Type VII and XVII Collagen mRNA Expressions in Regenerated Epidermal Laminae in Chronic Equine Laminitis.
ABSTRACT: To confirm ability forming the basement membrane of the regenerated laminar epidermis (rLE) in chronic laminitis, expression of type VII and type XVII collagen mRNAs in the rLE was studied applying sequences of two type of murine collagens. On northern blot analysis, complement DNA (cDNA) probes adjusted from the murine type VII and type XVII collagen could hybridize with the equine mRNAs, and each signal was detected as single-bands at approximately 9.5 kb and 5.6 kb, respectively. Contrasting with the expression level of equine glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenease mRNA, the band of type VII collagen mRNA in laminitis was stronger than normal, but the type XVII collagen mRNA in laminitis was less than normal. By in situ hybridization, positive signals in response to the murine type VII and type XVII collagen mRNA probes could be detected in the equine laminitic rLE region. From these results, it is concluded that the keratinocytes constructing the rLE in chronic stage of laminitis can express type VII and type XVII collagen mRNAs and these expression patterns were different from the normal.
Project description:Invasive growth of epithelial cancers is a complex multi-step process which involves dissolution of the basement membrane. Type IV collagen is a major component in most basement membranes. Type VII collagen is related to anchoring fibrils and is found primarily in the basement membrane zone of stratified epithelia. Immunohistochemical studies have previously reported changes in steady-state levels of different alpha(IV) chains in several epithelial cancer types. In the present study we aimed to quantitatively determine the mRNA levels of type IV collagen (alpha1/alpha 4/alpha 6) and type VII collagen (alpha1) during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis.Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have determined the mRNA levels for alpha1(IV), alpha 4(IV), alpha 6(IV), and alpha1(VII) in colorectal cancer tissue (n = 33), adenomas (n = 29) and in normal tissue from the same individuals. In addition, corresponding tissue was examined from healthy volunteers (n = 20). mRNA levels were normalized to beta-actin. Immunohistochemical analysis of the distributions of type IV and type VII collagens were performed on normal and affected tissues from colorectal cancer patients.The alpha1(IV) and alpha1(VII) mRNA levels were statistically significantly higher in colorectal cancer tissue (p < 0.001) as compared to corresponding tissue from healthy controls. This is an early event as tissue from adenomas also displayed a higher level. There were small changes in the levels of alpha 4(IV). The level of alpha 6(IV) was 5-fold lower in colorectal cancer tissue as compared to healthy individuals (p < 0.01). The localisation of type IV and type VII collagen was visualized by immunohistochemical staining.Our results suggest that the down-regulation of alpha 6(IV) mRNA coincides with the acquisition of invasive growth properties, whereas alpha1(IV) and alpha1(VII) mRNAs were up-regulated already in dysplastic tissue. There are no differences in collagen expression between tissues from healthy individuals and normal tissues from affected individuals.
Project description:Equine lameller tissues were collected to compare normal vs laminitis generated differences in transcriptom level. Keywords: Laminitis, Equine, Diseased foot Overall design: Three Laminitis generated vs three normal Equine hoof tissues were subjected to comparison analysis in transcriptom level by using the Affymetrix Bovine GeneChip. The reasons for Bovine chip were; 1) Genetic similarity to Equine. 2) More transcriptom was search at that Affymetrix platform comparing the Equine GeneChip at the time of the study.
Project description:Generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa is an autosomal recessive subepidermal blistering disease typified by null mutations in COL17A1. In 1 large kindred, affected individuals were homozygous for a 2-bp deletion in COL17A1, 4003delTC, which resulted in a downstream premature termination codon, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, and abrogation of type XVII collagen synthesis. Interestingly, 1 of these patients, although phenotypically identical to her affected siblings, showed focal expression of type XVII collagen in epidermal basement membrane in a pattern suggestive of revertant mosaicism. When studies of randomly obtained epidermal, oromucosal, and peripheral blood cells failed to identify the genetic basis of this apparent mosaicism, microscopic subpopulations of potentially revertant epidermal cells (i.e., those overlying basement membrane containing type XVII collagen) were selectively isolated using laser capture microdissection. Analysis of DNA and RNA from these cells revealed a second mutation, 4080insGG, on 1 allele of COL17A1. This 2-bp insertion corrected the reading frame just proximal to the premature termination codon, countered nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, and allowed protein production by patient keratinocytes in vivo and in vitro. These studies elucidate the molecular basis of a novel form of revertant mosaicism in humans.
Project description:In healthy skin, epidermis and dermis are anchored together at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ), a specialized basement membrane pivotal for skin integrity and function. However, increased inflammation in the DEJ is associated with the disruption and separation of this junction and sub-epidermal blistering. Granzyme B (GzmB) is a serine protease secreted by immune cells. Dysregulated inflammation may lead to increased GzmB accumulation and proteolysis in the extracellular milieu. Although elevated GzmB is observed at the level of the DEJ in inflammatory and blistering skin conditions, the present study is the first to explore GzmB in the context of DEJ degradation in autoimmune sub-epidermal blistering. In the present study, GzmB induced separation of the DEJ in healthy human skin. Subsequently, ?6/?4 integrin, collagen VII, and collagen XVII were identified as extracellular substrates for GzmB through western blot, and specific cleavage sites were identified by mass spectrometry. In human bullous pemphigoid, dermatitis herpetiformis, and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, GzmB was elevated at the DEJ when compared to healthy samples, while ?6/?4 integrin, collagen VII, and collagen XVII were reduced or absent in the area of blistering. In summary, our results suggest that regardless of the initial causation of sub-epidermal blistering, GzmB activity is a common final pathway that could be amenable to a single targeted treatment approach.
Project description:Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a subepidermal blistering disorder associated with tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies specific to type VII collagen, a major constituent of the dermal-epidermal junction. Previous attempts to transfer the disease by injection of patient autoantibodies into mice have been unsuccessful. To study the pathogenic relevance of antibodies specific to type VII collagen in vivo, we generated and characterized rabbit antibodies specific to a murine form of this antigen and passively transferred them into adult nude, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice. Immune rabbit IgG bound to the lamina densa of murine skin and immunoblotted type VII collagen. Mice injected with purified IgG specific to type VII collagen, in contrast to control mice, developed subepidermal skin blisters, reproducing the human disease at the clinical, histological, electron microscopical, and immunopathological levels. Titers of rabbit IgG in the serum of mice correlated with the extent of the disease. F(ab')(2) fragments of rabbit IgG specific to type VII collagen were not pathogenic. When injected into C5-deficient mice, antibodies specific to type VII collagen failed to induce the disease, whereas C5-sufficient mice were susceptible to blister induction. This animal model for EBA should facilitate further dissection of the pathogenesis of this disease and development of new therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Collagen XVII is a transmembrane collagen and the major autoantigen of the autoimmune skin blistering disease bullous pemphigoid. Collagen XVII is proteolytically released from the membrane, and the pathogenic epitope harbors the cleavage site for its ectodomain shedding, suggesting that proteolysis has an important role in regulating the function of collagen XVII in skin homeostasis. Previous studies identified ADAMs 9, 10, and 17 as candidate collagen XVII sheddases and suggested that ADAM17 is a major sheddase. Here we show that ADAM17 only indirectly affects collagen XVII shedding and that ADAMs 9 and 10 are the most prominent collagen XVII sheddases in primary keratinocytes because (a) collagen XVII shedding was not stimulated by phorbol esters, known activators of ADAM17, (b) constitutive and calcium influx-stimulated shedding was sensitive to the ADAM10-selective inhibitor GI254023X and was strongly reduced in Adam10(-/-) cells, (c) there was a 55% decrease in constitutive collagen XVII ectodomain shedding from Adam9(-/-) keratinocytes, and (d) H(2)O(2) enhanced ADAM9 expression and stimulated collagen XVII shedding in skin and keratinocytes of wild type mice but not of Adam9(-/-) mice. We conclude that ADAM9 and ADAM10 can both contribute to collagen XVII shedding in skin with an enhanced relative contribution of ADAM9 in the presence of reactive oxygen species. These results provide critical new insights into the identity and regulation of the major sheddases for collagen XVII in keratinocytes and skin and have implications for the treatment of blistering diseases of the skin.
Project description:Equine lameller tissues were collected to compare normal vs laminitis generated differences in transcriptom level. Experiment Overall Design: Three Laminitis generated vs three normal Equine hoof tissues were subjected to comparison analysis in transcriptom level by using the Affymetrix Bovine GeneChip. Experiment Overall Design: The reasons for Bovine chip were; 1) Genetic similarity to Equine. Experiment Overall Design: 2) More transcriptom was search at that Affymetrix platform comparing the Equine GeneChip at the time of the study.
Project description:Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous genodermatosis, characterized by trauma-induced blistering and healing without scarring but sometimes with skin atrophy. We investigated three unrelated patients with different JEB phenotypes. Patients 1 and 2 had generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa (GABEB), with features including skin atrophy and alopecia. Patient 3 had the localisata variant of JEB, with predominantly acral blistering and normal hair. All patients carried novel homozygous point mutations (Q1016X, R1226X, and R1303Q) in the COL17A1 gene encoding collagen XVII, a hemidesmosomal transmembrane component; and, therefore, not only GABEB but also the localisata JEB can be a collagen XVII disorder. The nonsense mutations led to drastically reduced collagen XVII mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, the missense mutation allowed expression of abnormal collagen XVII, and epidermal extracts from that patient contained polypeptides of normal size, as well as larger aggregates. The homozygous nonsense mutations in the COL17A1 gene were consistent with the absence of the collagen from the skin and with the GABEB phenotype, whereas homozygosity for the missense mutation resulted in expression of aberrant collagen XVII and, clinically, in localisata JEB.
Project description:This data article provides gene expression profiles, determined by using real-time PCR, of fibroblasts and keratinocytes treated with 0.01% and 0.001% extracts of neem plant (Azadirachta indica), local name "Kohomba" in Sri Lanka, harvested in Sri Lanka. For fibroblasts, the dataset includes expression profiles for genes encoding hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1), hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), hyaluronidase-1 (HYAL1), hyaluronidase-2 (HYAL2), versican, aggrecan, CD44, collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1), collagen, type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1), collagen, type VII, alpha 1 (COL7A1), matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1), acid ceramidase, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF7), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1?), cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?), and aquaporin 3 (AQP3). For keratinocytes, the expression profiles are for genes encoding HAS1, HAS2, HYAL1, HYAL2, versican, CD44, IL-1?, cox2, TGF-?, AQP3, Laminin5, collagen, type XVII, alpha 1 (COL17A1), integrin alpha-6 (ITGA6), ceramide synthase 3 (CERS3), elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 1 (ELOVL1), elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 4 (ELOVL4), filaggrin (FLG), transglutaminase 1 (TGM1), and keratin 1 (KRT1). The expression profiles are provided as bar graphs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hyperinsulinemia is associated with equine laminitis, and digital lamellar inflammation in equine metabolic syndrome-associated laminitis (EMSAL) is modest when compared with sepsis-associated laminitis. OBJECTIVES:To characterize digital lamellar inflammation in horses in a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC) model of laminitis. ANIMALS:Sixteen healthy adult Standardbred horses. METHODS:Prospective experimental study. Horses underwent EHC or saline infusion (CON) for 48 hours or until the onset of Obel grade 1 laminitis. Horses were euthanized, and digital lamellar tissue was collected and analyzed via polymerase chain reaction (pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes-CXCL1, CXCL6, CXCL8, IL-6, MCP-1, MCP-2, IL-1β, IL11, cyclooxygenases 1 and 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], E-selectin, and ICAM-1), immunoblotting (phosphorylated and total signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 [STAT1], STAT3, and p38MAPK), and immunohistochemistry (markers of leukocyte infiltration: CD163, MAC387). RESULTS:Lamellar mRNA concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-11, COX-2, and E-selectin were increased; the concentration of COX-1 was decreased; and concentrations of CXCL1, CXCL6, MCP-1, MCP-2, IL-8, TNF-α and ICAM-1 were not significantly different in the EHC group compared to the CON group (P ≤ .003). Lamellar concentrations of phosphorylated STAT proteins (P-STAT1 [S727], P-STAT1 [Y701], P-STAT3 [S727], and P-STAT3 [Y705]) were increased in the EHC group compared to the CON group, with phosphorylated STAT3 localizing to nuclei of lamellar basal epithelial cells. There was no change in the lamellar concentration of P-p38 MAPK (T180/Y182), but the concentration of total p38 MAPK was decreased in the EHC samples. There was no evidence of notable lamellar leukocyte emigration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:These results establish a role for lamellar inflammatory signaling under conditions associated with EMSAL.