ABSTRACT: The recessive ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) syndrome is characterized by cerebellar degeneration, immunodeficiency, cancer susceptibility, premature aging, and insulin-resistant diabetes and is caused by loss of function of the ATM kinase, a member of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-like protein kinases (PIKKs) family. ATM plays a crucial role in the DNA damage response (DDR); however, the complexity of A-T features suggests that ATM may regulate other cellular functions. Here we show that ATM affects proper bipolar mitotic spindle structure independently of DNA damage. In addition, we find that in mitosis ATM forms a complex with the poly(ADP)ribose (PAR) polymerase Tankyrase (TNKS) 1, the spindle pole protein NuMA1, and breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA1, another crucial DDR player. Our evidence indicates that the complex is required for efficient poly(ADP)ribosylation of NuMA1. We find further that a mutant NuMA1 version, non-phosphorylatable at potential ATM-dependent phosphorylation sites, is poorly PARylated and induces loss of spindle bipolarity. Our findings may help to explain crucial A-T features and provide further mechanistic rationale for TNKS inhibition in cancer therapy.
Project description:Human tankyrase-1 (TNKS) is a member of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) superfamily of proteins that posttranslationally modify themselves and target proteins with ADP-ribose (termed PARylation). The TNKS ankyrin repeat domain mediates interactions with a growing number of structurally and functionally diverse binding partners, linking TNKS activity to multiple critical cell processes, including Wnt signaling, Golgi trafficking, and telomere maintenance. However, some binding partners can engage TNKS without being modified, suggesting that separate parameters influence TNKS interaction and PARylation. Here, we present an analysis of the sequence and structural features governing TNKS interactions with two model binding partners: the PARylated partner telomeric repeat-binding factor 1 (TRF1) and the non-PARylated partner GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD). Using a combination of TNKS-binding assays, PARP activity assays, and analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation analysis, we found that both the specific sequence of a given TNKS-binding peptide motif and the quaternary structure of individual binding partners play important roles in TNKS interactions. We demonstrate that GMD forms stable 1:1 complexes with the TNKS ankyrin repeat domain; yet, consistent with results from previous studies, we were unable to detect GMD modification. We also report in vitro evidence that TNKS primarily directs PAR modification to glutamate/aspartate residues. Our results suggest that TNKS-binding partners possess unique sequence and structural features that control binding and PARylation. Ultimately, our findings highlight the binding partner:ankyrin repeat domain interface as a viable target for inhibition of TNKS activity.
Project description:Activation of the wnt signaling pathway is a major cause of colon cancer development. Tankyrase inhibitors (TNKSi) have recently been developed to block the wnt pathway by increasing axin levels to promote degradation of the wnt-regulator ?-catenin. TNKSi bind to the PARP (poly(ADP)ribose polymerase) catalytic region of tankyrases (TNKS), preventing the PARylation of TNKS and axin that normally control axin levels through ubiquitination and degradation. TNKSi treatment of APC-mutant SW480 colorectal cancer cells can induce axin puncta which act as sites for assembly of ?-catenin degradation complexes, however this process is poorly understood. Using this model system, we found that siRNA knockdown of TNKSs 1 and 2 actually blocked the ability of TNKSi drugs to induce axin puncta, revealing that puncta formation requires both the expression and the inactivation of TNKS. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that treatment of cells with TNKSi caused a strong increase in the formation of axin-TNKS complexes, correlating with an increase in insoluble or aggregated forms of TNKS/axin. The efficacy of TNKSi was antagonized by proteasome inhibitors, which stabilized the PARylated form of TNKS1 and reduced TNKSi-mediated assembly of axin-TNKS complexes and puncta. We hypothesise that TNKSi act to stimulate TNKS oligomerization and assembly of the TNKS-axin scaffold that form puncta. These new insights may help in optimising the future application of TNKSi in anticancer drug design.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is an unique posttranslational modification and required for spindle assembly and function during mitosis. However, the molecular mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in mitosis remains elusive. Here, we show the evidence that PAR is recognized by ECT2, a key guanine nucleotide exchange factor in mitosis. The BRCT domain of ECT2 directly binds to PAR both in vitro and in vivo. We further found that ?-tubulin is PARylated during mitosis. PARylation of ?-tubulin is recognized by ECT2 and recruits ECT2 to mitotic spindle for completing mitosis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which PAR regulates mitosis.
Project description:Senescence of cancer cells is an important outcome of treatment of many cancer types. Cell senescence is a permanent cell cycle arrest induced by stress conditions, including DNA damage. DNA damage activates DNA damage response (DDR), which involves members of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) superfamily: protein kinases ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs. The so-far collected data indicate that ATM, with its downstream targets CHK2, p53, and p21, is the key protein involved in DDR-dependent senescence. It was also documented that the so-called senescence-associated secretory phenotype-SASP relies on ATM/CHK2, and not on p53 signaling. Moreover, genotoxic agents used in cancer treatment can activate NF-?B, which also induces transcription of SASP genes. In this paper, we have studied the involvement of three PIKK family members in colon cancer cell senescence and connection between DNA-damage-induced senescence and NF-?B-regulated SASP in p53-proficient and p53-deficient colon cancer cells treated with doxorubicin. We showed that doxorubicin induced cell senescence in both p53+/+ and p53-/- HCT116 cells, proving that this process is p53-independent. Senescence was successfully abrogated by a PIKK inhibitor, caffeine, or by simultaneous silencing of three PIKKs by specific siRNAs. By silencing individual members of PIKK family and analyzing common markers of senescence, the level of p21 and SA-?-Gal activity, we came to the conclusion that ATR kinase is crucial for the onset of senescence as, in contrast to ATM and DNA-PKsc, it could not be fully substituted by other PIKKs. Moreover, we showed that in case of silencing the three PIKKs, there was no SASP reduction accompanying the decrease in the level of p21 and SA-?-Gal (Senescence-Associated-?-Galactosidase) activity; whereas knocking down the NF-?B component, p65, abrogated SASP, but did not affect other markers of senescence, proving that DNA damage regulated senescence independently and NF-?B evoked SASP.
Project description:Tankyrase 1 (TNKS1; a.k.a. ARTD5) and tankyrase 2 (TNKS2; a.k.a ARTD6) are highly homologous poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) that function in a wide variety of cellular processes including Wnt signaling, Src signaling, Akt signaling, Glut4 vesicle translocation, telomere length regulation, and centriole and spindle pole maturation. Tankyrase proteins include a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain that undergoes oligomerization in vitro and in vivo. However, the SAM domains of TNKS1 and TNKS2 have not been structurally characterized and the mode of oligomerization is not yet defined. Here we model the SAM domain-mediated oligomerization of tankyrase. The structural model, supported by mutagenesis and NMR analysis, demonstrates a helical, homotypic head-to-tail polymer that facilitates TNKS self-association. Furthermore, we show that TNKS1 and TNKS2 can form (TNKS1 SAM-TNKS2 SAM) hetero-oligomeric structures mediated by their SAM domains. Though wild-type tankyrase proteins have very low solubility, model-based mutations of the SAM oligomerization interface residues allowed us to obtain soluble TNKS proteins. These structural insights will be invaluable for the functional and biophysical characterization of TNKS1/2, including the role of TNKS oligomerization in protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and PARylation-dependent ubiquitylation.
Project description:Members of the lysine (K)-specific demethylase 4 (KDM4) A-D family of histone demethylases are dysregulated in several types of cancer. Here, we reveal a previously unrecognized role of KDM4D in the DNA damage response (DDR). We show that the C-terminal region of KDM4D mediates its rapid recruitment to DNA damage sites. Interestingly, this recruitment is independent of the DDR sensor ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), but dependent on poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), which ADP ribosylates KDM4D after damage. We demonstrate that KDM4D is required for efficient phosphorylation of a subset of ATM substrates. We note that KDM4D depletion impairs the DNA damage-induced association of ATM with chromatin, explaining its effect on ATM substrate phosphorylation. Consistent with an upstream role in DDR, KDM4D knockdown disrupts the damage-induced recombinase Rad51 and tumor protein P53 binding protein foci formation. Consequently, the integrity of homology-directed repair and nonhomologous end joining of DNA breaks is impaired in KDM4D-deficient cells. Altogether, our findings implicate KDM4D in DDR, furthering the links between the cancer-relevant networks of epigenetic regulation and genome stability.
Project description:The alkylating DNA-damage agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induces a form of caspase-independent necroptosis implicating the mitochondrial flavoprotein apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Following the activation of PARP-1 (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1), calpains, BID (BH3 interacting domain death agonist), and BAX (Bcl-2-associated X protein), the apoptogenic form of AIF (tAIF) is translocated to the nucleus where, associated with Ser139-phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), it creates a DNA-degrading complex that provokes chromatinolysis and cell death by necroptosis. The generation of γH2AX is crucial for this form of cell death, as mutation of H2AX Ser139 to Ala or genetic ablation of H2AX abolish both chromatinolysis and necroptosis. On the contrary, reintroduction of H2AX-wt or the phosphomimetic H2AX mutant (H2AX-S139E) into H2AX(-/-) cells resensitizes to MNNG-triggered necroptosis. Employing a pharmacological approach and gene knockout cells, we also demonstrate in this paper that the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase-related kinases (PIKKs) ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) mediate γH2AX generation and, consequently, MNNG-induced necroptosis. By contrast, H2AX phosphorylation is not regulated by ATR or other H2AX-related kinases, such as JNK. Interestingly, ATM and DNA-PK phosphorylate H2AX at Ser139 in a synergistic manner with different kinetics of activation. Early after MNNG treatment, ATM generates γH2AX. Further, DNA-PK contributes to H2AX Ser139 phosphorylation. In revealing the pivotal role of PIKKs in MNNG-induced cell death, our data uncover a milestone in the mechanisms regulating AIF-mediated caspase-independent necroptosis.
Project description:Exposure of proliferating cells to genotoxic stresses activates a cascade of signaling events termed the DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR preserves genetic stability by detecting DNA lesions, activating cell cycle checkpoints and promoting DNA damage repair. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs) ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), ATM and Rad 3-related kinase (ATR) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) are crucial for sensing lesions and signal transduction. The checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) is a traditional ATR target involved in DDR and normal cell cycle progression and represents a pharmacological target for anticancer regimens. This study employed cell lines stably depleted for CHK1, ATM or both for dissecting cross-talk and compensatory effects on G(2)/M checkpoint in response to ionizing radiation (IR). We show that a 90% depletion of CHK1 renders cells radiosensitive without abrogating their IR-mediated G(2)/M checkpoint arrest. ATM phosphorylation is enhanced in CHK1-deficient cells compared with their wild-type counterparts. This correlates with lower nuclear abundance of the PP2A catalytic subunit in CHK1-depleted cells. Stable depletion of CHK1 in an ATM-deficient background showed only a 50% reduction from wild-type CHK1 protein expression levels and resulted in an additive attenuation of the G(2)/M checkpoint response compared with the individual knockdowns. ATM inhibition and 90% CHK1 depletion abrogated the early G(2)/M checkpoint and precluded the cells from mounting an efficient compensatory response to IR at later time points. Our data indicates that dual targeting of ATM and CHK1 functionalities disrupts the compensatory response to DNA damage and could be exploited for developing efficient anti-neoplastic treatments.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) catalyzed by the tankyrase enzymes (Tankyrase-1 and -2; a.k.a. PARP-5a and -5b) is involved in mitosis, telomere length regulation, GLUT-4 vesicle transport, and cell growth and differentiation. Together with the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146 (a.k.a. Iduna), tankyrases regulate the cellular levels of several important proteins including Axin, 3BP2, and angiomotins, which are key regulators of Wnt, Src and Hippo signaling, respectively. These tankyrase substrates are first PARylated and then ubiquitylated by RNF146, which is allosterically activated by binding to PAR polymer. Each tankyrase substrate is recognized by a tankyrase-binding motif (TBM). Here we show that RNF146 binds directly to tankyrases via motifs in its C-terminal region. Four of these RNF146 motifs represent novel, extended TBMs, that have one or two additional amino acids between the most conserved Arg and Gly residues. The individual RNF146 motifs display weak binding, but together mediate a strong multivalent interaction with the substrate-binding region of TNKS, forming a robust one-to-one complex. A crystal structure of the first RNF146 noncanonical TBM in complex with the second ankyrin repeat domain of TNKS shows how an extended motif can be accommodated in a peptide-binding groove on tankyrases. Overall, our work demonstrates the existence of a new class of extended TBMs that exist in previously uncharacterized tankyrase-binding proteins including those of IF4A1 and NELFE.
Project description:Tankyrases (TNKSs) are poly(ADP-ribose)polymerases (PARPs) that are overexpressed in several clinical cancers. They regulate elongation of telomeres, regulate the Wnt system, and are essential for the function of the mitotic spindle. A set of 2-arylquinazolin-4-ones has been designed and identified as potent and selective TNKS inhibitors, some being more potent and selective than the lead inhibitor XAV939, with IC50 = 3 nM vs. TNKS-2. Methyl was preferred at the 8-position and modest bulk at the 4-position of the 2-phenyl group; electronic effects and H-bonding were irrelevant, but charge in the 4'-substituent must be avoided. Molecular modeling facilitated initial design of the compounds and rationalization of the SAR of binding into the nicotinamide-binding site of the target enzymes. These compounds have potential for further development into anticancer drugs.