Specific survivin dual fluorescence resonance energy transfer molecular beacons for detection of human bladder cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: AIM: Survivin molecular beacons can be used to detect bladder cancer cells in urine samples non-invasively. The aim of this study is to improve the specificity of detection of bladder cancer cells using survivin dual fluorescence resonance energy transfer molecular beacons (FRET MBs) that have fluorophores forming one donor-acceptor pair. METHODS: Survivin-targeting dual fluorescence resonance energy transfer molecular beacons with unique target sequences were designed, which had no overlap with the other genes in the apoptosis inhibitor protein family. Human bladder cancer cell lines 5637, 253J and T24, as well as the exfoliated cells in the urine of healthy adults and patients with bladder cancer were examined. Images of cells were taken using a laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscope. For assays using dual FRET MBs, the excitation wavelength was 488 nm, and the emission detection wavelengths were 520±20 nm and 560±20 nm, respectively. RESULTS: The human bladder cancer cell lines and exfoliated cells in the urine of patients with bladder cancer incubated with the survivin dual FRET MBs exhibited strong fluorescence signals. In contrast, no fluorescence was detected in the survivin-negative human dermal fibroblasts-adult (HDF-a) cells or exfoliated cells in the urine of healthy adults incubated with the survivin dual FRET MBs. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the survivin dual FRET MBs may be used as a specific and non-invasive method for early detection and follow-up of patients with bladder cancer.
Project description:Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based genomic imaging systems predominantly rely on fluorescent protein reporters, which lack the optical properties essential for sensitive dynamic imaging. Here, we modified the CRISPR single-guide RNA (sgRNA) to carry two distinct molecular beacons (MBs) that can undergo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and demonstrated that the resulting system, CRISPR/dual-FRET MB, enables dynamic imaging of non-repetitive genomic loci with only three unique sgRNAs.
Project description:Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an unprecedented opportunity for the study of human tissue development, and the development of cell-based therapies for human disease. To realize these potential advances, however, methods for monitoring expression of intracellular proteins in live hESCs without altering cellular properties are needed. Molecular beacons are single-stranded oligonucleotides that have been employed to assay gene expression. To test their potential for high-throughput isolation of hESCs, we developed a dual fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) molecular beacon system using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) with Oct4 as a target. We demonstrate that Oct4 can be detected by FRET using confocal microscopy, that this can be applied in a high-throughput manner to the identification and isolation of Oct4-expressing hESCs by FACS, that FRET-positive hESCs demonstrate pluripotency in culture and in vivo, and that hESCs transfected with molecular beacons demonstrate normal growth rates and oligonucleotide extinction over time. These studies demonstrate that FRET-based FACS using molecular beacons provides a useful tool for isolating Oct4-expressing pluripotent hESCs, and may also be adapted to selecting differentiating hESCs at specific developmental time points determined by transcription factor expression without functional or genomic alteration. As such, it provides an important new method for high-throughput isolation of hESC-derived tissue-specific precursors for analytic and therapeutic purposes.
Project description:Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract, having one of the highest recurrence rates and progression from non-muscle to muscle invasive bladder cancer that commonly leads to metastasis. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the standard procedures for its detection but have limited clinical sensitivity and specificity. Herein, a microfluidic device, the UriChip, was developed for the enrichment of urothelial exfoliated cells from fresh and frozen urine, based on deformability and size, and the cancer-associated glycan Sialyl-Tn explored as a putative bladder cancer urinary biomarker. Spiking experiments with bladder cancer cell lines showed an isolation efficiency of 53%, while clinical sample analyses revealed retention of cells with various morphologies and sizes. in situ immunoassays demonstrated significantly higher number of Sialyl-Tn-positive cells in fresh and frozen voided urine from bladder cancer patients, compared to healthy individuals. Of note, urothelial exfoliated cells from cryopreserved urine sediments were also successfully isolated by the UriChip, and found to express significantly high levels of Sialyl-Tn. Remarkably, Sialyl-Tn expression is correlated with tumor stage and grade. Overall, our findings demonstrate the potential of UriChip and Sialyl-Tn to detect urothelial bladder cancer cells in follow-up and long-term retrospective studies.
Project description:While cell sorting usually relies on cell-surface protein markers, molecular beacons (MBs) offer the potential to sort cells based on the presence of any expressed mRNA and in principle could be extremely useful to sort rare cell populations from primary isolates. We show here how stem cells can be purified from mixed cell populations by sorting based on MBs. Specifically, we designed molecular beacons targeting Sox2, a well-known stem cell marker for murine embryonic (mES) and neural stem cells (NSC). One of our designed molecular beacons displayed an increase in fluorescence compared to a nonspecific molecular beacon both in vitro and in vivo when tested in mES and NSCs. We sorted Sox2-MB(+)SSEA1(+) cells from a mixed population of 4-day retinoic acid-treated mES cells and effectively isolated live undifferentiated stem cells. Additionally, Sox2-MB(+) cells isolated from primary mouse brains were sorted and generated neurospheres with higher efficiency than Sox2-MB(-) cells. These results demonstrate the utility of MBs for stem cell sorting in an mRNA-specific manner.
Project description:Molecular beacons (MBs) are simple, but practical, fluorescent nanoprobes widely used to detect small molecules, nucleic acids and proteins. However, some challenges still remain when MBs are employed in complex biological environments, such as instability and non-target interference. To meet such challenges, we have designed and synthesized fluorinated molecular beacons (FMBs) as functional DNA nanomolecules for cellular imaging, in which the stem sequence is simply composed of artificial nucleotides with 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene (F) as the surrogate base of natural A, T, C and G bases. The introduction of F base into MBs significantly increases their hydrophobicity, and the stem is formed by the assembly of self-complementary base F nucleotides through hydrophobic interactions. Fluorescence studies revealed that FMBs confer improved stability over conventional MBs. To demonstrate the application of FMBs for cellular imaging, we constructed an FMB to detect mRNA in MCF-7 cells, and the FMB was proven to be a practical nanoprobe for cellular imaging of mRNA.
Project description:The endothelium plays an essential role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, and it fulfills this role by modulating intracellular signaling and gene expression in response to chemical and mechanical stimuli. Assessing changes in endothelial gene expression is essential to understanding how physiological and pathophysiological processes modulate vascular homeostasis. Here we describe the use of molecular beacons to rapidly and quantitatively assess expression and 3'-polyadenylation of a gene that is important for vascular homeostasis, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Single- and dual-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) molecular beacon hybridization assays were developed to measure changes in mRNA levels and 3'-polyadenylation, respectively, in primary human endothelial cell cultures subjected to laminar shear stress or statin treatment. Optimized beacon hybridization assays took approximately 15 min to perform, and eNOS mRNA levels were validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Competitive inhibition assays and posttranscriptional silencing of eNOS expression were used to verify the specificity of molecular beacon fluorescence. Finally, the dual-FRET method was used to assess eNOS polyadenylation in tissues isolated from mice subjected to exercise training. These data demonstrate that molecular beacons can be used to rapidly and efficiently measure endothelial gene expression and 3'-polyadenylation. This approach could easily be adapted for studies of other endothelial genes and has promise for applications in live endothelial cells.
Project description:Urine-based biomarkers for non-invasive diagnosis of bladder cancer are urgently needed. No single marker with sufficient sensitivity and specificity has been described so far. Thus, a combination of markers appears to be a promising approach. The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the performance of an in-house developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for survivin, the UBC®Rapid test, and the combination of both assays. A total of 290 patients were recruited. Due to prior bladder cancer, 46 patients were excluded. Urine samples were available from 111 patients with bladder cancer and 133 clinical controls without urologic diseases. Antibodies generated from recombinant survivin were utilized to develop a sandwich ELISA. The ELISA and the UBC®Rapid test were applied to all urine samples. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate marker performance. The survivin ELISA exhibited a sensitivity of 35% with a specificity of 98%. The UBC®Rapid test showed a sensitivity of 56% and a specificity of 96%. Combination of both assays increased the sensitivity to 66% with a specificity of 95%. For high-grade tumors, the combination showed a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 95%. The new survivin ELISA and the UBC®Rapid test are both able to detect bladder cancer, especially high-grade tumors. However, the performance of each individual marker is moderate and efforts to improve the survivin assay should be pursued. A combination of both assays confirmed the benefit of using marker panels. The results need further testing in a prospective study and with a high-risk population.
Project description:Bladder cancer is the fifth most commonly diagnosed malignancy in the United States and one of the most prevalent worldwide. It harbors a probability of recurrence of >50%; thus, rigorous, long-term surveillance of patients is advocated. Flexible cystoscopy coupled with voided urine cytology is the primary diagnostic approach, but cystoscopy is an uncomfortable, invasive procedure and the sensitivity of voided urine cytology is poor in all but high-grade tumors. Thus, improvements in noninvasive urinalysis assessment strategies would benefit patients. We applied gene expression microarray analysis to exfoliated urothelia recovered from bladder washes obtained prospectively from 46 patients with subsequently confirmed presence or absence of bladder cancer. Data from microarrays containing 56,000 targets was subjected to a panel of statistical analyses to identify bladder cancer-associated gene signatures. Hierarchical clustering and supervised learning algorithms were used to classify samples on the basis of tumor burden. A differentially expressed geneset of 319 gene probes was associated with the presence of bladder cancer (P < 0.01), and visualization of protein interaction networks revealed vascular endothelial growth factor and angiotensinogen as pivotal factors in tumor cells. Supervised machine learning and a cross-validation approach were used to build a 14-gene molecular classifier that was able to classify patients with and without bladder cancer with an overall accuracy of 76%. Our results show that it is possible to achieve the detection of bladder cancer using molecular signatures present in exfoliated tumor urothelia. Further investigation and validation of the cancer-associated profiles may reveal important biomarkers for the noninvasive detection and surveillance of bladder cancer.
Project description:SDF-1 is a ligand of the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and 7. The 6 known SDF-1 isoforms are generated by alternative mRNA splicing. While SDF-1 expression has been detected in various malignancies, only few groups have reported differential expression of SDF-1 isoforms and its clinical significance. We evaluated the expression of 3 SDF-1 isoforms (?, ? and ?) in bladder cancer.Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction we measured SDF-1?, ? and ? mRNA levels in 25 normal and 44 bladder cancer tissues, and in 210 urine specimens (28 normal, 74 benign, 57 bladder cancer, 35 bladder cancer history, 8 other cancer history and 8 other cancer) from consecutive patients. Levels were correlated with clinical outcome.Of the SDF-1 isoforms only SDF-1? mRNA was significantly over expressed 2.5-fold to sixfold in bladder cancer compared to normal bladder tissues. SDF-1? was expressed in bladder tissues but SDF-1? was undetectable. On multivariate analysis SDF-1? was an independent predictor of metastasis and disease specific mortality (p=0.017 and 0.043, respectively). In exfoliated urothelial cells only SDF-1? mRNA levels were differentially expressed with 91.2% sensitivity and 73.8% specificity for detecting bladder cancer. In patients with a bladder cancer history increased SDF-1? levels indicated a 4.3-fold increased risk of recurrence within 6 months (p=0.0001).SDF-1 isoforms are differentially expressed in bladder tissues and exfoliated urothelial cells. SDF-1? mRNA levels in bladder cancer tissues predict a poor prognosis. Furthermore, SDF-1? mRNA levels in exfoliated cells detect bladder cancer with high sensitivity and they are a potential predictor of future recurrence.
Project description:The aim of the current study was to investigate the chromosomal aberrations of exfoliated bladder cells in the urine and blood oxidative stress in patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC). A total of 40 healthy controls and 246 patients with BTCC were recruited. Abnormal levels of CSP3, CSP7, CSP17 and GLPp16 were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in exfoliated bladder cells in the urine of patients with BTCC. Serum total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured. Significant differences were observed in the abnormal CSP3, CSP7, CSP17, GLPp16 signals and FISH positive rate between patients with BTCC and healthy controls (P<0.001). Serum TOS, TAS and OSI were also significantly different between the two groups (P<0.001). The clinical stage of BTCC was not associated with abnormal CSP3, CSP7, CSP17, GLPp16 or FISH positive rate and oxidative stress (P>0.05). A Gamma rank correlation analysis revealed an association between the pathological grade of BTCC with abnormal CSP3, CSP7 and CSP17 as well as FISH positive rate (P<0.001). In addition, the clinical stage of BTCC was associated with serum TOS, TAS and OSI (P<0.001). Evaluation of the association between chromosomal aberrations and oxidative stress revealed that abnormal CSP3, CSP7 and CSP17 were positively associated with serum TOS and OSI (P<0.001), abnormal CSP7 and CSP17 were negatively associated with serum TAS (P<0.001), but abnormal GLPp16 was not associated with serum TOS, TAS or OSI (P>0.05). Therefore, the chromosomal aberrations of exfoliated bladder cells in the urine are associated with blood oxidative stress in patients with BTCC, and these factors may contribute to the occurrence and development of BTCC.