Crystal structure of the TRIM25 B30.2 (PRYSPRY) domain: a key component of antiviral signalling.
ABSTRACT: TRIM (tripartite motif) proteins primarily function as ubiquitin E3 ligases that regulate the innate immune response to infection. TRIM25 [also known as Efp (oestrogen-responsive finger protein)] has been implicated in the regulation of oestrogen receptor ? signalling and in the regulation of innate immune signalling via RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I). RIG-I senses cytosolic viral RNA and is subsequently ubiquitinated by TRIM25 at its N-terminal CARDs (caspase recruitment domains), leading to type I interferon production. The interaction with RIG-I is dependent on the TRIM25 B30.2 domain, a protein-interaction domain composed of the PRY and SPRY tandem sequence motifs. In the present study we describe the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the TRIM25 B30.2 domain, which exhibits a typical B30.2/SPRY domain fold comprising two N-terminal ?-helices, thirteen ?-strands arranged into two ?-sheets and loop regions of varying lengths. A comparison with other B30.2/SPRY structures and an analysis of the loop regions identified a putative binding pocket, which is likely to be involved in binding target proteins. This was supported by mutagenesis and functional analyses, which identified two key residues (Asp(488) and Trp(621)) in the TRIM25 B30.2 domain as being critical for binding to the RIG-I CARDs.
Project description:The retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) receptor recognizes short 5'-di- and triphosphate base-paired viral RNA and is a critical mediator of the innate immune response against viruses such as influenza A, Ebola, HIV and hepatitis C. This response is reported to require an orchestrated interaction with the tripartite motif 25 (TRIM25) B30.2 protein-interaction domain. Here, we present a novel second RIG-I-binding interface on the TRIM25 B30.2 domain that interacts with CARD1 and CARD2 (caspase activation and recruitment domains) of RIG-I and is revealed by the removal of an N-terminal ?-helix that mimics dimerization of the full-length protein. Further characterization of the TRIM25 coiled-coil and B30.2 regions indicated that the B30.2 domains move freely on a flexible tether, facilitating RIG-I CARD recruitment. The identification of a dual binding mode for the TRIM25 B30.2 domain is a first for the SPRY/B30.2 domain family and may be a feature of other SPRY/B30.2 family members.
Project description:The retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) protein play a critical role in the interferon (IFN) response during RNA virus infection. The tripartite motif containing 25 proteins (TRIM25) was reported to modify caspase activation and RIG-I recruitment domains (CARDs) via ubiquitin. These modifications allow TRIM25 to interact with mitochondrial antiviral signaling molecules (MAVs) and form CARD-CARD tetramers. Goose TRIM25 was cloned from gosling lungs, which possess a 1662 bp open reading flame (ORF). This ORF encodes a predicted 554 amino acid protein consisting of a B-box domain, a coiled-coil domain, and a PRY/SPRY domain. The protein sequence has 89.25% sequence identity with Anas platyrhynchos TRIM25, 78.57% with Gallus gallus TRIM25, and 46.92% with Homo sapiens TRIM25. TRIM25 is expressed in all gosling and adult goose tissues examined. QRT-PCR revealed that goose TRIM25 transcription could be induced by goose IFN-?, goose IFN-?, and goose IFN-?, as well as a35 s polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), oligodeoxynucleotides 2006 (ODN 2006), and resiquimod (R848) in vitro; however, it is inhibited in H9N2 infected goslings for unknown reasons. These data suggest that goose TRIM25 might play a positive role in the regulation of the antiviral immune response.
Project description:Antiviral response pathways induce interferon by higher-order assembly of signaling complexes called signalosomes. Assembly of the RIG-I signalosome is regulated by K63-linked polyubiquitin chains, which are synthesized by the E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM25. We have previously shown that the TRIM25 coiled-coil domain is a stable, antiparallel dimer that positions two catalytic RING domains on opposite ends of an elongated rod. We now show that the RING domain is a separate self-association motif that engages ubiquitin-conjugated E2 enzymes as a dimer. RING dimerization is required for catalysis, TRIM25-mediated RIG-I ubiquitination, interferon induction, and antiviral activity. We also provide evidence that RING dimerization and E3 ligase activity are promoted by binding of the TRIM25 SPRY domain to the RIG-I effector domain. These results indicate that TRIM25 actively participates in higher-order assembly of the RIG-I signalosome and helps to fine-tune the efficiency of the RIG-I-mediated antiviral response.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe acute lower respiratory tract disease. Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) serves as an innate immune sensor and triggers antiviral responses upon recognizing viral infections including RSV. Since tripartite motif-containing protein 25 (TRIM25)-mediated K63-polyubiquitination is crucial for RIG-I activation, several viruses target initial RIG-I activation through ubiquitination. RSV NS1 and NS2 have been shown to interfere with RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. In this study, we explored the possibility that NS1 suppresses RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by targeting TRIM25. Ubiquitination of ectopically expressed RIG-I-2Cards domain was decreased by RSV infection, indicating that RSV possesses ability to inhibit TRIM25-mediated RIG-I ubiquitination. Similarly, ectopic expression of NS1 sufficiently suppressed TRIM25-mediated RIG-I ubiquitination. Furthermore, interaction between NS1 and TRIM25 was detected by a co-immunoprecipitation assay. Further biochemical assays showed that the SPRY domain of TRIM25, which is responsible for interaction with RIG-I, interacted sufficiently with NS1. Suppression of RIG-I ubiquitination by NS1 resulted in decreased interaction between RIG-I and its downstream molecule, MAVS. The suppressive effect of NS1 on RIG-I signaling could be abrogated by overexpression of TRIM25. Collectively, this study suggests that RSV NS1 interacts with TRIM25 and interferes with RIG-I ubiquitination to suppress type-I interferon signaling.
Project description:The B30.2/SPRY domain is present in approximately 700 eukaryotic (approximately 150 human) proteins, including medically important proteins such as TRIM5alpha and Pyrin. Nonetheless, the functional role of this modular domain remained unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of an SPRY-SOCS box family protein GUSTAVUS in complex with Elongins B and C, revealing a highly distorted two-layered beta-sandwich core structure of its B30.2/SPRY domain. Ensuing studies identified one end of the beta-sandwich as the surface interacting with an RNA helicase VASA with a 40 nM dissociation constant. The sequence variation in TRIM5alpha responsible for HIV-1 restriction and most of the mutations in Pyrin causing familial Mediterranean fever map on this surface, implicating the corresponding region in many B30.2/SPRY domains as the ligand-binding site. The amino acids lining the binding surface are highly variable among the B30.2/SPRY domains, suggesting that these domains are protein-interacting modules, which recognize a specific individual partner protein rather than a consensus sequence motif.
Project description:The SPRY domain is a protein interaction module found in 77 murine and ~100 human proteins, and is implicated in important biological pathways, including those that regulate innate and adaptive immunity. The current definition of the SPRY domain is based on a sequence repeat discovered in the splA kinase and ryanodine receptors. The greater SPRY family is divided into the B30.2 (which contains a PRY extension at the N-terminus) and "SPRY-only" sub-families. In this brief review, we examine the current structural and biochemical literature on SPRY/B30.2 domain involvement in key immune processes and highlight a PRY-like 60 amino acid region in the N-terminus of "SPRY-only" proteins. Phylogenetic, structural, and functional analyses suggest that this N-terminal region is related to the PRY region of B30.2 and should be characterized as part of an extended SPRY domain. Greater understanding of the functional importance of the N-terminal region in "SPRY only" proteins will enhance our ability to interrogate SPRY interactions with their respective binding partners.
Project description:The caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of intracellular adaptors and sensors plays a critical role in the assembly of signaling complexes involved in innate host defense against pathogens and in the regulation of inflammatory responses. The cytosolic receptor retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) recognizes viral RNA in a 5'-triphosphate-dependent manner and initiates an antiviral signaling cascade. Upon viral infection, the N-terminal CARDs of RIG-I undergo the K(63)-linked ubiquitination induced by tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25), critical for the interaction of RIG-I with its downstream signaling partner MAVS/VISA/IPS-1/Cardif. Here, we demonstrate the distinct roles of RIG-I first and second CARD in TRIM25-mediated RIG-I ubiquitination: TRIM25 binds the RIG-I first CARD and subsequently ubiquitinates its second CARD. The T(55)I mutation in RIG-I first CARD abolishes TRIM25 interaction, whereas the K(172)R mutation in the second CARD eliminates polyubiquitin attachment. The necessity of the intact tandem CARD for RIG-I function is further evidenced by a RIG-I splice variant (SV) whose expression is robustly up-regulated upon viral infection. The RIG-I SV carries a short deletion (amino acids 36-80) within the first CARD and thereby loses TRIM25 binding, CARD ubiquitination, and downstream signaling ability. Furthermore, because of its robust inhibition of virus-induced RIG-I multimerization and RIG-I-MAVS signaling complex formation, this SV effectively suppresses the RIG-I-mediated IFN-beta production. This study not only elucidates the vital role of the intact tandem CARD for TRIM25-mediated RIG-I activation but also identifies the RIG-I SV as an off-switch regulator of its own signaling pathway.
Project description:RIG-I is a viral RNA sensor that induces the production of type I interferon (IFN) in response to infection with a variety of viruses. Modification of RIG-I with K63-linked poly-ubiquitin chains, synthesised by TRIM25, is crucial for activation of the RIG-I/MAVS signalling pathway. TRIM25 activity is targeted by influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) to suppress IFN production and prevent an efficient host immune response. Here we present structures of the human TRIM25 coiled-coil-PRYSPRY module and of complexes between the TRIM25 coiled-coil domain and NS1. These structures show that binding of NS1 interferes with the correct positioning of the PRYSPRY domain of TRIM25 required for substrate ubiquitination and provide a mechanistic explanation for how NS1 suppresses RIG-I ubiquitination and hence downstream signalling. In contrast, the formation of unanchored K63-linked poly-ubiquitin chains is unchanged by NS1 binding, indicating that RING dimerisation of TRIM25 is not affected by NS1.
Project description:Tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25) is an E3 ligase that ubiquitinates multiple substrates within the RLR signalling cascade and plays both RING (really interesting new gene)-dependent and RING-independent roles in RIG-I-mediated IFN induction. We report that the PRY-SPRY domain of TRIM25 interacts with the N-terminal extension (NTE) of DEAD-box helicase 3X (DDX3X), a host protein with multiple roles in RLR signalling. Gene reporter assays and knockdown studies reveal DDX3X and TRIM25 cooperate to activate the IFN- promoter following RIG-I activation independent of DDX3X’s catalytic activity. We also show that TRIM25 ubiquitinates DDX3X at several lysine residues in vitro and in cells.
Project description:The ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 mediates Lysine 63-linked ubiquitination of the N-terminal CARD domains of the viral RNA sensor RIG-I to facilitate type I interferon (IFN) production and antiviral immunity. Here, we report that the influenza A virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) specifically inhibits TRIM25-mediated RIG-I CARD ubiquitination, thereby suppressing RIG-I signal transduction. A novel domain in NS1 comprising E96/E97 residues mediates its interaction with the coiled-coil domain of TRIM25, thus blocking TRIM25 multimerization and RIG-I CARD domain ubiquitination. Furthermore, a recombinant influenza A virus expressing an E96A/E97A NS1 mutant is defective in blocking TRIM25-mediated antiviral IFN response and loses virulence in mice. Our findings reveal a mechanism by which influenza virus inhibits host IFN response and also emphasize the vital role of TRIM25 in modulating antiviral defenses.