Cobicistat (GS-9350): A Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Human CYP3A as a Novel Pharmacoenhancer.
ABSTRACT: Cobicistat (3, GS-9350) is a newly discovered, potent, and selective inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes. In contrast to ritonavir, 3 is devoid of anti-HIV activity and is thus more suitable for use in boosting anti-HIV drugs without risking selection of potential drug-resistant HIV variants. Compound 3 shows reduced liability for drug interactions and may have potential improvements in tolerability over ritonavir. In addition, 3 has high aqueous solubility and can be readily coformulated with other agents.
Project description:The pharmacoenhancement of plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors by coadministration of so-called boosters has been an integral part of antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for 1.5 decades. Nearly all HIV protease inhibitors are combined with low-dose ritonavir or cobicistat, which are able to effectively inhibit the cytochrome-mediated metabolism of HIV protease inhibitors in the liver and thus enhance the plasma concentration and prolong the dosing interval of the antiretrovirally active combination partners. Therapies created in this way are clinically effective regimens, being convenient for patients and showing a high genetic barrier to viral resistance. In addition to ritonavir, which has been in use since 1996, cobicistat, a new pharmacoenhancer, has been approved and is widely used now. The outstanding property of cobicistat is its cytochrome P450 3A-selective inhibition of hepatic metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, in contrast with ritonavir, which not only inhibits but also induces a number of cytochrome P450 enzymes, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, P-glycoprotein, and other cellular transporters. This article reviews the current literature, and compares the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of both pharmacoenhancers and discusses the clinical utility of cobicistat in up-to-date and future HIV therapy.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy has evolved over the last 20 years from mono-drug therapy given five times daily to regimens consisting of three or four drugs combined in a single-tablet dosed once daily. To allow once-daily administration, several drugs require pharmacokinetic boosting by a concomitantly administered P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 inhibitor such as ritonavir. The availability of cobicistat provides an alternative to ritonavir to those who are intolerant to this drug, and the opportunity for co-formulated single-tablet regimens consisting of tenofovir/emtricitabine, cobicistat and elvitegravir, atazanavir or darunavir. The cobicistat/elvitegravir-based regimen is well tolerated and patients achieved high rates of HIV RNA suppression in clinical trials. Cobicistat inhibits renal tubular secretion of creatinine, resulting in increased serum creatinine concentrations and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, with a new set point reached after 4 weeks. Treatment limiting renal toxicity with cobicistat/elvitegravir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is infrequent and may be further reduced when cobicistat is co-formulated with tenofovir alafenamide fumarate, a novel formation of tenofovir currently undergoing clinical trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cobicistat is an alternative pharmacoenhancer to ritonavir. In healthy volunteers, darunavir exposure was comparable when darunavir 800 mg once daily was co-administered with cobicistat 150 mg once daily (as single agents or a fixed-dose combination) vs. with ritonavir 100 mg once daily. METHODS:This 48-week, Phase IIIb, single-arm, US multicenter study (NCT01440569) evaluated safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of darunavir/cobicistat 800/150 mg once daily (as single agents) plus two investigator-selected nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N[t]RTIs) in HIV-1-infected adults. Patients had no darunavir resistance-associated mutations (RAMs), plasma viral load (VL) ?1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml, eGFR ?80 ml/min and genotypic sensitivity to the two N[t]RTIs. The primary endpoint was any treatment-emergent grade 3 or 4 adverse events (AEs) through Week 24. RESULTS:The majority of the 313 intent-to-treat patients were treatment-naïve (295/313; 94%), male (89%), White (60%) and received a tenofovir-based regimen (99%). Median baseline VL and CD4(+) count overall were 4.8 log10 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml and 361 cells/mm(3), respectively. Overall, 86% of patients (268/313) completed the study. The majority of discontinuations were for AEs (15/313; 5%). The incidence of treatment-emergent grade 3 or 4 AEs regardless of causality was 6% through Week 24 and 8% through Week 48. Most common AEs through Week 48 were diarrhea (27%) and nausea (23%), which were grade 1 or 2 in severity. Week 48 virologic response rates (% with VL <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml; Snapshot analysis) were 81% overall and 83% in treatment-naïve patients; median increases in CD4(+) count at 48 weeks were 167 and 169 cells/mm(3), respectively. Of 15/313 patients who met the criteria for resistance analysis, one developed a darunavir RAM as a mixture with wild-type (I84I/V), without phenotypic resistance to darunavir. The mean population pharmacokinetic-derived darunavir areas under the plasma concentration-time curve were 102,000 overall and 100,620 ng•h/ml in treatment-naïve patients. No clinically relevant relationships were seen between darunavir exposure and virologic response, AEs or laboratory parameters. CONCLUSION:Darunavir/cobicistat 800/150 mg once daily was generally well tolerated through Week 48, with no new safety concerns. Pharmacokinetics, virologic and immunologic responses for darunavir/cobicistat were similar to previous data for darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily.
Project description:Dabigatran etexilate (DE) is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) probe substrate, and its active anticoagulant moiety, dabigatran, is a substrate of the multidrug and toxin extrusion protein-1 (MATE-1) transporter. The antiretroviral pharmacokinetic enhancers, ritonavir and cobicistat, inhibit both these transporters. Healthy volunteers received single doses of DE at 150 mg alone, followed by ritonavir at 100 mg or cobicistat at 150 mg daily for 2 weeks. DE was then given 2 h before ritonavir or cobicistat. One week later, DE was given simultaneously with ritonavir or cobicistat. No significant increases in dabigatran pharmacokinetic (PK) exposure or thrombin time (TT) measures were observed with the simultaneous administration of ritonavir. Separated administration of ritonavir resulted in a mean decrease in dabigatran PK exposure of 29% (90% confidence interval [CI], 18 to 40%) but did not significantly change TT measures. However, cobicistat increased dabigatran PK exposure (area under the concentration-versus-time curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration) by 127% each (90% CI, 81 to 173% and 59 to 196%, respectively) and increased TT measures (33% for the area-under-the-effect curve from time zero to 24 h [90% CI, 22 to 44%] and 51% for TT at 24 h [90% CI, 22 to 78%]) when given simultaneously with dabigatran. Similar increases were observed when cobicistat was administered separately by 2 h from the administration of dabigatran. In all comparisons, no significant increase in the dabigatran elimination half-life was observed. Therefore, it is likely safe to coadminister ritonavir with DE, while there is a potential need for reduced dosing and prudent clinical monitoring with the coadministration of cobicistat due to the greater net inhibition of intestinal P-gp transport and increased bioavailability. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01896622.).
Project description:Coformulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF; Stribild(®)) is a recommended integrase inhibitor-based regimen in treatment guidelines from the US Department of Health and Human Services and the British HIV Association. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the change in patient-reported symptoms over time among HIV-infected adults who switch to Stribild(®) versus those continuing on a protease inhibitor (PI) with FTC/TDF.A secondary analysis was conducted on the STRATEGY-PI study (GS-US-236-0115, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01475838), a randomized, open-label, phase 3b trial of HIV-infected adults taking a PI with FTC/TDF who were randomly assigned (2:1) either to Stribild(®) (switch) or continuation of their existing regimen (no-switch). Logistic regressions and longitudinal modeling were conducted to evaluate the relationship of treatment with bothersome symptoms.At week 4 as compared with baseline, the switch group experienced a statistically significantly lower prevalence in five symptoms (diarrhea/loose bowels, bloating/pain/gas in stomach, pain/numbness/tingling in hands/feet, nervous/anxious, and trouble remembering). The lower prevalence of diarrhea/loose bowels, bloating/pain/gas in stomach, and pain/numbness/tingling in hands/feet observed at week 4 was maintained over time. While there were no significant differences between groups in the prevalence of sad/down/depressed and problems with sex at week 4 or week 48, longitudinal models indicated the switch group had a statistically significantly decreased prevalence in both symptoms from week 4 to week 48. As compared with the no-switch group, higher levels of satisfaction with treatment were experienced by patients in the switch group at the first follow-up visit and at week 24.In this study sample, a switch from a ritonavir-boosted PI, FTC, and TDF regimen to coformulated EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF was associated with more treatment satisfaction and a reduction in the prevalence of patient-reported diarrhea/loose bowel symptoms, which was maintained over the 48-week study period.
Project description:Elvitegravir (EVG), an integrase inhibitor for the treatment HIV infection, is increasingly becoming the part of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. EVG is mainly metabolized through cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Previously, we have shown that ethanol alters ART-CYP3A4 interactions with protease inhibitors thereby altering their metabolisms. However, as EVG is a fairly new class of drug, its kinetic characteristics and the effect of ethanol on EVG-CYPP3A4 interaction is poorly understood. In this study, we characterized EVG and cobicistat (COBI)-boosted EVG metabolism in human microsomes followed by ethanol-EVG, ethanol-COBI-EVG interaction with CYP3A. First, we developed and validated a simple, sensitive, and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of EVG in the human liver microsomes. The lower limit of quantification for the drug was at 0.003 ?M (1.34 ng/ml). Extraction yield, matrix effects, drug stability, and calibration curves for the proposed method were validated according to the FDA guidelines. Time dependent kinetics data showed that 20mM ethanol decreases the apparent half-life of EVG degradation by ~50% compared to EVG alone. Our substrate kinetic results revealed that ethanol mildly decreases the catalytic efficiency for EVG metabolism. Inhibition studies demonstrated that EVG inhibits CYP3A4, and 20 mM ethanol causes a decrease in the IC50 of EVG. However, in the presence of COBI we were unable to determine these parameters effectively because COBI, being a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4, blocked the EVG/ethanol-CYP3A4 interactions. Docking studies predicted a shift of EVG or COBI binding to the active site of CYP3A4 in the presence of ethanol. Taken together, these results suggest that ethanol interacts with microsomal CYP3A and alters EVG-CYP3A4 interaction thereby altering EVG metabolism and inhibition of CYP3A4 by EVG. This finding has clinical significance because alcohol use is highly prevalent in HIV population, and there are no separate guidelines for these patients while they are on ART medication.
Project description:Ritonavir diminishes methadone plasma concentrations, an effect attributed to CYP3A induction, but the actual mechanisms are unknown. We determined ritonavir effects on stereoselective methadone pharmacokinetics and clinical effects (pupillary miosis) in healthy human immunodeficiency virus-negative volunteers. Subjects received intravenous plus oral (deuterium-labeled) racemic methadone after no ritonavir, short-term (3-day) ritonavir, and steady-state ritonavir. Acute and steady-state ritonavir, respectively, caused 1.5- and 2-fold induction of systemic and apparent oral R- and S-methadone clearances. Ritonavir increased renal clearance 40-50%, and stereoselectively (S > R) increased hepatic methadone N-demethylation 50-80%, extraction twofold, and clearance twofold. Bioavailability was unchanged despite significant inhibition of intestinal P-glycoprotein. Intestinal and hepatic CYP3A was inhibited > 70%. Ritonavir shifted methadone plasma concentration-miosis curves leftward and upward. Rapid ritonavir induction of methadone clearance results from increased renal clearance and induced hepatic metabolism. Induction of methadone metabolism occurred despite profound CYP3A inhibition, suggesting no role for CYP3A in clinical methadone metabolism and clearance. Ritonavir may alter methadone pharmacodynamics.
Project description:Coformulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/TAF) has high efficacy and improved renal and bone safety in multiple phase 3 trials; TAF single agent is being studied in 2 phase 3 trials in patients with chronic hepatitis B. We report the results of an open-label, noncomparative switch study evaluating the efficacy and safety of E/C/F/TAF in HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV)-coinfected adults. At 48 weeks, 91.7% of the 72 participants maintained or achieved virologic suppression (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL; HBV DNA <29 IU/mL). Seroconversion occurred in 2.9% of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive participants and in 3.3% of HBV e antigen-positive participants; 40% of those with abnormal alanine aminotransferase normalized. E/C/F/TAF was associated with improved renal function and reduced bone turnover. These data support the use of E/C/F/TAF in treating HIV/HBV coinfection.
Project description:Identifying and understanding potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are vital for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. This article discusses DDIs between doravirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) substrates and drugs that modulate CYP3A activity. Consistent with previously published in vitro data and DDI trials with the CYP3A substrates midazolam and atorvastatin, doravirine did not have any meaningful impact on the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrates ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel. Coadministration of doravirine with CYP3A inhibitors (ritonavir or ketoconazole) increased doravirine exposure approximately 3-fold. However, these increases were not considered clinically meaningful. Conversely, previously published trials showed that coadministered CYP3A inducers (rifampin and rifabutin) decreased doravirine exposure by 88% and 50%, respectively (K. L. Yee, S. G. Khalilieh, R. I. Sanchez, R. Liu, et al., Clin Drug Investig 37:659-667, 2017 [https://doi.org/10.1007/s40261-017-0513-4]; S. G. Khalilieh, K. L. Yee, R. I. Sanchez, R. Liu, et al., J Clin Pharmacol 58:1044-1052, 2018 [https://doi.org/10.1002/jcph.1103]), while doravirine exposure following prior efavirenz administration led to an initial reduction in doravirine exposure of 62%, but the reduction became less pronounced with time (K. L. Yee, R. I. Sanchez, P. Auger, R. Liu, et al., Antimicrob Agents Chemother 61:e01757-16, 2017 [https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01757-16]). Overall, the coadministration of doravirine with CYP3A inhibitors and substrates is, therefore, supported by these data together with efficacy and safety data from clinical trials, while coadministration with strong CYP3A inducers, such as rifampin, cannot be recommended. Concomitant dosing with rifabutin (a CYP3A inducer less potent than rifampin) is acceptable if doravirine dosing is adjusted from once to twice daily; however, the effect of other moderate inducers on doravirine pharmacokinetics is unknown.
Project description:Background Women and those with non-B subtype HIV-1 are typically underrepresented in clinical trials. WAVES (GS-US-236-0128) was a double-blind phase 3b study among treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected women that demonstrated that elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF; N = 289) was superior to atazanavir + ritonavir + FTC/TDF (ATV + RTV + FTC/TDF; N = 286) for HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL by FDA snapshot analysis at week 48. Here, we describe resistance development through week 48 in women with virologic failure and determine the impact of pre-existing mutations and HIV-1 subtype on viral suppression. Methods Genotypic analyses (population and deep sequencing) and phenotypic analyses of HIV-1 protease, reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase (IN) were performed. The resistance analysis population (participants with HIV-1 RNA ? 400 copies/mL at confirmed virologic failure, at discontinuation ? week 8, or at week 48) had genotypic and phenotypic analyses at failure and baseline. Results The proportion of women qualifying for resistance analyses was similar between treatment groups (6.2% EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF; 7.3% ATV + RTV + FTC/TDF). Emergent resistance was rare (0% EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF; 1% ATV + RTV + FTC/TDF - 3 with M184V/I in RT). Deep sequencing of HIV-1 did not detect additional resistance development. Pre-existing mutations did not lead to virologic failure; most with the polymorphic primary IN substitution T97A (92%), or with substitutions in RT (i.e. A62V, V90I, K103N, or E138A/G/K/Q; 68-82%) demonstrated virologic suppression at week 48, with no resistance development except for one patient with M184V and pre-existing K103N in the ATV + RTV + FTC/TDF group. Most participants (74%) had non-B HIV-1, and subtype did not affect outcome. Conclusions Emergent resistance to study drugs was rare in this study of women, with no resistance observed among EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF-treated participants, despite a high proportion of participants with natural or transmitted viral mutations and non-B HIV-1 subtypes.