained much less data records and were not freely available. Additionally, the databases were not transparent in their selection procedure, so that other researchers could not assess the quality of the data. Here, we present the largest, best documented, and freely available database of SCOC data compiled to date. The database is comprised of 3,540 georeferenced SCOC records from 230 studies that were selected following the procedure for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Each data record states whether the oxygen consumption was measured ex situ or in situ, as total oxygen uptake, diffusive or advective oxygen uptake, and which measurement device was used. The database will be curated and updated annually to secure and maintain an up-to-date global database of SCOC data.
Project description:The rhizosphere nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum irakense KBC1 is able to grow on pectin and beta-glucosides such as cellobiose, arbutin, and salicin. Two adjacent genes, salA and salB, conferring beta-glucosidase activity to Escherichia coli, have been identified in a cosmid library of A. irakense DNA. The SalA and SalB enzymes preferentially hydrolyzed aryl beta-glucosides. A Delta(salA-salB) A. irakense mutant was not able to grow on salicin but could still utilize arbutin, cellobiose, and glucose for growth. This mutant could be complemented by either salA or salB, suggesting functional redundancy of these genes in salicin utilization. In contrast to this functional homology, the SalA and SalB proteins, members of family 3 of the glycosyl hydrolases, show a low degree of amino acid similarity. Unlike SalA, the SalB protein exhibits an atypical truncated C-terminal region. We propose that SalA and SalB are representatives of the AB and AB' subfamilies, respectively, in glycosyl hydrolase family 3. This is the first genetic implication of this beta-glucosidase family in the utilization of beta-glucosides for microbial growth.
Project description:Analysis of two virulence mutants of Pseudomonas syringae B728a revealed that the Tn 5 sites of insertion were within the gidA open reading frame (ORF). These mutations were pleiotropic, affecting diverse phenotypic traits, such as lipodepsipeptide (syringomycin and syringopeptin) antibiotic production, swarming, presence of fluorescent pigment, and virulence. Site-specific recombination of a disrupted gidA gene into the chromosome resulted in the same phenotypic pattern as transposon insertion. Mutant phenotypes were restored by the gidA ORF on a plasmid. The salA gene, a copy number suppressor of the syringomycin-deficient phenotype in gacS and gacA mutants, was also found to suppress the antibiotic-negative phenotypes of gidA mutants, suggesting that gidA might play some role in salA regulation. Reporter studies with chromosomal salA-lacZ translational fusions confirmed that salA reporter expression decreased approximately fivefold in a gidA mutant background, with a concurrent decrease in the expression of the syringomycin biosynthetic reporter fusion syrB-lacZ. Wild-type levels of reporter expression were restored by supplying an intact gidA gene on a plasmid. Often described as being involved in cell division, more recent evidence suggests a role for gidA in moderating translational fidelity, suggesting a mechanism by which global regulation might occur. The gidA gene is essentially universal in the domains Bacteria and Eucarya but has no counterparts in Archaea, probably reflecting specific differences in the translational machinery between the former and latter domains.