Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts.
ABSTRACT: To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L-1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells.
Project description:In this work, two bioactive glass powders (SBA2 and SBA3) were doped with Cu by means of the ion-exchange technique in aqueous solution. SBA2 glass was subjected to the ion-exchange process by using different Cu salts (copper(II) nitrate, chloride, acetate, and sulphate) and concentrations. Structural (X-ray diffraction-XRD), morphological (Scanning Electron Microscopy-SEM), and compositional (Energy Dispersion Spectrometry-EDS) analyses evidenced the formation of crystalline phases for glasses ion-exchanged in copper(II) nitrate and chloride solutions; while the ion-exchange in copper(II) acetate solutions lead to the incorporation of higher Cu amount than the ion-exchange in copper(II) sulphate solutions. For this reason, the antibacterial test (inhibition halo towards S. aureus) was performed on SBA2 powders ion-exchanged in copper(II) acetate solutions and evidenced a limited antibacterial effect. A second glass composition (SBA3) was developed to allow a greater incorporation of Cu in the glass surface; SBA3 powders were ion-exchanged in copper(II) acetate solutions (0.01 M and 0.05 M). Cu-doped SBA3 powders showed an amorphous structure; morphological analysis evidenced a rougher surface for Cu-doped powders in comparison to the undoped glass. EDS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the Cu introduction as Cu(II) ions. Bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that Cu introduction did not alter the bioactive behaviour of the glass. Finally, inhibition halo test towards S. aureus evidenced a good antimicrobial effect for glass powders ion-exchanged in copper(II) acetate solutions 0.05 M.
Project description:Pure ZnO and Neodymium (Nd) doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles retained the wurtzite hexagonal structure. From FESEM studies, ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs showed nanorod and nanoflower like morphology respectively. The FT-IR spectra confirmed the Zn-O stretching bands at 422 and 451 cm(-1) for ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs respectively. From the UV-VIS spectroscopic measurement, the excitonic peaks were found around 373 nm and 380 nm for the respective samples. The photoluminescence measurements revealed that the broad emission was composed of ten different bands due to zinc vacancies, oxygen vacancies and surface defects. The antibacterial studies performed against extended spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that the Nd doped ZnO NPs possessed a greater antibacterial effect than the pure ZnO NPs. From confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) analysis, the apoptotic nature of the cells was confirmed by the cell shrinkage, disorganization of cell wall and cell membrane and dead cell of the bacteria. SEM analysis revealed the existence of bacterial loss of viability due to an impairment of cell membrane integrity, which was highly consistent with the damage of cell walls.
Project description:The present investigation deals with facile polyol mediated synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic microorganisms. The synthesis process was carried out by refluxing zinc acetate precursor in diethylene glycol(DEG) and triethylene glycol(TEG) in the presence and in the absence of sodium acetate for 2?h and 3?h. All synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV visible spectroscopy (UV), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy(FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) technique. All nanoparticles showed different degree of antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2654)and Gram-negative Proteus vulgaris (NCIM 2613). The antibacterial and antibiofilm activity was inversely proportional to the size of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles. Among all prepared particles, ZnO nanoparticles with least size (~?15?nm) prepared by refluxing zinc acetate dihydrate in diethylene glycol for 3?h exhibited remarkable antibacterial and antibiofilm activity which may serve as potential alternatives in biomedical application.
Project description:Undoped and Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using Amaranthus spinosus leaf extract as a reducing agent. The physicochemical traits, dissolution, cytotoxicity, as well as the antioxidant, photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of synthesized NPs were investigated. The results revealed that ZnO NPs were rod shaped with hexagonal phase structure, and their crystal size, dissolubility and aggregation decreased with Fe doping of NPs. Cytotoxicity of the NPs was studied against MCF-7 cells by MTT assay. IC50 values for undoped and 1 wt% Fe-doped ZnO NPs were found to be 400 and 600 ?g mL-1, respectively. Cell viability with Fe-doped ZnO NPs was higher than with undoped ZnO. Among the synthesized NPs, A. spinosus-mediated 1 wt% Fe-doped ZnO shows a better decolourization efficiency of 97% for indigo carmine dye under solar irradiance. The antibacterial activity of NPs was tested against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus safensis using disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration and growth curve method. The bactericidal activity of Fe-doped ZnO NPs was more prominent with E. coli than B. safensis bacteria and when compared to undoped ZnO.
Project description:Development of plant based nanoparticles has many advantages over conventional physico-chemical methods and has various applications in medicine and biology. In present study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using leaf extracts of two medicinal plants Cassia fistula and Melia azadarach. 0.01?M zinc acetate dihydrate was used as a precursor in leaf extracts of respective plants for NPs synthesis. The structural and optical properties of NPs were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The antibacterial potential of ZnO NPs was examined by paper disc diffusion method against two clinical strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) based on the zone of inhibition and minimal inhibitory indices (MIC). Change in color of the reaction mixture from brown to white indicated the formation of ZnO NPs. UV peaks at 320?nm and 324?nm, and XRD pattern matching that of JCPDS card for ZnO confirmed the presence of pure ZnO NPs. FTIR further confirmed the presence of bioactive functional groups involved in the reduction of bulk zinc acetate to ZnO NPs. SEM analysis displayed the shape of NPs to be spherical whereas DLS showed their size range from 3 to 68?nm. The C. fistula and M. azadarach mediated ZnO NPs showed strong antimicrobial activity against clinical pathogens compared to standard drugs, suggesting that plant based synthesis of NPs can be an excellent strategy to develop versatile and eco-friendly biomedical products.
Project description:Mixed morphologies of Ga-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are synthesized by vapor transport method. Systematic scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of different morphologies, after periodic heat treatments, gives direct evidence of sublimation. SEM micrographs give direct evidence that morphological defects of nanostructures can be removed by annealing. Ultra Violet (UV) and visible emission depends strongly on the annealing temperatures and luminescent efficiency of UV emission is enhanced significantly with each subsequent heat treatment. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) results suggest that crystal quality improved by annealing and phase separation may occur at high temperatures.
Project description:Ce-doped ZnO (ZnO:Ce) nanorods have been prepared through a solvothermal method and the effects of Ce-doping on the structural, optical and electronic properties of ZnO rods were studied. ZnO:Ce rods were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, BET, DRS and Raman spectroscopy. 5% Ce-doped ZnO rods with an average length of 130 nm and a diameter of 23 nm exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of the Orange II dye under solar light irradiation. The high photocatalytic activity is ascribed to the substantially enhanced light absorption in the visible region, to the high surface area of ZnO:Ce rods and to the effective electron-hole pair separation originating from Ce doping. The influence of various experimental parameters like the pH, the presence of salts and of organic compounds was investigated and no marked detrimental effect on the photocatalytic activity was observed. Finally, recyclability experiments demonstrate that ZnO:Ce rods are a stable solar-light photocatalyst.
Project description:A study on the propane gas-sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films is presented in this work. The films were deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel and dip coating methods, using zinc acetate as a zinc precursor, copper acetate and copper chloride as precursors for doping. For higher sensitivity values, two film thickness values are controlled by the six and eight dippings, whereas for doping, three dippings were used, irrespective of the Cu precursor. The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, and the analysis of the surface morphology and film composition was made through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), respectively. The sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films were then characterized in a propane atmosphere, C₃H₈, at different concentration levels and different operation temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Cu-doped ZnO films doped with copper chloride presented the highest sensitivity of approximately 6 × 10⁴, confirming a strong dependence on the dopant precursor type. The results obtained in this work show that the use of Cu as a dopant in ZnO films processed by sol-gel produces excellent catalysts for sensing C₃H₈ gas.
Project description:Sol-gel technique is used to synthesize as-grown zinc oxide (ZnO) and iron-nickel (Fe-Ni) co-doped ZnO thin films deposited on glass substrates using dip coating technique. The structural properties and crystal imperfections of as-prepared thin films are investigated. We performed the structural analysis of films using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD analysis reveal that the as-prepared films exhibit wurtzite structure. Furthermore, XRD-line profile analysis is performed to study the correlation between structural properties and imperfections of the nanocomposite thin films. The crystallite size and microstrains parameters are predicted using the Williamson-Hall method. We found that the crystallites size increases as the co-doped (Fe-Ni) concentration is increased. However, microstrains of the nanocomposite films decreases as (Fe-Ni) concentration is increased. The optical properties of the (Fe-Ni) co-doped nanocomposite films are investigated by performing UV-Vis (250 nm-700 nm) spectrophotometer measurements. We found that as the (Fe-Ni) concentration level is steadily increased, transmittance of the undoped ZnO thin films is decreased. Remarkably, refractive index of undoped ZnO thin films is found to exhibit values extending from 1.55 to1.88 that would increase as (Fe-Ni) concentration is increased.
Project description:Introduction: In the recent years, green synthesis is a novel method without some disadvantages of physical and chemical methods. In this approach, bacteria, archaebacteria, fungi, and plants may be applied without utilizing toxic and expensive materials for metal nanoparticles (MNPs) preparation. Methods: In this study, we used Taguchi method to obtain optimum conditions in titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticle (NPs) biosynthesis by Halomonas elongata IBRC-M 10214. Design and analysis of Taguchi experiments (an orthogonal assay and analysis of variance [ANOVA]) carried out by the Qualitek-4 software. Effects of TiO(OH)2, incubation temperature, and culturing time for synthesis of TiO2 NPs as well as ZnCl2 concentration, glucose concentration, and incubation temperature for the preparation of ZnO NPs were evaluated as the controllable factors with 3 levels. Characterization of TiO2 and ZnO NPs were determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. Also, the antimicrobial properties of these NPs were investigated based on agar diffusion assay of NPs dispersed in batch cultures using Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 as multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Results: It was evaluated that TiO2 and ZnO NPs had respectively average diameter sizes of 104.63±27.75 and 18.11±8.93 nm with spherical shapes. In contrast to the TiO2 NPs without antibacterial activity, the ZnO NPs had antibacterial effects at 0.1 and 0.01 M of (ZnCl2). Conclusion: The ZnO NPs have the antibacterial effect that can be operative in the medicinal aspect for fighting against prominent MDR bacteria such as E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. aureus ATCC 43300. In total, this study presents a simple method in the biosynthesis of TiO2 and ZnO NPs with low the expense, eco-friendly, and high productivity properties.