Three-component asymmetric catalytic Ugi reaction--concinnity from diversity by substrate-mediated catalyst assembly.
ABSTRACT: The first chiral catalyst for the three-component Ugi reaction was identified as a result of a screen of a large set of different BOROX catalysts. The BOROX catalysts were assembled in?situ from a chiral biaryl ligand, an amine, water, BH3·SMe2, and an alcohol or phenol. The catalyst screen included 13 different ligands, 12 amines, and 47 alcohols or phenols. The optimal catalyst system (LAP 8-5-47) provided ?-amino amides from an aldehyde, a secondary amine, and an isonitrile with excellent asymmetric induction. The catalytically active species is proposed to be an ion pair that consists of the chiral boroxinate anion and an iminium cation.
Project description:A five-component catalyst assembly/aziridination reaction is described starting from an aldehyde, an amine, ethyl diazoacetate, B(OPh)(3), and a molecule of a vaulted biaryl ligand (VAPOL or VANOL). A remarkable level of chemo-selectivity was observed since, while 10 different products could have resulted from various reactions between the five components, an aziridine was formed in 85% yield and 98% ee and only two other products could be detected in 3% yield. Studies reveal that the first in a sequence of three reactions is an exceedingly rapid amine-induced assembly of an amino-BOROX chiral Brønsted acid species from VAPOL and B(OPh)(3), which is followed by imine formation from the amine and aldehyde and the concomitant formation of an imino-BOROX chiral Brønsted acid and finally the reaction of the imine with ethyl diazoacetate mediated by the imino-BOROX catalyst to give aziridine-2-carboxylic esters with very high diastereo- and enantioselectivity.
Project description:An efficient Ugi three-component reaction of a preformed chiral ketimine derived from isatin with various isonitrile and acid components has been developed. The reactions proceeded smoothly and in a stereocontrolled manner with regard to the new center of the Ugi products due to the stereoinduction of the amine chiral residue. A wide variety of novel chiral 3,3-disubstituted 3-aminooxindoles were obtained, a selection of which were subjected to post-Ugi transformations, paving the way to application as peptidomimetics.
Project description:Herein we report an enantioselective synthesis of complex cyclopentanones using aliphatic aldehydes and activated enones. With the combination of a chiral secondary amine and a chiral triazolium catalyst, high diastereoselectivity and excellent enantioselectivity can be achieved. We present evidence of a clear cooperative effect when these two catalysts are present simultaneously in the system.
Project description:A library of chiral triazolium salts has been prepared by late-state diversification of a triazolium amine salt. By utilizing a primary amine as a functional handle, a single triazolium salt can be transformed into a variety of chiral N-heterocyclic carbene precatalysts. This approach makes the preparation of chiral N-heterocyclic carbenes possible by a single-step modification of a triazolium salt, rather than the usual need for multistep organic synthesis and challenging heterocycle formation for each member of a catalyst library. We have screened these catalysts for control of diastereo- and enantioselectivity in a ?-lactam-forming reaction between ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes and cyclic ketimines.
Project description:Heterobifunctional rotaxanes serve as efficient catalysts for the addition of malonates to Michael acceptors. We report a series of four different heterobifunctional rotaxanes, featuring an amine-based thread and a chiral 1,1'-binaphthyl-phosphoric-acid-based macrocycle. High-level DFT calculations provided mechanistic insights and enabled rational catalyst improvements, leading to interlocked catalysts that surpass their non-interlocked counterparts in terms of reaction rates and stereoselectivities.
Project description:Two types of chiral Brønsted acid catalysts have been shown to catalyze regio- and enantioselective nitroso aldol synthesis between nitrosobenzene and achiral enamine. The combination of Brønsted acidity and amine moiety of enamine realizes complete regioselectivity with high enantioselectivity. After a survey of Brønsted acid catalysts, 1-naphthyl glycolic acid is found to be optimal in the O-nitroso aldol pathway, while 1-naphthyl TADDOL is the best catalyst for the N-nitroso aldol pathway. This is based on our finding on the control of regioselectivity by changing the amine moiety of enamine and the choice of Brønsted acidity.
Project description:The concept of combining heterogeneous transition metal and amine catalysis for enantioselective cascade reactions has not yet been realized. This is of great advantage since it would allow for the recycling of expensive and non-environmentally friendly transition metals. We disclose that the use of a heterogeneous Pd-catalyst in combination with a simple chiral amine co-catalyst allows for highly enantioselective cascade transformations. The preparative power of this process has been demonstrated in the context of asymmetric cascade Michael/carbocyclization transformations that delivers cyclopentenes bearing an all carbon quaternary stereocenters in high yields with up to 30:1 dr and 99% ee. Moreover, a variety of highly enantioselective cascade hetero-Michael/carbocyclizations were developed for the one-pot synthesis of valuable dihydrofurans and pyrrolidines (up to 98% ee) by using bench-stable heterogeneous Pd and chiral amines as co-catalysts.
Project description:The 'template' polyborate BOROX catalysts are shown to mediate the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of 2-quinolines. The rapid and simple generation of a large family of BOROX catalysts with significantly altered asymmetric pockets is described. A transition state model that explains the enantioselectivity is proposed.
Project description:The active site in the BOROX catalyst is a chiral polyborate anion (boroxinate) that is assembled in situ from three equivalents of B(OPh)3 and one of the VANOL ligand by a molecule of substrate. The substrates are bound to the boroxinate by H?bonds to oxygen atoms O1-O3. The effects of introducing substituents at each position of the naphthalene core of the VANOL ligand are systematically investigated in an aziridination reaction. Substituents in the 4,4'- and 8,8'-positions have a negative effect on catalyst performance, whereas, substituents in the 7- and 7'-positions have the biggest impact in a positive direction.
Project description:Nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling has emerged as the most versatile approach to date for achieving enantioconvergent carbon-carbon bond formation using racemic alkyl halides as electrophiles. In contrast, there have not yet been reports of the application of chiral nickel catalysts to the corresponding reactions with heteroatom nucleophiles to produce carbon-heteroatom bonds with good enantioselectivity. Herein, we establish that a chiral nickel/pybox catalyst can borylate racemic secondary benzylic chlorides to provide enantioenriched benzylic boronic esters, a highly useful family of compounds in organic synthesis. The method displays good functional group compatibility (e.g., being unimpeded by the presence of an indole, a ketone, a tertiary amine, or an unactivated alkyl bromide), and both of the catalyst components (NiCl2 ?glyme and the pybox ligand) are commercially available.