Quality control and stability studies with the monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab: application of 1D- vs. 2D-gel electrophoresis.
ABSTRACT: Recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rmAbs) are medicinal products obtained by rDNA technology. Consequently, like other biopharmaceuticals, they require the extensive and rigorous characterization of the quality attributes, such as identity, structural integrity, purity and stability. The aim of this work was to study the suitability of gel electrophoresis for the assessment of charge heterogeneity, post-translational modifications and the stability of the therapeutic, recombinant monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab. One-dimensional, SDS-PAGE, under reducing and non-reducing conditions, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were used for the determination of molecular mass (Mr), the isoelectric point (pI), charge-related isoform patterns and the stability of trastuzumab, subjected to stressed degradation and long-term conditions. For the assessment of the influence of glycosylation in the charge heterogeneity pattern of trastuzumab, an enzymatic deglycosylation study has been performed using N-glycosidase F and sialidase, whereas carboxypeptidase B was used for the lysine truncation study. Experimental data documented that 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis represent fast and easy methods to evaluate the quality of biological medicinal products. Important stability parameters, such as the protein aggregation, can be assessed, as well.
Project description:An alternative method to traditional 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and its application in characterizing the inherent charge heterogeneity of chromatographically isolated monoclonal antibody heavy and light chains is described. This method, referred to as ChromiCE, utilizes analytical size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), performed under reducing and denaturing conditions, followed by imaged capillary isoelectric focusing (icIEF) of the chromatographically separated heavy and light chains. Under conditions suitable for the subsequent icIEF analysis, the absolute and relative SEC elution volumes of the heavy and light chains were found to be highly pH dependent, a phenomenon that can be exploited in optimizing chromatographic separation. Compared to 2D-PAGE, the ChromiCE method substantially decreases the time and labor needed to complete the analysis, improves reproducibility, and provides fully quantitative assessment of charge heterogeneity. The ChromiCE methodology was applied to a set of diverse monoclonal antibodies to demonstrate suitability for quantitative charge variant analysis of heavy and light chains. A typical application of ChromiCE in extended characterization and stability studies of a purified antibody is shown.
Project description:Charge heterogeneity profiling is important for the quality control (QC) of biopharmaceuticals. Because of the increasing complexity of these therapeutic entities , the development of alternative analytical techniques is needed. In this work, flow-through partial-filling affinity capillary electrophoresis (FTPFACE) has been established as a method for the analysis of a mixture of two similar monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The addition of a specific ligand results in the complexation of one mAb in the co-formulation, thus changing its migration time in the electric field. This allows the characterization of the charged variants of the non-shifted mAb without interferences. Adsorption of proteins to the inner capillary wall has been circumvented by rinsing with guanidine hydrochloride before each injection. The presented FTPFACE approach requires only very small amounts of ligands and provides complete comparability with a standard CZE of a single mAb.
Project description:Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are highly potent biopharmaceuticals designed for targeted cancer therapies. mAbs and ADCs can undergo modifications during production and storage which may affect binding to target receptors, potentially altering drug efficacy. In this work, liquid chromatography was coupled online to surface plasmon resonance (LC-SPR) to allow label-free affinity evaluation of mAb and ADC sample constituents (size and charge variants), under near-native conditions. Trastuzumab and its ADC trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) were used as a test sample and were analyzed by aqueous size-exclusion chromatography (SEC)-SPR before and after exposure to aggregate-inducing conditions. SEC-SPR allowed separation of the formed aggregates and measurement of their affinity towards the ligand-binding domain of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor immobilized on the surface of the SPR sensor chip. The monomer and aggregates of the mAb and ADC were shown to have similar antigen affinity. Conjugation of drugs to trastuzumab appeared to accelerate the aggregate formation. In addition, cation-exchange chromatography (CEX) was coupled to SPR enabling monitoring the maximum ligand-analyte binding capacity (R<sub>max</sub>) of individual charge variants present in mAbs. Deamidated species and lysine variants in trastuzumab sample were separated but did not show different binding affinities to the immobilized HER2-binding domain. In order to allow protein variant assignment, parallel MS detection was added to the LC-SPR setup using a column effluent split. The feasibility of the LC-MS/SPR system was demonstrated by analysis of trastuzumab and T-DM1 providing information on antibody glycoforms and/or determination of the drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR), while simultaneously monitoring binding of eluting species to HER2. Graphical abstract ?.
Project description:Here we define the epitopes on HA that are targeted by a group of 9 recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rmAbs) isolated from memory B cells of mice, immunized by infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus followed by a seasonal TIV boost. These rmAbs were all reactive against the HA1 region of HA, but display 7 distinct binding footprints, targeting each of the 4 known antigenic sites. Although the rmAbs were not broadly cross-reactive, a group showed subtype-specific cross-reactivity with the HA of A/South Carolina/1/18. Screening these rmAbs with a panel of human A(H1N1)pdm09 virus isolates indicated that naturally-occurring changes in HA could reduce rmAb binding, HI activity, and/or virus neutralization activity by rmAb, without showing changes in recognition by polyclonal antiserum. In some instances, virus neutralization was lost while both ELISA binding and HI activity were retained, demonstrating a discordance between the two serological assays traditionally used to detect antigenic drift.
Project description:The NISTmAb is a monoclonal antibody Reference Material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology; it is a class-representative IgG1? intended serve as a pre-competitive platform for harmonization and technology development in the biopharmaceutical industry. The publication series of which this paper is a part describes NIST's overall control strategy to ensure NISTmAb quality and availability over its lifecycle. In this paper, the development and qualification of methods for monitoring NISTmAb charge heterogeneity are described. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) assays were optimized and evaluated as candidate assays for NISTmAb quality control. CIEF was found to be suitable as a structural characterization assay yielding information on the apparent pI of the NISTmAb. CZE was found to be better suited for routine monitoring of NISTmAb charge heterogeneity and was qualified for this purpose. This paper is intended to provide relevant details of NIST's charge heterogeneity control strategy to facilitate implementation of the NISTmAb as a test molecule in the end user's laboratory. Graphical Abstract Representative capillary zone electropherogram of the NIST monoclonal antibody (NISTmAb). The NISTmAb is a publicly available research tool intended to facilitate advancement of biopharmaceutical analytics.
Project description:Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are highly complex proteins that must be exhaustively characterized according to the regulatory authorities' recommendations. MAbs display micro-heterogeneity mainly due to their post-translational modifications, but also to their susceptibility to chemical and physical degradations. Among these degradations, aggregation is quite frequent, initiated by protein denaturation and then dimer formation. Here, we investigated the nature and structure of the high molecular weight species (HMW) present at less than 1% in an unstressed formulated roledumab biopharmaceutical, as a model of high purity mAb. HMW species were first purified through preparative size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and then analyzed by a combination of chromatographic methods (ion-exchange chromatography (IEX), SEC) coupled to native mass spectrometry (MS), as well as sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and capillary gel electrophoresis under non-reducing conditions. Both covalently and non-covalently bound dimers were identified at a proportion of 50/50. In-depth characterization of the HMW fraction by SEC and IEX hyphenated to native MS revealed the presence of three mAb dimer forms having the same mass, but differing by their charge and size. They were attributed to different compact and elongated dimers. Finally, high-resolution middle-up approaches using different enzymes (IdeS and IgdE) were performed to determine the mAb domains implicated in the dimerization. Our results revealed that the roledumab dimers were associated mainly by a single Fab-to-Fab arm-bound association.
Project description:MiR-21 is an oncogenic miR frequently elevated in gastric cancer. Overexpression of miR-21 decreases the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to trastuzumab, which is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. However, optimization of miRNA or its anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs) for delivery is a challenge. Receptor-mediated endocytosis plays a crucial role in the delivery of biotherapeutics including AMOs. This study is a continuation of our earlier findings involving poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)-poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanoparticles (PEG-PCL NPs), which were coated with trastuzumab to target gastric cancer cells with HER2 receptor over-expression using anti-miRNA-21 antisense oligonucleotides (AMO-21). The antibody conjugates (HER-PEG-PCL NPs) act against target cells via antibody-dependent mechanisms and also based on encapsutalated AMO-21. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy validated the presence of trastuzumab on NP surface. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a stable antibody expression. The cell line specificity, cellular uptake, AMO-21 delivery, and cytotoxicity of the HER-PEG-PCL NPs were investigated. We found that the antibody conjugates significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of NPs. The HER-PEG-PCL NPs effectively suppressed the target miRNA expression in gastric cancer cells, which further up-regulated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). As a result, the sensitivity of HER2-expressing gastric cancer cells to trastuzumab was enhanced. The approach enhances the targeting by trastuzumab as well as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of immune effector cells. The antitumor effects of AMO-21-HER-PEG-PCL NPs were compared with trastuzumab in xenograft gastric cancer mice. The results provide insight into the biological and clinical potential of targeted AMO-21 delivery using modified trastuzumab for gastric cancer treatment.
Project description:Ch14.18 is a mouse-human chimeric monoclonal antibody to the disialoganglioside (GD2) glycolipid. In the clinic, this antibody has been shown to be effective in the treatment of children with high-risk neuroblastoma, either alone or in combination therapy. Extensive product characterization is a prerequisite to addressing the potential issues of product variability associated with process changes and manufacturing scale-up. Charge heterogeneity, glycosylation profile, molecular state and aggregation, interaction (affinity) with Fc? receptors and functional or biological activities are a few of the critical characterization assays for assessing product comparability for this antibody. In this article, we describe the in-house development and qualification of imaged capillary isoelectric focusing to assess charge heterogeneity, analytical size exclusion chromatography with online static and dynamic light scattering (DLS), batch mode DLS for aggregate detection, biosensor (surface plasmon resonance)-based Fc? receptor antibody interaction kinetics, N-glycoprofiling with PNGase F digestion, 2-aminobenzoic acid labeling and high performance liquid chromatography and N-glycan analysis using capillary electrophoresis. In addition, we studied selected biological activity assays, such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The consistency and reproducibility of the assays are established by comparing the intra-day and inter-day assay results. Applications of the methodologies to address stability or changes in product characteristics are also reported. The study results reveal that the ch14.18 clinical product formulated in phosphate-buffered saline at a concentration of 5 mg/ml and stored at 2-8°C is stable for more than five years.
Project description:1. The nature of the electrophoretic heterogeneity of ovomucoid was investigated. Optimum resolution of the fractions on starch-gel electrophoresis occurred over a narrow range of pH and ionic strength. The pattern was not altered in the presence of 8m-urea but the bands were sharper. Ovomucoid-trypsin complex is stable at pH4.6 but dissociated in 6m-urea. 2. The two major fractions of ovomucoid were eluted from the gels. One of these was virtually free of sialic acid and the other, which contained 0.4mole of sialic acid/mole of protein, split into two components on electrophoresis after neuraminidase treatment. It was concluded that these two components, and likewise the two major fractions of ovomucoid, differ by a unit charge/mol. Differences in sialic acid content account for only part of the electrophoretic heterogeneity of ovomucoid.
Project description:Human placental lysyl hydroxylase gave two bands in SDS/polyacrylamide-slab-gel electrophoresis: a broad, diffuse, major band corresponding to an apparent Mr of 80,000-85,000, and a sharp minor band with Mr 78,000. Mouse and chick-embryo lysyl hydroxylases gave only the broad, diffuse band, whereas the sharp band could not be detected. Polyclonal antibodies were prepared to the two bands of the human enzyme separately, and monoclonal antibodies were prepared to the whole purified enzyme preparation. Both types of polyclonal antibody inhibited and precipitated the enzyme activity, and both stained the two polypeptide bands in immunoblotting after SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Only one out of five monoclonal antibodies inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas they all precipitated the activity when studied with antibody coupled to Sepharose. All five monoclonal antibodies stained the whole broad band in immunoblotting, and at least three of them also stained the sharp band. Peptide maps produced from the two polypeptide species by digestion with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease were highly similar. Experiments with endoglycosidase H demonstrated that the Mr-80,000-85,000 polypeptide contains asparagine-linked carbohydrate units, which are required for maximal lysyl hydroxylase activity. The data suggest that the lysyl hydroxylase dimer consists of only one type of monomer, the heterogeneity of which is due to differences in glycosylation.