ABSTRACT: Allelic variation in the vitamin D receptor was the first non-structural gene to be associated with osteoporosis, and together with the effects of the vitamin D system on bone homeostasis, suggested that this vitamin might have a strong role in bone health. However, controversy exists regarding what level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is optimal. Current data from biochemical, observational and randomized controlled trials (RCTs), indicate serum 25(OH)D levels of at least 50 nmol l(-1) are required for normalization of parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, to minimize the risk of osteomalacia and for optimal bone cell function. The skeletal consequences of 25(OH)D insufficiency include secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover and bone loss and an increased risk of minimal trauma fractures. In large scale epidemiological studies, serum 25(OH)D levels are associated with bone mineral density in both men and women. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of optimizing serum 25(OH)D levels for the prevention of bone loss and minimal trauma fractures in postmenopausal women and older men. There may be some benefit on primary fracture prevention for those who have inadequate serum levels of 25(OH)D, particularly in institutionalised elderly patients, but only when combined with calcium supplements. For optimal bone health, evidence from RCTs suggests vitamin D may be considered a threshold nutrient with few further bone benefits observed at levels of 25(OH)D above which PTH is normalized. An adequate calcium intake is also imperative to gain optimum benefit from an improved vitamin D status in those with insufficient 25(OH)D levels, with an increased calcium intake being associated with suppression of PTH levels.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D are the most important hormones regulating calcium metabolism. In primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) excessive amounts of PTH are produced. Bone turnover is enhanced, leading to reduced bone mineral density and elevated levels of serum calcium. The aim of this study was to investigate relations between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) and bone mineral density, as well as known genetic polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and enzymes metabolising vitamin D in patients with PHPT. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 52 patients with PHPT. RESULTS: Mean level of 25(OH)D was 58.2 nmol/L and median 1,25(OH)(2)D level was 157 pmol/L. Among our patients with PHPT 36.5% had 25(OH)D levels below 50 nmol/L. Serum 1,25(OH)(2)D was inversely correlated to bone mineral density in distal radius (p?=?0.002), but not to bone mineral density at lumbar spine or femoral neck. The vitamin D receptor polymorphism Apa1 (rs7975232) was associated with bone mineral density in the lumbar spine. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that PHPT patients with high blood concentrations of 1,25(OH)(2)D may have the most deleterious skeletal effects. Randomized, prospective studies are necessary to elucidate whether vitamin D supplementation additionally increases serum 1,25(OH)(2)D and possibly enhances the adverse effects on the skeleton in patients with PHPT.
Project description:The optimal circulating concentration of 25(OH) vitamin D is controversial.The aim was to investigate if FGF-23 and 24,25(OH)2D can guide cholecalciferol replacement.Oral cholecalciferol (10,000 IU weekly) administered to subjects with 25(OH)D levels < 20 ?g/mL and eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (n = 25), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n = 27), or end stage renal disease (ESRD) (n = 14).The study was conducted at the Veterans Affairs clinics.Serum FGF-23, PTH, 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25(OH)2D, calcium, and phosphorous concentrations, and urinary excretion of calcium and phosphorus at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment.Cholecalciferol treatment increased concentrations of serum 25(OH)D by (19.3 ± 8 ?g/mL, P = .001; 12.2 ± 9 ?g/mL, P = .0001) and 24,25(OH)2D (1.14 ± 0.89 ?g/mL, P = .0024; 1.0 ± 0.72 ?g/mL P = .0002), and reduced serum PTH (-11 ± 21 pg/mL, P = .0292; -42 ± 68 pg/mL, P = .0494) in normal and CKD subjects, respectively. Cholecalciferol increased serum FGF-23 levels only in normal subjects (44 ± 57 ?g/mL, P = .01). Increments in serum 25(OH)D positively correlated with serum FGF-23 and 24,25(OH)2D and negatively correlated with PTH. In ESRD, cholecalciferol administration increased 25(OH)D by (16.6 ± 6.6 ?g/mL P ? .05) without changing 24,25(OH)2D, FGF-23 or PTH levels.Modest elevations of serum 25(OH)D levels after cholecalciferol treatment are sufficient to induce compensatory degradative pathways in patients with sufficient renal reserves, suggesting that optimal circulating 25(OH)D levels are approximately 20 ?g/mL. In addition, catabolism of 25(OH)D may also contribute to the low circulating vitamin D levels in CKD, since elevations of FGF-23 in CKD are associated with increased 24,25(OH)2D after cholecalciferol administration.
Project description:Previous studies demonstrate associations of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures, motivating widespread use of vitamin D supplements for bone health. However, previous studies have been limited to predominantly White populations despite differences in the distribution and metabolism of 25(OH)D by race/ethnicity. We determined associations of serum 25(OH)D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH2)D3), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) with BMD among 1773 adult participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) in a staggered cross-sectional study design. Vitamin D metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and PTH using a 2-site immunoassay from serum collected in 2000-2002. Volumetric trabecular lumbar BMD was measured from computed tomography scans performed in 2002-2005 expressed as g/cm(3). We used linear regression and graphical methods to compare associations of vitamin D metabolite and PTH concentrations with BMD as the outcomes measure among White (n=714), Black (n=353), Chinese (n=249), and Hispanic (n=457) participants. Serum 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH2)D3 concentrations were highest among Whites and lowest among Blacks. BMD was greatest among Black participants. Higher serum 25(OH)D was only associated with higher BMD among Whites and Chinese participants (P-for-interaction=0.054). Comparing the lowest category of 25(OH)D (<20 ng/ml) to the highest (?30 ng/ml), the adjusted mean difference in BMD was -8.1g/cm3 (95% CI -14.8, -1.4) for Whites; -10.2g/cm3 (-20.4, 0.0) for Chinese vs. 8.8 g/cm3 (-2.8, 20.5) for Black and -1.1g/cm3 (-8.3, 6.2) for Hispanic. Similar results were observed for serum 24,25(OH2)D3. Serum PTH was not associated with BMD. In a multi-ethnic population, associations of 25(OH)D with BMD were strongest among White and Chinese participants and null among Black and Hispanic participants. Further studies are needed to determine optimal biomarkers for bone health for multiple ethnic groups.
Project description:Background: Adults with celiac disease (CeD) show low bone mineral density (BMD) and high fracture risk. CeD guidelines suggest measurements of serum minerals and vitamin D. However, studies on vitamin levels in CeD patients are contradictory. Aim: To investigate in CeD, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], and related analytes and to evaluate their relationships to peripheral BMD as assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Methods: Gluten-free diet (GFD)-treated, and untreated adult CeD patients naïve to vitamin D and calcium supplementation underwent measurements of serum 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), total calcium, phosphate, and of radius BMD by pQCT. Results: Complete data were collected in 105 patients for lab tests and 87 patients for BMD. For lab tests, untreated CeD differed from treated CeD for 22.0% lower serum 25(OH)D (p = 0.023), 42.5% higher serum PTH (p < 0.001), and 13.0% higher serum 1,25(OH)2D (p = 0.029) in the presence of similar serum calcium and phosphorus (p > 0.35). For BMD, untreated CeD differed from treated CeD for lower diaphyseal cortical BMD (1133 and 1157 mg/cm3, p = 0.004) but not for distal BMD (total, trabecular, and subcortical, p > 0.13). Independent correlates of diaphyseal cortical BMD were GFD treatment and body mass index (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Data indicated that, compared to CeD patients on a gluten-free diet, untreated adult CeD patients at diagnosis had lower 25(OH)D, higher PTH, and higher 1,25(OH)2D in the absence of difference in serum calcium and phosphorus. 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D, even below the normal range, were not associated with BMD. Our findings do not support the use of vitamin D supplementation for all CeD adults.
Project description:The effect of equivalent oral doses of vitamin D3 600 IU/day, 4200 IU/week and 18,000 IU/month on vitamin D status was compared in a randomized clinical trial in nursing home residents. A daily dose was more effective than a weekly dose, and a monthly dose was the least effective.It is assumed that equivalent daily, weekly or monthly doses of vitamin D3 equally influence vitamin D status. This was investigated in a randomized clinical trial in nursing home residents.The study was performed in ten nursing homes including 338 subjects (76 male and 262 female), with a mean age of 84 (+/- SD 6.3 years). They received oral vitamin D3 either 600 IU/day, or 4200 IU/week, or 18,000 IU/month or placebo. After 4 months, calcium was added during 2 weeks, 320 mg/day or 640 mg/day or placebo.serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone turnover markers. Statistical approach: linear multilevel analysis.At baseline, mean serum 25(OH)D was 25.0 nmol/L (SD 10.9), and in 98%, it was lower than 50 nmol/L. After 4 months, mean serum 25(OH)D levels increased to 62.5 nmol/L (after daily vitamin D3 69.9 nmol/L, weekly 67.2 nmol/L and monthly 53.1 nmol/L, P < 0.001 between groups). Median serum PTH levels decreased by 23% (p < 0.001). Bone turnover markers did not decrease. Calcium supplementation had no effect on serum PTH and bone turnover.Daily vitamin D was more effective than weekly, and monthly administration was the least effective.
Project description:Whether ergocalciferol (D(2)) and cholecalciferol (D(3)) are equally effective to increase and maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration is controversial.The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of daily and once monthly dosing of D(2) or D(3) on circulating 25(OH)D and serum and urinary calcium.In a university clinical research setting, 64 community dwelling adults age 65+ were randomly assigned to receive daily (1,600 IU) or once-monthly (50,000 IU) D(2) or D(3) for 1 yr.Serum 25(OH)D, serum calcium, and 24-h urinary calcium were measured at months 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Serum PTH, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and N-telopeptide were measured at months 0, 3, 6, and 12.Serum 25(OH)D was less than 30 ng/ml in 40% of subjects at baseline; after 12 months of vitamin D dosing, levels in 19% of subjects (n = 12, seven receiving daily doses and five monthly doses) remained low, despite compliance of more than 91%. D(2) dosing increased 25(OH)D(2) but produced a decline (P < 0.0001) in 25(OH)D(3). Substantial between-individual variation in 25(OH)D response was observed for both D(2) and D(3). The highest 25(OH)D observed was 72.5 ng/ml. Vitamin D administration did not alter serum calcium, PTH, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, N-telopeptide, or 24-h urine calcium.Overall, D(3) is slightly, but significantly, more effective than D(2) to increase serum 25(OH)D. One year of D(2) or D(3) dosing (1,600 IU daily or 50,000 IU monthly) does not produce toxicity, and 25(OH)D levels of less than 30 ng/ml persist in approximately 20% of individuals. Substantial between-individual response to administered vitamin D(2) or D(3) is observed.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Polymorphisms in the CYP2R1 gene encoding Vitamin D 25-hydroxylase have been reported to correlate with circulating levels of 25-OH vitamin D3 (25(OH)D). It is unknown whether these variations also affect overall bone metabolism. In order to elucidate the overall associations of polymorphisms in the CYP2R1, we studied haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene and serum levels of 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), as well as bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS:Baseline data on serum parameters and BMD from MrOS Sweden, a prospective population-based cohort study of elderly men (mean age 75 years, range 69-81), were analyzed. Genotyping was performed for eight SNPs covering the CYP2R1 gene in 2868 men with available samples of DNA. Subjects were followed up concerning incidence of fracture during five years. RESULTS:There was a significant genetic association with circulating levels of 25(OH)D (4.6-18.5% difference in mean values between SNP alleles), but there were no correlations with levels of calcium, phosphate, PTH or FGF23 for any genetic variant. No differences were found in fracture incidence between the variants. There was an inverse relationship between lower BMD and concomitant higher 25(OH)D for three of the haplotypes (p < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS:Common variants in the CYP2R1 gene encoding Vitamin D 25-hydroxylase correlate with levels of circulating 25(OH)D but do not otherwise associate with measures of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Presence of the specific haplotypes may be an indicator of risk for low 25(OH)D levels, and may in addition be correlated to bone mineral density.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency, defined by the total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level, is common and more prevalent among Blacks than whites. Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) levels vary with race and may modulate "bioavailable" levels of 25(OH)D.To determine the effect of DBP levels on the functional response to vitamin D.A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D repletion for 2 mo, which took place at an outpatient research unit. Participants included 150 vitamin D-deficient (25(OH)D <20 ng/mL) adults. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 or placebo weekly for 8 weeks. This is a post-hoc analysis using DBP, 25(OH)D, PTH, and calcium levels.Blacks had lower total 25(OH)D (12 vs 15 ng/mL, P < .001) and DBP levels (119 vs 234 ?g/mL, P < .001) than non-Blacks. DBP levels were similar before and after vitamin D3 or placebo treatment (r = 0.98, P < .001). Baseline total 25(OH)D levels were a significant determinant of baseline PTH levels (P < .001). The change in total 25(OH)D was associated with the change in PTH (P < 0.001) and calcium levels (P < .05). In contrast, DBP levels were not a determinant of baseline PTH (P = .57) nor significantly related to changes in either PTH (P = .53) or calcium levels (P = .88).DBP levels are stable in Blacks and non-Blacks, and do not change with correction of vitamin D deficiency. Even for individuals with total 25(OH)D levels < 20 ng/mL, Blacks have significantly lower DBP levels than non-Blacks. However, within this range of total 25(OH)D, DBP levels do not influence the effect of vitamin D repletion on PTH or calcium levels.
Project description:Mounting evidence correlate vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation or higher serum levels of vitamin D (25(OH)D) with a lower risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS), reduced relapse rate, slower progression or fewer new brain lesions. We present here the case of a woman who was diagnosed with MS in 1990. From 1980 to 2000, her ability to walk decreased from ~20 to 1 km per day. Since January 2001, a vitamin D3 supplement was ingested daily. The starting dose was 20 mcg (800 IU)/day and escalated to 100 mcg (4000 IU)/day in September 2004 and then to 150 mcg (6000 IU)/day in December 2005. Vitamin D3 intake reduced muscular pain and improved ambulation from 1 (February 2000) to 14 km/day (February 2008). Vitamin D intake over 10 years caused no adverse effects: no hypercalcaemia, nephrolithiasis or hypercalciuria were observed. Bowel problems in MS may need to be addressed as they can cause malabsorption including calcium, which may increase serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D levels, as well as bone loss. We suggest that periodic assessment of vitamin D3, calcium and magnesium intake, bowel problems and the measurement of serum 25(OH)D, PTH, Ca levels, UCa/Cr and bone health become part of the integral management of persons with MS.
Project description:Adverse effects of low vitamin D status and calcium intakes in pregnancy may be mediated through functional effects on the calcium metabolic system. Little explored in pregnancy, we aimed to examine the relative importance of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and calcium intake on parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations in healthy white-skinned pregnant women. This cross-sectional analysis included 142 participants (14 ± 2 weeks' gestation) at baseline of a vitamin D intervention trial at 51.9 °N. Serum 25(OH)D, PTH, and albumin-corrected calcium were quantified biochemically. Total vitamin D and calcium intakes (diet and supplements) were estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The mean ± SD vitamin D intake was 10.7 ± 5.2 μg/day. With a mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D of 54.9 ± 22.6 nmol/L, 44% of women were <50 nmol/L and 13% <30 nmol/L. Calcium intakes (mean ± SD) were 1182 ± 488 mg/day and 23% of participants consumed <800 mg/day. The mean ± SD serum albumin-adjusted calcium was 2.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L and geometric mean (95% CI) PTH was 9.2 (8.4, 10.2) pg/mL. PTH was inversely correlated with serum 25(OH)D (r = -0.311, p < 0.001), but not with calcium intake or serum calcium (r = -0.087 and 0.057, respectively, both p > 0.05). Analysis of variance showed that while serum 25(OH)D (dichotomised at 50 nmol/L) had a significant effect on PTH (p = 0.025), calcium intake (<800, 800⁻1000, ≥1000 mg/day) had no effect (p = 0.822). There was no 25(OH)D-calcium intake interaction effect on PTH (p = 0.941). In this group of white-skinned women with largely sufficient calcium intakes, serum 25(OH)D was important for maintaining normal PTH concentration.