Effects and mechanism of aromatic aminoketone SY0916 on osteoclastic bone destruction.
ABSTRACT: AIM: To study the effects and mechanism of aromatic aminoketone (SY0916) on bone destruction in vitro. METHODS: MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow cells were co-cultured to obtain purified osteoclasts. The proliferation of osteoclast-like cells (OCLs) was determined by MTT assay. The number of osteoclasts was measured by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. The functioning of osteoclasts was determined by measuring the area of bone resorption pits on bone slices. MMP-9 secretion by osteoclasts was measured by an ELISA kit. Osteoclast apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry using an AnnexinV-FITC kit. Gene expression of RANK and MMP-9 in osteoclasts as well as RANKL and OPG in MC3T3-E1 cells was determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS: SY0916 significantly inhibited the proliferation of OCLs, decreased both the total and average area of bone resorption pits, and dramatically inhibited the number of osteoclasts between concentrations of 0.01 and 10 micromol/L. Furthermore, SY0916 reversed IL-1 beta-mediated inhibition of osteoclast apoptosis and shortened osteoclast lifespan. In addition, SY0916 significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of RANK, RANKL, OPG, and MMP-9. However, the inhibition of OPG was weaker than that of RANKL. Accordingly, the ratio of RANKL to OPG mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 cells was significantly decreased by SY0916. Meanwhile, the expression of MMP-9 protein in osteoclasts was inhibited by SY0916 between 0.01 and 10 micromol/L. CONCLUSION: SY0916 prevents osteoclastic bone destruction by inhibiting the proliferation and function of osteoclasts. The underlying mechanism for this effect involves the regulation of the RANKL-OPG-RANK axis, which determines the direction of bone metabolism.
Project description:Osteoclasts, the multinucleated cells that resorb bone, develop from hematopoietic cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Osteoclast-like cells (OCLs) are formed by coculturing spleen cells with osteoblasts or bone marrow stromal cells in the presence of bone-resorbing factors. The cell-to-cell interaction between osteoblasts/stromal cells and osteoclast progenitors is essential for OCL formation. Recently, we purified and molecularly cloned osteoclastogenesis-inhibitory factor (OCIF), which was identical to osteoprotegerin (OPG). OPG/OCIF is a secreted member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and inhibits osteoclastogenesis by interrupting the cell-to-cell interaction. Here we report the expression cloning of a ligand for OPG/OCIF from a complementary DNA library of mouse stromal cells. The protein was found to be a member of the membrane-associated tumor necrosis factor ligand family and induced OCL formation from osteoclast progenitors. A genetically engineered soluble form containing the extracellular domain of the protein induced OCL formation from spleen cells in the absence of osteoblasts/stromal cells. OPG/OCIF abolished the OCL formation induced by the protein. Expression of its gene in osteoblasts/stromal cells was up-regulated by bone-resorbing factors. We conclude that the membrane-bound protein is osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), a long-sought ligand mediating an essential signal to osteoclast progenitors for their differentiation into osteoclasts. ODF was found to be identical to TRANCE/RANKL, which enhances T-cell growth and dendritic-cell function. ODF seems to be an important regulator in not only osteoclastogenesis but also immune system.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM)-induced bone disease occurs through hyperactivation of osteoclasts by several factors secreted by MM cells. MM cell-secreted factors induce osteoclast differentiation and activation via direct and indirect actions including enhanced expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL) in osteoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is elevated in MM patients and is associated with MM-induced bone disease, although the mechanism by which HGF promotes bone disease remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that HGF induces RANKL expression in osteoblasts and BMSCs, and investigated the mechanism of induction. We found that HGF and MM cell supernatants induced RANKL expression in ST2 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells, and mouse BMSCs. In addition, HGF increased phosphorylation of Met and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in ST2 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells, or mouse BMSCs. Moreover, Met and NF-?B inhibitors suppressed HGF-induced RANKL expression in ST2 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells, and mouse BMSCs. These results indicated that HGF promotes RANKL expression in osteoblasts and BMSCs via the Met/NF-?B signaling pathway, and Met and NF-?B inhibitors suppressed HGF-induced RANKL expression. Our findings suggest that Met and NF-?B inhibitors are potentially useful in mitigating MM-induced bone disease in patients expressing high levels of HGF.
Project description:The bone destruction disease including osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis are caused by the imbalance between osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Inhibition of the NF-?B pathway was responsible for decreased osteoclastogenesis. Recently many studies indicated that niclosamide, the FDA approved an antihelminth drug, inhibits prostate and breast cancer cells growth by targeting NF-?B signaling pathways. This study evaluated the effects of niclosamide on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation and function in vitro. In RANKL-induced murine osteoclast precursor cell RAW264.7 and M-CSF/RANKL-stimulated primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM), niclosamide dose-dependently inhibited the formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts and resorption pits formation between 0.5uM and 1uM. In addition, niclosamide suppressed the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and osteoclast differentiated-related genes in M-CSF/ RANKL-stimulated BMM by interference with TRAF-6, Erk1/2, JNK and NF-?B activation pathways. However, the cytotoxic effects of niclosamide obviously appeared at the effective concentrations for inhibiting osteoclastogenesis (0.5-1uM) with increase of apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in osteoblast precursor cell line, MC3T3-E1. Niclosamide also inhibited ALP activity, bone mineralization and osteoblast differentiation-related genes expression in MC3T3-E1. Therefore, our findings suggest the new standpoint that niclosamide's effects on bones must be considered before applying it in any therapeutic treatment.
Project description:MiR-21 is being gradually more and more recognized as a molecule regulating bone tissue homeostasis. However, its function is not fully understood due to the dual role of miR-21 on bone-forming and bone-resorbing cells. In this study, we investigated the impact of miR-21 inhibition on pre-osteoblastic cells differentiation and paracrine signaling towards pre-osteoclasts using indirect co-culture model of mouse pre-osteoblast (MC3T3) and pre-osteoclast (4B12) cell lines. The inhibition of miR-21 in MC3T3 cells (MC3T3inh21) modulated expression of genes encoding osteogenic markers including collagen type I (Coll-1), osteocalcin (Ocl), osteopontin (Opn), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2). Inhibition of miR-21 in osteogenic cultures of MC3T3 also inflected the synthesis of OPN protein which is essential for proper mineralization of extracellular matrix (ECM) and anchoring osteoclasts to the bones. Furthermore, it was shown that in osteoblasts miR-21 regulates expression of factors that are vital for survival of pre-osteoclast, such as receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL). The pre-osteoclast cultured with MC3T3inh21 cells was characterized by lowered expression of several markers associated with osteoclasts' differentiation, foremost tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap) but also receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (Rank), cathepsin K (Ctsk), carbonic anhydrase II (CaII), and matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp-9). Collectively, our data indicate that the inhibition of miR-21 in MC3T3 cells impairs the differentiation and ECM mineralization as well as influences paracrine signaling leading to decreased viability of pre-osteoclasts.
Project description:In bone remodeling, after a lifespan of ?2 weeks, osteoclasts undergo apoptosis in each bone turnover cycle, resulting in generation of a large number of apoptotic bodies (ABs). However, the biological roles of osteoclast-derived ABs (OC-ABs) in bone remodeling have not been investigated and remain unknown. In this study, we stimulated bone marrow macrophages with receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) to obtain both preosteoclasts and mature osteoclasts (mOCs). We then used alendronate to induce apoptosis in preosteoclasts and mOCs and generate the respective ABs and used flow cytometry and immunoblotting to characterize the sizes and immunogenic characteristics of the extracted ABs. We show that mOC-ABs are engulfed by preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and promote the viability of these cells. Among all osteoclast-derived extracellular vesicles, mOC-ABs had the highest osteogenic potency. We further observed that mOC-ABs had the highest vesicular receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK) levels among all types of osteoclast-derived extracellular vesicles. Of note, masking of vesicular RANK by soluble RANKL strongly abolished the osteogenic potency of osteoclast-derived ABs. Mechanistically, we found that mOC-ABs induce osteoblast differentiation by activatingPI3K/AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal protein S6 kinase signaling. In conclusion, OC-ABs promote osteogenic differentiation by stimulating osteoblast differentiation via activation of RANKL reverse signaling. These findings provide important insights into the reversal phase between the bone resorption and formation stages during bone remodeling and identify an AB-dependent cellular signaling mechanism in osteoclast-osteoblast coupling.
Project description:This aim of this study was to assess the molecular mechanism of osteoporosis in schizophrenia patients with risperidone use. Here, we investigated the effects of risperidone on cellular proliferation and apoptosis of a preosteoblast cell line, MC3T3-E1. Cell viability and apoptotic rate of MC3T3-E1 were detected by cell counting kit-8 and flow cytometry at a serial dose of risperidone and at different time points, respectively. Bone transformation relevant gene serum osteocalcin (BGP), collagen 1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR (qPCR). Their protein expression patterns were evaluated using western blot. The results revealed that risperidone dramatically inhibited MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. It also significantly induced MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis. TNF-α gene and protein levels were greatly enhanced after risperidone treatment. In contrast, BGP, collagen 1, OPG, and RANKL gene and protein levels were markedly downregulated. Our study indicated that risperidone suppressed MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. It also regulated BGP gene and protein expression.
Project description:Aconitum pseudo-laeve var. erectum (APE) has been widely shown in herbal medicine to have a therapeutic effect on inflammatory conditions. However, there has been no evidence on whether the extract of APE is involved in the biological bone metabolism process, particularly osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. In this study, we confirmed that the administration of APE could restore normal skeletal conditions in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss via a decrease in the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio and osteoclast number. We then investigated the effect of APE on the RANKL-induced formation and function of osteoclasts to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. APE suppressed the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells, as well as the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Furthermore, APE attenuated nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and c-Fos without affecting any early signal pathway of osteoclastogenesis. Subsequently, APE significantly downregulated the expression of various genes exclusively expressed in osteoclasts. These results demonstrate that APE restores LPS-induced bone loss through a decrease of the serum RANKL/OPG ratio, and inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function, suggesting the promise of APE as a potential cure for various osteoclast-associated bone diseases.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the ability of osteoclasts during bone resorption activities to regulate the differentiation and calcification of osteoblast precursor cells. The bone resorption model was established using in vitro cortical bone slices and mouse RAW264.7 cells, which were differentiated into osteoclasts by stimulation with the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to detect osteoclast differentiation. The osteoblast precursor cell line MC3T3-E1 was cultured with the bone resorption supernatant (BRS). Involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway in osteogenesis was evaluated by Western blotting, RT-PCR, and ELISA analysis of markers of the early (runt-related transcription factor-2 and alkaline phosphatase) and late (osteocalcin [OCN]) stages of osteogenesis, and Alizarin Red S staining of matrix mineralization. TRAP staining, RT-PCR, and SEM analysis demonstrated the successful establishment of the bone resorption model. Osteoclast BRS effectively increased the differentiation and calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells. Western blot analysis indicated that the BRS enhanced AKT and p-AKT expression levels in MC3T3-E1 cells. Following AKT2 knockdown and treatment with the PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002, the expression of OCN in MC3T3-E1 cells was decreased (p<0.05), as was the calcification area (p<0.05). The data obtained in this study indicated that the osteoclast bone resorption medium promoted the differentiation and calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells and that the PI3K/AKT pathway played a role in this process.
Project description:Bone is a common site for cancer metastasis. To create space for their growth, cancer cells stimulate bone resorbing osteoclasts. Cytokine RANKL is a key osteoclast activator, while osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a RANKL decoy receptor and an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Consistently, systemic application of OPG decreases metastatic tumor burden in bone. However, OPG produced locally by cancer cells was shown to enhance osteolysis and tumor growth. We propose that OPG produced by cancer cells causes a local reduction in RANKL levels, inducing a steeper RANKL gradient away from the tumor and towards the bone tissue, resulting in faster resorption and tumor expansion. We tested this hypothesis using a mathematical model of nonlinear partial differential equations describing the spatial dynamics of OPG, RANKL, PTHrP, osteoclasts, tumor and bone mass. We demonstrate that at lower expression rates, tumor-derived OPG enhances the chemotactic RANKL gradient and osteolysis, whereas at higher expression rates OPG broadly inhibits RANKL and decreases osteolysis and tumor burden. Moreover, tumor expression of a soluble mediator inducing RANKL in the host tissue, such as PTHrP, is important for correct orientation of the RANKL gradient. A meta-analysis of OPG, RANKL and PTHrP expression in normal prostate, carcinoma and metastatic tissues demonstrated an increase in expression of OPG, but not RANKL, in metastatic prostate cancer, and positive correlation between OPG and PTHrP in metastatic prostate cancer. The proposed mechanism highlights the importance of the spatial distribution of receptors, decoys and ligands, and can be applied to other systems involving regulation of spatially anisotropic processes.
Project description:Bone marrow stromal cells/osteoblasts were originally thought to be the major player in regulating osteoclast differentiation through expressing RANKL/OPG cytokines. Recent studies have established that chondrocytes also express RANKL/OPG and support osteoclast formation. Till now, the in vivo function of chondrocyte-produced OPG in osteoclast formation and postnatal bone growth has not been directly investigated. In this study, chondrocyte-specific Opg transgenic mice were generated by using type II collagen promoter. The Col2-Opg transgenic mice showed delayed formation of secondary ossification center and localized increase of bone mass in proximal metaphysis of tibiae. TRAP staining showed that osteoclast numbers were reduced in both secondary ossification center and proximal metaphysis. This finding was further confirmed by in vitro chondrocyte/spleen cell co-culture assay. In contrast, the mineral apposition rates were not changed in Col2-Opg transgenic mice. TUNEL staining revealed more apoptotic hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate of Col2-Opg mice. Flow cytometry analysis showed fewer RANK-expressing cells in the marrow of Col2a1-Opg mice, suggesting the role of OPG in blocking the differentiation of early mesenchymal progenitors into RANK-expressing pre-osteoclasts. Our results demonstrated that OPG expression in chondrocyte increases bone mass in the proximal metaphysis of tibiae through negative regulation of osteoclast formation.