SRF is required for neutrophil migration in response to inflammation.
ABSTRACT: Serum response factor (SRF) is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor and master regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. We have previously shown that SRF is essential for megakaryocyte maturation and platelet formation and function. Here we elucidate the role of SRF in neutrophils, the primary defense against infections. To study the effect of SRF loss in neutrophils, we crossed Srf(fl/fl) mice with select Cre-expressing mice and studied neutrophil function in vitro and in vivo. Despite normal neutrophil numbers, neutrophil function is severely impaired in Srf knockout (KO) neutrophils. Srf KO neutrophils fail to polymerize globular actin to filamentous actin in response to N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine, resulting in significantly disrupted cytoskeletal remodeling. Srf KO neutrophils fail to migrate to sites of inflammation in vivo and along chemokine gradients in vitro. Polarization in response to cytokine stimuli is absent and Srf KO neutrophils show markedly reduced adhesion. Integrins play an essential role in cellular adhesion, and although integrin expression levels are maintained with loss of SRF, integrin activation and trafficking are disrupted. Migration and cellular adhesion are essential for normal cell function, but also for malignant processes such as metastasis, underscoring an essential function for SRF and its pathway in health and disease.
Project description:?2-integrins are essential for immune system function because they mediate immune cell adhesion and signaling. Consequently, a loss of ?2-integrin expression or function causes the immunodeficiency disorders, Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD) type I and III. LAD-III is caused by mutations in an important integrin regulator, kindlin-3, but exactly how kindlin-3 regulates leukocyte adhesion has remained incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that mutation of the kindlin-3 binding site in the ?2-integrin (TTT/AAA-?2-integrin knock-in mouse/KI) abolishes activation of the actin-regulated myocardin related transcription factor A/serum response factor (MRTF-A/SRF) signaling pathway in dendritic cells and MRTF-A/SRF-dependent gene expression. We show that Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) activation and filamentous-actin (F-actin) polymerization is abolished in murine TTT/AAA-?2-integrin KI dendritic cells, which leads to a failure of MRTF-A to localize to the cell nucleus to coactivate genes together with SRF. In addition, we show that dendritic cell gene expression, adhesion and integrin-mediated traction forces on ligand coated surfaces is dependent on the MRTF-A/SRF signaling pathway. The participation of ?2-integrin and kindlin-3-mediated cell adhesion in the regulation of the ubiquitous MRTF-A/SRF signaling pathway in immune cells may help explain the role of ?2-integrin and kindlin-3 in integrin-mediated gene regulation and immune system function.
Project description:Neutrophil extravasation is a migratory event in response to inflammation that depends on cytoskeletal dynamics regulated by myosins. Myosin-1e (Myo1e) is a long-tailed class-I myosin that has not yet been studied in the context of neutrophil-endothelial interactions and neutrophil extravasation. Intravital microscopy of TNF?-inflamed cremaster muscles in Myo1e-deficient mice revealed that Myo1e is required for efficient neutrophil extravasation. Specifically, Myo1e deficiency caused increased rolling velocity, decreased firm adhesion, aberrant crawling, and strongly reduced transmigration. Interestingly, we observed a striking discontinuous rolling behavior termed "intermittent rolling," during which Myo1e-deficient neutrophils showed alternating rolling and jumping movements. Surprisingly, chimeric mice revealed that these effects were due to Myo1e deficiency in leukocytes. Vascular permeability was not significantly altered in Myo1e KO mice. Myo1e-deficient neutrophils showed diminished arrest, spreading, uropod formation, and chemotaxis due to defective actin polymerization and integrin activation. In conclusion, Myo1e critically regulates adhesive interactions of neutrophils with the vascular endothelium and neutrophil extravasation. Myo1e may therefore be an interesting target in chronic inflammatory diseases characterized by excessive neutrophil recruitment.
Project description:Interactions of neutrophils with endothelial cells (ECs) and platelets contribute to tissue damage and vascular occlusion under sterile inflammatory conditions. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating the cell-cell interactions remain poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), produced from NADPH oxidase 2 play a critical role in platelet-neutrophil interactions by regulating the function of neutrophil ?M?2 integrin during sterile inflammation. In this study, we further demonstrate a crucial role for myeloperoxidase (MPO) in regulating the adhesive function of neutrophils through ?M?2 integrin. Using real-time fluorescence intravital microscopy and in vitro assays, we showed that loss of MPO promoted neutrophil-EC interactions and neutrophil emigration but did not affect neutrophil-platelet interactions under inflammatory conditions. Using genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we found that following agonist stimulation, MPO knockout (KO) neutrophils exhibited a significant increase in extracellular H2O2 and surface level of ?M?2 integrin and that these effects were dependent on MPO activity. Our in vivo studies using an ischemia/reperfusion-induced hepatic inflammation model revealed that compared to wild-type mice, neutrophils from MPO KO mice-displayed a pro-migratory phenotype while ameliorating tissue damage. These results suggest that MPO plays a negative role in the adhesive and migratory function of neutrophils by impairing ?M?2 integrin function under sterile inflammatory conditions.
Project description:Interactions between platelets, leukocytes, and activated endothelial cells are important during microvascular occlusion; however, the regulatory mechanisms of these heterotypic cell-cell interactions remain unclear. Here, using intravital microscopy to evaluate mice lacking specific isoforms of the serine/threonine kinase AKT and bone marrow chimeras, we found that hematopoietic cell-associated AKT2 is important for neutrophil adhesion and crawling and neutrophil-platelet interactions on activated endothelial cells during TNF-?-induced venular inflammation. Studies with an AKT2-specific inhibitor and cells isolated from WT and Akt KO mice revealed that platelet- and neutrophil-associated AKT2 regulates heterotypic neutrophil-platelet aggregation under shear conditions. In particular, neutrophil AKT2 was critical for membrane translocation of ?M?2 integrin, ?2-talin1 interaction, and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. We found that the basal phosphorylation levels of AKT isoforms were markedly increased in neutrophils and platelets isolated from patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), an inherited hematological disorder associated with vascular inflammation and occlusion. AKT2 inhibition reduced heterotypic aggregation of neutrophils and platelets isolated from SCD patients and diminished neutrophil adhesion and neutrophil-platelet aggregation in SCD mice, thereby improving blood flow rates. Our results provide evidence that neutrophil AKT2 regulates ?M?2 integrin function and suggest that AKT2 is important for neutrophil recruitment and neutrophil-platelet interactions under thromboinflammatory conditions such as SCD.
Project description:The importance of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of autoimmune rheumatic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is increasingly recognised. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) by activated neutrophils are both thought to contribute to pathology; although the underlying mechanisms, particularly the effects of IgG autoantibodies upon neutrophil function, are not fully understood. Therefore, we determined whether purified IgG from patients with SLE or RA have differential effects upon neutrophil activation and function. We found that SLE- and RA-IgG both bound human neutrophils but differentially regulated neutrophil function. RA- and SLE-IgG both increased PMA-induced ?1 integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin, whilst only SLE-IgG enhanced ?M?2 integrin-mediated adhesion to fibrinogen. Interestingly, only SLE-IgG modulated neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells. Both SLE- and RA-IgG increased ROS generation and DNA externalisation by unstimulated neutrophils. Only SLE-IgG however, drove DNA externalisation following neutrophil activation. Co-culture of neutrophils with resting endothelium prevented IgG-mediated increase of extracellular DNA, but this inhibition was overcome for SLE-IgG when the endothelium was stimulated with TNF-?. This differential pattern of neutrophil activation has implications for understanding SLE and RA pathogenesis and may highlight avenues for development of novel therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Why ocular mucosa is paucibacterial is unknown. Many different mechanisms have been suggested but the comprehensive experimental studies are sparse. We found that a deficiency in L-plastin (LCP1), an actin bundling protein, resulted in an ocular commensal overgrowth, characterized with increased presence of conjunctival Streptococcal spp. The commensal overgrowth correlated with susceptibility to P. aeruginosa-induced keratitis. L-plastin knock-out (KO) mice displayed elevated bacterial burden in the P. aeruginosa-infected corneas, altered inflammatory responses, and compromised bactericidal activity. Mice with ablation of LPL under the LysM Cre (LysM. Cre pos LPL fl/fl ) and S100A8 Cre (S100A8.Cre pos LPL fl/fl ) promoters had a similar phenotype to the LPL KOs mice. In contrast, infected CD11c.Cre pos LPL fl/fl mice did not display elevated susceptibility to infection, implicating the myeloid L-plastin-sufficient cells (e.g., macrophages and neutrophils) in maintaining ocular homeostasis. Mechanistically, the elevated commensal burden and the susceptibility to infection were linked to defects in neutrophil frequencies at steady state and during infection and compromised bactericidal activities upon priming. Macrophage exposure to commensal organisms primed neutrophil responses to P. aeruginosa, augmenting PMN bactericidal capacity in an L-plastin dependent manner. Cumulatively, our data highlight the importance of neutrophils in controlling ocular paucibacteriality, reveal molecular and cellular events involved in the process, and suggest a link between commensal exposure and resistance to infection.
Project description:?2 integrins play a crucial role during neutrophil recruitment into the site of vascular inflammation. However, it remains unknown how ligand-binding activity of the integrin is regulated. Using fluorescence intravital microscopy in mice generated by crossing protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) floxed mice with lysozyme-Cre transgenic mice, we demonstrate that neutrophil PDI is required for neutrophil adhesion and crawling during tumor necrosis factor-?-induced vascular inflammation in vivo. Rescue experiments show that the isomerase activity of extracellular PDI is critical for its regulatory effect on neutrophil recruitment. Studies with blocking anti-PDI antibodies and ?L?2 or ?M?2 null mice suggest that extracellular PDI regulates ?M?2 integrin-mediated adhesive function of neutrophils during vascular inflammation. Consistently, we show that neutrophil surface PDI is important for ?M?2 integrin-mediated adhesion of human neutrophils under shear and static conditions and for binding of soluble fibrinogen to activated ?M?2 integrin. Confocal microscopy and biochemical studies reveal that neutrophil surface PDI interacts with ?M?2 integrin in lipid rafts of stimulated neutrophils and regulates ?M?2 integrin clustering, presumably by changing the redox state of the integrin. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that extracellular PDI could be a novel therapeutic target for preventing and treating inappropriate neutrophil sequestration.
Project description:Neutrophil migration requires continuous reorganization of the cytoskeleton and cellular adhesion apparatus. Chemoattractants initiate intracellular signals that direct this reorganization. The signaling pathways that link chemoattractant receptors to the cytoskeleton and cellular adhesion apparatus are now being defined. Formyl-peptide chemoattractants released from bacteria stimulate G-protein-linked receptors on the surface of neutrophils and regulate the neutrophil cytoskeleton and adhesion apparatus through RhoA-dependent pathways. Lsc is a RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor that binds the heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunits, Galpha12 and Galpha13. We have disrupted the Lsc gene and demonstrated that formyl-peptide-stimulated Lsc knock-out (KO) neutrophils are unable to generate and sustain a single-dominant pseudopod and migrate with increased speed and reduced directionality. Unexpectedly, we also found that Lsc is required for normal beta2- and beta1-integrin-dependent neutrophil adhesion. Lsc-deficient mice have a peripheral leukocytosis and extramedullary hematopoiesis, demonstrating that Lsc is required for leukocyte homeostasis. Lsc-deficient neutrophils are recruited normally to sites of bacterial peritonitis and chemical dermatitis, indicating that other signaling pathways compensate for the Lsc deficiency in some forms of inflammation. These results demonstrate that Lsc links formyl-peptide receptors to RhoA signaling pathways that regulate polarization, migration, and adhesion in neutrophils and that Lsc is required for leukocyte homeostasis.
Project description:Endothelial-specific knockout of the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) results in embryonic lethality by mid-gestation. The associated phenotype exhibits vascular failure in embryos as well as visceral yolk sac (VYS) tissues. Previous data suggest that this vascular failure is caused by alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts. In the current study, we sought to more carefully address the role of SRF in endothelial function and cell contact interactions in VYS tissues.Tie2-Cre recombinase-mediated knockout of SRF expression resulted in loss of detectable SRF from VYS mesoderm by E12.5. This loss was accompanied by decreased expression of smooth muscle alpha-actin as well as vascular endothelial cadherin and claudin 5, endothelial-specific components of adherens and tight junctions, respectively. Focal adhesion (FA) integrins alpha5 and beta1 were largely unchanged in contrast to loss of the FA-associated molecule vinculin. The integrin binding partner fibronectin-1 was also profoundly decreased in the extracellular matrix, indicating another aspect of impaired adhesive function and integrin signaling. Additionally, cells in SRF-null VYS mesoderm failed to reduce proliferation, suggesting not only that integrin-mediated contact inhibition is impaired but also that SRF protein is not required for proliferation in these cells.Our data support a model in which SRF is critical in maintaining functional cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion in endothelial cells. Furthermore, we provide evidence that supports a model in which loss of SRF protein results in a sustained proliferation defect due in part to failed integrin signaling.
Project description:Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a Ca(2+) sensor protein that initiates store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). STIM1 is known to be involved in the chemoattractant signaling pathway for FPR1 in cell lines, but its role in in vivo functioning of neutrophils is unclear. Plaque-type psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with chemoattractants driving neutrophils into the epidermis. We investigated the involvement of STIM1 in neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro, as well as during chronic psoriatic inflammation. To this end, we used conditional knockout (KO) mice lacking STIM1 in cells of myeloid lineage (STIM1(fl/fl) LysM-cre). We demonstrate that STIM1 is required for chemotaxis because of multiple chemoattractants in mouse neutrophils in vitro. Using an imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin model, we show that KO mice had less neutrophil infiltration in the epidermis than controls, whereas neither chemoattractant production in the epidermis nor macrophage migration was decreased. KO mice displayed a more rapid reversal of the outward signs of psoriasis (plaques). Thus, KO of STIM1 impairs neutrophil contribution to psoriatic inflammation. Our data provide new insights to our understanding of how STIM1 orchestrates the cellular behavior underlying chemotaxis and illustrate the important role of SOCE in a disease-related pathologic model.