Normal and shear strains of the left ventricle in healthy human subjects measured by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Animal studies have shown that shear deformation of myocardial sheets in transmural planes of left ventricular (LV) wall is an important mechanism for systolic wall thickening, and normal and shear strains of the LV free wall differ from those of the interventricular septum (IVS). We sought to test whether these also hold for human hearts. METHODS: Thirty healthy volunteers (male 23 and female 7, aged 34 ± 6 years) from Outpatient Department of the University of Tokyo Hospital were included. Echocardiographic images were obtained in the left decubitus position using a commercially available system (Aloka SSD-6500, Japan) equipped with a 3.5-MHz transducer. The ECG was recorded simultaneously. The peak systolic radial normal strain (length change), shear strain (angle change) and time to peak systolic radial normal strain were obtained non-invasively by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. RESULTS: The peak systolic radial normal strain in both IVS and LV posterior wall (LVPW) showed a trend to increase progressively from the apical level to the basal level, especially at short axis views, and the peak systolic radial normal strain of LVPW was significantly greater than that of IVS at all three levels. The time to peak systolic radial normal strain was the shortest at the basal IVS, and increased progressively from the base to the apical IVS. It gradually increased from the apical to the basal LVPW in sequence, especially at short axis views. The peak of radial normal strain of LVPW occurred much later than the peak of IVS at all three levels. For IVS, the shear deformation was clockwise at basal level, and counterclockwise at mid and apical levels in LV long-axis view. For LVPW, the shear deformations were all counterclockwise in LV long-axis view and increased slightly from base to the apex. LVPW showed larger shear strains than IVS at all three levels. Bland-Altman analysis shows very good agreement between measurements taken by the same observer and by two independent observers. CONCLUSION: "Myocardial sheets" theory also holds true for intact human LV. Moreover, dyssynchrony exists even in healthy human subjects, which should be considered when evaluating the diseased hearts.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ventricular strain measurements vary depending on cardiac chamber (left ventricle [LV] or right ventricle [RV]), type of strain (longitudinal, circumferential, or radial), ventricular level (basal, mid, or apical), myocardial layer (endocardial or epicardial), and software used for analysis, among other demographic factors such as age and gender. Here, we present an analysis of ventricular strain taking all of these variables into account in a cohort of patients with no structural heart disease using a vendor-independent speckle-tracking software. METHODS:LV and RV full-thickness strain parameters were retrospectively measured in 102 patients (mean age 39?±?15?years; 62% female). Within this cohort, we performed further layer-specific strain analysis in 20 subjects. Data were analyzed for global and segmental systolic strain, systolic strain rate, early diastolic strain rate, and their respective time-to-peak values. RESULTS:Mean LV global longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strain values for the entire cohort were?-?18.4?±?2.0%, -?22.1?±?4.1%, and 43.9?±?12.1% respectively, while mean RV global and free wall longitudinal strain values were?-?24.2?±?3.9% and?-?26.1?±?5.2% respectively. Women on average demonstrated higher longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate than men, and longer corresponding time-to-peak values. Longitudinal strain measurements were highest at the apex compared with the mid ventricle and base, and in the endocardium compared with the epicardium. Longitudinal strain was the most reproducible measure, followed closely by circumferential strain, while radial strain showed suboptimal reproducibility. CONCLUSIONS:We present an analysis of ventricular strain in patients with no structural heart disease using a vendor-independent speckle-tracking software.
Project description:Heart failure (HF) imposes a major global health care burden on society and suffering on the individual. About 50% of HF patients have preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). More intricate and comprehensive measurement-focused imaging of multiple strain components may aid in the diagnosis and elucidation of this disease. Here, we describe the development of a semi-automated hyperelastic warping method for rapid comprehensive assessment of biventricular circumferential, longitudinal, and radial strains that is physiological meaningful and reproducible. We recruited and performed cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging on 30 subjects [10 HFpEF, 10 HF with reduced ejection fraction patients (HFrEF) and 10 healthy controls]. In each subject, a three-dimensional heart model including left ventricle (LV), right ventricle (RV), and septum was reconstructed from CMR images. The hyperelastic warping method was used to reference the segmented model with the target images and biventricular circumferential, longitudinal, and radial strain-time curves were obtained. The peak systolic strains are then measured and analyzed in this study. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of the biventricular peak systolic strains was excellent with all ICCs > 0.92. LV peak systolic circumferential, longitudinal, and radial strain, respectively, exhibited a progressive decrease in magnitude from healthy control→HFpEF→HFrEF: control (-15.5 ± 1.90, -15.6 ± 2.06, 41.4 ± 12.2%); HFpEF (-9.37 ± 3.23, -11.3 ± 1.76, 22.8 ± 13.1%); HFrEF (-4.75 ± 2.74, -7.55 ± 1.75, 10.8 ± 4.61%). A similar progressive decrease in magnitude was observed for RV peak systolic circumferential, longitudinal and radial strain: control (-9.91 ± 2.25, -14.5 ± 2.63, 26.8 ± 7.16%); HFpEF (-7.38 ± 3.17, -12.0 ± 2.45, 21.5 ± 10.0%); HFrEF (-5.92 ± 3.13, -8.63 ± 2.79, 15.2 ± 6.33%). Furthermore, septum peak systolic circumferential, longitudinal, and radial strain magnitude decreased gradually from healthy control to HFrEF: control (-7.11 ± 1.81, 16.3 ± 3.23, 18.5 ± 8.64%); HFpEF (-6.11 ± 3.98, -13.4 ± 3.02, 12.5 ± 6.38%); HFrEF (-1.42 ± 1.36, -8.99 ± 2.96, 3.35 ± 2.95%). The ROC analysis indicated LV peak systolic circumferential strain to be the most sensitive marker for differentiating HFpEF from healthy controls. Our results suggest that the hyperelastic warping method with the CMR-derived strains may reveal subtle impairment in HF biventricular mechanics, in particular despite a "normal" ventricular ejection fraction in HFpEF.
Project description:Impairment of left ventricular (LV) longitudinal function has an important role in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This research investigated an association between the longitudinal strain of different myocardial layers, longitudinal rotation and the LV systolic function of HCM patients.The research was performed on 36 HCM patients and 36 healthy subjects. The peak systolic longitudinal strain of the subendocardial, midmyocardial, and subepicardial layers was measured using 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE). The apical long-axis and 4- and 2- chamber views were acquired via 2D Doppler echocardiography. The curve of the longitudinal rotation was traced at 17 timepoints in the analysis of 2 cardiac cycles.Compared with healthy subjects, in HCM patients regional LV peak systolic longitudinal strain was less, not only in hypertrophied LV myocardium, but also in non-hypertrophied myocardium. The rotational degrees of the midmyocardial-septal, apex, and lateral wall of HCM patients were significantly different from that of normal subjects, as follows. In HCM patients, clockwise longitudinal rotation was found. The interventricular septum thickness at end-diastole positively correlated with the peak longitudinal systolic strain of the subendocardial, the midmyocardial, and the subepicardial layers. The area under ROC curve values for subendocardial, midmyocardial and subepicardial layers in HCM patients were 0.923, 0.938, 0.948.In HCM patients, the longitudinal function was damaged, even with normal LV ejection fraction. The peak longitudinal systolic strain of the subendocardial, midmyocardial, and subepicardial layers, and the longitudinal rotation detected by 2D-STE, are very sensitive predictors of systolic function in patients with HCM.
Project description:AIM:To use velocity vector imaging (VVI) technology to evaluate the correlation between the apical four-chamber view and short-axis myocardial movement in rats. METHODS:We used 25 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats to measure the myocardium peak systolic velocity (Vs; cm/s), peak diastolic velocity (Vd; cm/s), peak systolic strain (SR; %), peak systolic strain rate (SRs; 1/s), and peak diastolic strain rate (SRd; 1/s) from the apical four-chamber view of the left ventricle (LV) and the parasternal mitral valve (PMV)-level short-axis view, and to analyze the correlation between myocardial motion in corresponding views of the two sections. RESULTS:Comparing the myocardial motion between the lateral wall's basal segment in the apical four-chamber view of the LV and the lateral wall of the PMV-level short-axis view revealed that the Vd was positively correlated (r = 0.59, p<0.01), as was SRs (r = 0.68, p<0.05). Comparing the myocardial motion between the lateral wall's middle segment in the apical four-chamber view of the LV and the lateral wall of the PMV-level short-axis view demonstrated that Vd, SRs, and SRd were positively correlated (r = 0.63, 0.82, 0.79, respectively, all p<0.01). Our comparison of myocardial motion between the posterior septum's basal segment in the apical four-chamber view of the LV and the posterior septum of PMV-level short-axis view showed that Vd and SRs were positively correlated (r = 0.57, 0.68, respectively, both p<0.01). Comparing the myocardial motion between the posterior septum's middle segment in the apical four-chamber view of the LV and the posterior septum of the PMV-level short-axis view revealed that Vs, Vd, SR, and SRd were positively correlated (r = 0.89, 0.63, 0.64, 0.6, respectively, all p<0.01), and the SRs also had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.53, p<0.05). CONCLUSION:VVI technology could be a valuable tool for evaluating the myocardial walls motion of the apical four-chamber view of the rat LV.
Project description:Heart ventricular dysfunction has been characterized as reduced longitudinal function of the right ventricle (RV), and is associated with chronic alcohol abuse. This study investigated the use of two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) to assess the longitudinal systolic and diastolic RV function of patients with alcoholic myocardial damage.We stratified 92 asymptomatic alcoholic men into three groups of increasing alcohol intake, Groups A-C. Thirty age-matched normal adult men served as the control group. Conventional echocardiography and tricuspid annulus peak systolic excursion (TAPSE) parameters were obtained. 2DSTE parameters were recorded from an apical 4-chamber view of the RV free wall. LV peak global longitudinal systolic strain was calculated from segmental averaging of the three apical long-axis views.In Group C, the RV end diastolic diameter (RVEDD) was dramatically higher than that of Groups A, B and the control, while TAPSE was significantly lower in Group C compared with the other experimental groups. In Group B, the longitudinal early diastolic strain rate (SRe) and late diastolic strain rate (SRa) of the RV free wall, and LV longitudinal strain were significantly lower than that of Group A or the control. In Group C, all the 2DSTE parameters were significantly lower than that of the other groups. A significant negative linear correlation was noted between global RV systolic parameters systolic strain peak (S), peak systolic strain rate (SRs) and TAPSE (r1=-0.84, r2=-0.72, respectively, P <0.05).Two-dimensional STE provided an effective and non-invasive method to assess the RV longitudinal function of patients with alcoholic myocardial damage. This methodology may be useful for diagnosing, directing treatment, and judging prognosis of alcoholic cardiac damage.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We investigated longitudinal right ventricular (RV) function assessed using speckle-tracking strain echocardiography in patient with myocardial infarction (MI), and identified the contributing factors for RV dysfunction.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively studied 71 patients with old MI (the OMI group) and 45 normal subjects (the Control group) who underwent a transthoracic echocardiography. Global and free wall RV peak systolic strains (PSSs) in the longitudinal direction were measured by using speckle-tracking strain echocardiography. Left ventricular (LV) PSSs were measured in the longitudinal, radial and circumferential directions. Cardiac hemodynamics including peak systolic pulmonary artery pressure was also assessed non-invasively. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were measured in all patients.<h4>Results</h4>In the OMI group, 73% of the patients had a normal estimated peak systolic pulmonary artery pressure of less than 35?mmHg. Global and free wall RV PSS were impaired in the OMI group compared with the Control group, and these RV systolic indices were significantly associated with heart rate, logarithmic transformed plasma BNP, greater than 1 year after onset of MI, Doppler-derived estimated pulmonary vascular resistance, LV systolic indices, LV mass index, infarcted segments within a territory of the left circumflex artery and residual total occlusion in the culprit right coronary artery. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated that reduced longitudinal LV PSS in the 4-chamber view and BNP levels ?500 pg/ml were independently associated with reduced global and free wall RV PSS. Moreover, when patients were divided into 3 groups according to plasma BNP levels (BNP <100 pg/ml; n = 31, 100 ?BNP <500 pg/ml; n = 24, and BNP ?500 pg/ml; n = 16), only patients with BNP ?500 pg/ml had a strong correlation between RV PSS and longitudinal LV PSS in the 4-chamber view (r = 0.78 for global RV PSS and r = 0.71 for free wall RV PSS, p <0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Longitudinal RV systolic strain depends significantly on longitudinal LV systolic strain especially in patients with high plasma BNP levels, but not on estimated peak systolic pulmonary artery pressure. These results indicate that process of RV myocardial dysfunction following MI may be governed by neurohormonal activation which causing ventricular remodeling rather than increased RV afterload.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Quantification of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony allows for objective measures of resynchronization therapy (CRT) effectiveness. We tested the hypothesis that site of LV pacing, fusion beats and baseline contractility alter contraction synchrony as quantified by regional and global measures of LV performance. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 8 open-chested pentobarbital-anesthetized canine preparations we compared the effects of right atrial (RA), RA-high right ventricular (RV) free wall, as a model of left bundle branch block contraction pattern, RA-LV apex (LVa), RA-LV free wall (LVfw), and RA-RV-apical LV (CRTa) and RA-RV-free wall LV (CRTfw), as CRT. LV pressure-volume loops recorded using high-fidelity pressure and conductance catheters and echocardiographic angle-corrected color-coded strain imaging of mid-LV short axis views analyzed radial strain from six segments. To control for contractile state esmolol-induced beta blockage was studied, and in 5 dogs to control for RA and ventricular pacing fusion beat artifacts, repeat studies were done following AV node ablation. RA-RV pacing reduced stroke work (SW) (57±18 to 33±13* mmHg·mL,*p<0.05 vs RA pacing), decreased LV end-diastolic volume and induced marked radial dyssynchrony (maximal time difference between peak segmental strain) from 31±15 to 234±60* ms. Changes in radial dyssynchrony correlated significantly with changes in SW (r=-0.53, p<0.01). Dyssynchrony improved with both CRTa and CRTfw (69*±31 and 98*±63 ms, respectively) while SW only improved with CRTa (62±22* and 37±13 mmHg·mL, respectively * p<0.05 vs RV pacing). CRTa also tended to increased LV end-diastolic volume over RA-RV. Esmolol slowed HR from 118±10 to 108±10 beats/min* and tended to decrease contractility (end-systolic elastance (Ees) from 12.1±7.9 to 8.9±3.9 mmHg/ml, p=0.167) but did not alter the degree of RV-pacing induced dyssynchrony. AV ablation had no effect on the observed apical and free wall contraction differences seen during baseline conditions. CONCLUSION: Although both CRTa and CRTfw reduced contraction dyssynchrony, CRTa tended to improve global LV performance more by increasing end-diastolic volume. Thus, CRT may improve global LV performance differently, depending on the LV pacing site.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To determine the inter-study reproducibility of MR feature tracking (MR-FT) derived left ventricular (LV) torsion and torsion rates for a combined assessment of systolic and diastolic myocardial function. METHODS:Steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine LV short-axis stacks were acquired at 9:00 (Exam A), 9:30 (Exam B), and 14:00 (Exam C) in 16 healthy volunteers at 3 Tesla. SSFP images were analyzed offline using MR-FT to assess rotational displacement in apical and basal slices. Global peak torsion, peak systolic and peak diastolic torsion rates were calculated using different definitions ("twist", "normalized twist" and "circumferential-longitudinal (CL) shear angle"). Exam A and B were compared to assess the inter-study reproducibility. Morning and afternoon scans were compared to address possible diurnal variation. RESULTS:The different methods showed good inter-study reproducibility for global peak torsion (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]: 0.90-0.92; coefficient of variation [CoV]: 19.0-20.3%) and global peak systolic torsion rate (ICC: 0.82-0.84; CoV: 25.9-29.0%). Conversely, global peak diastolic torsion rate showed little inter-study reproducibility (ICC: 0.34-0.47; CoV: 40.8-45.5%). Global peak torsion as determined by the CL shear angle showed the best inter-study reproducibility (ICC: 0.90;CoV: 19.0%). MR-FT results were not measurably affected by diurnal variation between morning and afternoon scans (CL shear angle: 4.8 ± 1.4°, 4.8 ± 1.5°, and 4.1 ± 1.6° for Exam A, B, and C, respectively; P = 0.21). CONCLUSION:MR-FT based derivation of myocardial peak torsion and peak systolic torsion rate has high inter-study reproducibility as opposed to peak diastolic torsion rate. The CL shear angle was the most reproducible parameter independently of cardiac anatomy and may develop into a robust tool to quantify cardiac rotational mechanics in longitudinal MR-FT patient studies.
Project description:It is important to understand the distribution of 2-dimensional strain values in normal population. We performed a multicenter trial to measure normal echocardiographic values in the Korean population.This was a substudy of the Normal echOcardiogRaphic Measurements in KoreAn popuLation (NORMAL) study. Echocardiographic specialists measured frequently used echocardiographic indices in healthy people according to a standardized method at 23 different university hospitals. The strain values were analyzed from digitally stored images.Of a total of 1003 healthy participants in NORMAL study, 2-dimensional strain values were measured in 501 subjects (265 females, mean age 47 ± 15 years old) with echocardiographic images only by GE echocardiographic machines. Interventricular septal thickness, left ventricular (LV) posterior wall thickness, systolic and diastolic LV dimensions, and LV ejection fraction were 7.5 ± 1.0 mm, 7.4 ± 1.0 mm, 29.9 ± 2.8 mm, 48.9 ± 3.6 mm, and 62 ± 4%, respectively. LV longitudinal systolic strain (LS) values of apical 4-chamber (A4C) view, apical 3-chamber (A3C) view, apical 2-chamber (A2C) view, and LV global LS (LVGLS) were -20.1 ± 2.3, -19.9 ± 2.7, -21.2 ± 2.6, and -20.4 ± 2.2%, respectively. LV longitudinal systolic strain rate (LVLSR) values of the A4C view, A3C view, A2C view, and LV global LSR (LVGLSR) were -1.18 ± 0.18, -1.20 ± 0.21, -1.25 ± 0.21, and -1.21 ± 0.21-s, respectively. Females had lower LVGLS (-21.2 ± 2.2% vs. -19.5 ± 1.9%, p < 0.001) and LVGLSR (-1.25 ± 0.18-s vs. -1.17 ± 0.15-s, p < 0.001) values than males.We measured LV longitudinal strain and strain rate values in the normal Korean population. Since considerable gender differences were observed, normal echocardiographic cutoff values should be differentially applied based on sex.
Project description:The aim of this study was to assess left ventricular (LV) myocardial strain in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD) and compare LV deformation between subgroups of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) and non-IIM. Ninety-eight patients with CTD, comprising 56 with IIM and 42 with non-IIM, and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled and underwent 3.0T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning. The LV function and strain parameters were measured and assessed. Our result revealed that CTD patients had preserved LV ejection fraction (60.85%) and had significantly decreased global and regional peak strain (PS) in radial, circumferential, and longitudinal directions (all p?<?0.05). IIM patients showed significantly reduced global longitudinal PS (GLPS) and longitudinal PS at apical slice, whereas all strain parameters decreased in non-IIM patients. Except GLPS and longitudinal PS at apical slice, all strain parameters in non-IIM patients were lower than those in IIM patients. By Pearson's correlation analysis, the LV global radial and circumferential PS were correlated to N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level and LV ejection fraction in both IIM and non-IIM patients. This study indicated that CTD patients showed abnormal LV deformation despite with preserved LVEF. The impairment of LV deformation differed between IIM and non-IIM patients.