Prophylactic and therapeutic effect of AZT/3TC in RT-SHIV infected Chinese-origin rhesus macaques.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The precise efficacy of nucleoside analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in preventing and inhibiting virus replication remains unknown in RT-SHIV infected Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (Ch RM). FINDINGS: Ch RM were inoculated intravenously with 200 TCID50 RT-SHIV and treated by gavage with NRTIs (20 mg AZT and 10 mg 3TC twice per day) for four consecutive weeks beginning at one hour, on day 217 or 297 post inoculation, respectively. Treatment with AZT/3TC inhibited transiently RT-SHIV replication during chronic infection, but did not significantly affect peripheral blood CD4+ T cells in macaques. Treatment with AZT/3TC at 1 hour post infection prevented RT-SHIV infection in two out of four animals during the 120-day observation period. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the Ch RM model with RT-SHIV infection can be used to evaluate the efficacy of new NRTIs.
Project description:Vpx encoded by HIV-2 and SIVsm enhances retroviral reverse transcription in macrophages in vitro by mediating the degradation of the host SAMHD1 protein that hydrolyzes dNTPs and by elevating cellular dNTP levels. Here we employed RT-SHIV constructs (SIV encoding HIV-1 RT) to investigate the contribution of Vpx to the potency of NRTIs, which compete against dNTPs, in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and activated CD4(+) T cells. Relative to HIV-1, both SIV and RT-SHIV exhibited reduced sensitivities to AZT, 3TC and TDF in MDMs but not in activated CD4(+) T cells. However, when SIV and RT-SHIV constructs not coding for Vpx were utilized, we observed greater sensitivities to all NRTIs tested using activated CD4(+) T cells relative to the Vpx-coding counterparts. This latter phenomenon was observed for AZT only when using MDMs. Our data suggest that Vpx in RT-SHIVs may underestimate the antiviral efficacy of NRTIs in a cell type dependent manner.
Project description:Since human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated diseases are associated with a high HTLV-1 load, reducing this load may treat or prevent disease. However, despite in vitro evidence that certain nucleoside/nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are active against HTLV-1, in vivo results have been disappointing. We therefore assayed the sensitivity of HTLV-1 primary isolates to a panel of RT inhibitors. HTLV-1 primary isolates were obtained, pre- and post- NRTI treatment, from patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. Sensitivity to azidothymidine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), tenofovir (TDF) and three phosphonated carbocyclic 2'-oxa-3'aza nucleosides (PCOANs) was assessed in a RT inhibitor assay. With the exception of 3TC, HTLV RT from primary isolates was less sensitive to all tested inhibitors than HTLV-1 RT from MT-2 cells. HTLV-1 RT from primary isolates and from chronically infected, transformed MT-2 cells was insensitive to 3TC. Sensitivity of primary isolates to RT inhibitors was not reduced following up to 12 months of patient treatment with AZT plus 3TC. The sensitivity of HTLV-1 primary isolates to NRTIs differs from that of cell lines and may vary among patients. Failure of NRTIs to reduce HTLV-1 viral load in vivo was not due to the development of phenotypic NRTI resistance. AZT and the three PCOANs assayed all consistently inhibited primary isolate HTLV-1 RT.
Project description:Although more-recently developed antivirals target different molecules in the HIV-1 replication cycle, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) remain central for HIV-1 therapy. Here, we test the anti-HIV activity of a phosphonate chimera of two well-known NRTIs, namely AZT and 3TC. We show that this newly synthesized compound suppressed HIV-1 infection in lymphoid tissue ex vivo more efficiently than did other phosphonates of NRTIs. Moreover, the new compound was not toxic for tissue cells, thus making the chimeric phosphonate strategy a valid approach for the development of anti HIV-1 compound heterodimers.
Project description:Immunization with attenuated lentiviruses is the only reliable method of protecting rhesus macaques (RM) from vaginal challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion prior to SIVmac239 vaginal challenge demonstrated that a modest, Gag-specific CD8(+) T cell response induced by immunization with simian-human immunodeficiency virus 89.6 (SHIV89.6) protects RM. Although CD8(+) T cells are required for protection, there is no anamnestic expansion of SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in any tissues except the vagina after challenge. Further, SHIV immunization increased the number of viral target cells in the vagina and cervix, suggesting that the ratio of target cells to antiviral CD8(+) T cells was not a determinant of protection. We hypothesized that persistent replication of the attenuated vaccine virus modulates inflammatory responses and limits T cell activation and expansion by inducing immunoregulatory T cell populations. We found that attenuated SHIV infection decreased the number of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells, suppressed T cell activation, decreased mRNA levels of proinflammatory mediators, and increased mRNA levels of immunoregulatory molecules. Three days after SIV vaginal challenge, SHIV-immunized RM had significantly more T regulatory cells in the vagina than the unimmunized RM. By day 14 postchallenge, immune activation and inflammation were characteristic of unimmunized RM but were minimal in SHIV-immunized RM. Thus, a modest vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cell response in the context of immunoregulatory suppression of T cell activation may protect against vaginal HIV transmission.
Project description:Mucosal HIV-1 transmission is inefficient. However, certain viral and host characteristics may play a role in facilitating HIV acquisition and systemic expansion. Cells expressing high levels of integrin ?4?7 have been implicated in favoring the transmission process and the infusion of an anti-?4?7 mAb (RM-Act-1) prior to, and during a repeated low-dose vaginal challenge (RLDC) regimen with SIVmac251 reduced SIV acquisition and protected the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) in the macaques that acquired SIV. ?4?7 expression is required for lymphocyte trafficking to the gut lamina propria and gut inductive sites. Several therapeutic strategies that target ?4?7 have been shown to be effective in treating inflammatory conditions of the intestine, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To determine if blocking ?4?7 with ELN, an orally available anti-?4 small molecule, would inhibit SHIV-SF162P3 acquisition, we tested its ability to block MAdCAM-1 (?4?7 natural ligand) and HIV-gp120 binding in vitro. We studied the pharmacokinetic profile of ELN after oral and vaginal delivery in macaques. Twenty-six macaques were divided into 3 groups: 9 animals were treated with ELN orally, 9 orally and vaginally and 8 were used as controls. All animals were challenged intra-vaginally with SHIV-SF162P3 using the RLDC regimen. We found that ELN did not protect macaques from SHIV acquisition although it reduced the SHIV-induced inflammatory status during the acute phase of infection. Notably, integrins can exist in different activation states and, comparing the effect of ELN and the anti-?4?7 mAb RM-Act-1 that reduced susceptibility to SIV infection, we determined that ELN induces the active conformation of ?4?7, while RM-Act-1 inhibits its activation through an allosteric mechanism. These results suggest that inhibition of ?4?7 activation may be necessary to reduce susceptibility to SIV/SHIV infection and highlight the complexity of anti-integrins therapeutic approach in HIV as well as in IBD and other autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Recent spread of the promoter variant (4-?B) Human immunodeficiency virus-1 clade C (HIV-1C) strain is attributed to duplication of the Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-?B) binding sites and potential increased heroin consumption in India. To study the underlying biology of 4-?B HIV-1C in rhesus macaques, we engineered a promoter-chimera variant (4NF-?B) Simian Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV) by substituting the HIV-1C Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) region consisting of 4 NF-?B and 3 Sp-1 sites with the corresponding segment in the LTR of SHIV AD8EO. The wild-type (3NF-?B) promoter-chimera SHIV was generated by inactivating the 5' proximal NF-?B binding site in SHIV 4NF-?B. CD8-depleted rhesus macaque PBMCs (RM-PBMCs) were infected with the promoter-chimera and AD8EO SHIVs to determine the effects of opioid-exposure on inflammation, NF-?B activation, neurotoxicity in neuronal cells and viral replication. Morphine-exposure of RM-PBMCs infected with SHIVs 4NF-?B, 3NF-?B, and AD8EO altered cellular transcript levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, interleukin 6, interleukin 1?, and Tumor Necrosis Factor ?. Of note, divergent alteration of the cytokine transcript levels was observed with these promoter-chimera wild-type and variant SHIVs. NF-?B activation was observed during infection of all three SHIVs with morphine-exposure. Finally, we observed that SHIV AD8EO infection and exposure to both morphine and naloxone had the greatest impact on the neurotoxicity. The promoter-chimera SHIV 4NF-?B and SHIV 3NF-?B did not have a similar effect on neurotoxicity as compared to SHIV AD8EO. All SHIVs replicated efficiently at comparable levels in RM-PBMCs and morphine-exposure did not alter viral replication kinetics. Future in vivo studies in rhesus macaques will provide greater understanding of 4-?B HIV-1C viral immunopathogenesis and onset of disease in the central nervous system during morphine-exposure.
Project description:It was recently proposed that HIV RT mutations that decrease RNase H activity increase zidovudine (AZT) resistance by delaying the degradation of the RNA template, allowing more time for AZTMP excision from the 3' end of the viral DNA. This predicts that suboptimal concentrations of an RNase H Inhibitor (RNHI), which would decrease RNaseH activity, would decrease AZT susceptibility. Conversely, a suboptimal concentration of a nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI) would decrease polymerase activity and increase AZT susceptibility. We determined the effect of several RNHIs and an NNRTI (nevirapine) on AZT and lamivudine (3TC) susceptibility with vectors that replicate using WT or AZT resistant RTs. Susceptibility to 3TC, which is not readily excised, did not change significantly. Nevirapine, and most RNHIs tested, had only small effects on the susceptibility of either HIV vector to AZT and 3TC. One RNHI, F0444-0019, increased the IC(50) for AZT for either vector by ~5-fold, which may be a concern.
Project description:Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are an integral part of the current antiretroviral therapy (ART), which dramatically reduced the mortality from AIDS and turned the disease from lethal to chronic. The further steps in curing the HIV-1 infection must include more effective targeting of infected cells and virus sanctuaries inside the body and modification of drugs and treatment schedules to reduce common complications of the long-term treatment and increase patient compliancy. Here, we describe novel NRTI prodrugs synthesized from cholesteryl-?-polylysine (CEPL) nanogels by conjugation with NRTI 5'-succinate derivatives (sNRTI). Biodegradability, small particle size, and high NRTI loading (30% by weight) of these conjugates; extended drug release, which would allow a weekly administration schedule; high therapeutic index (>1000) with a lower toxicity compared to NRTIs; and efficient accumulation in macrophages known as carriers for HIV-1 infection are among the most attractive properties of new nanodrugs. Nanogel conjugates of zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and abacavir (ABC) have been investigated individually and in formulations similar to clinical NRTI cocktails. Nanodrug formulations demonstrated 10-fold suppression of reverse transcriptase activity (EC90) in HIV-infected macrophages at 2-10, 2-4, and 1-2 ?M drug levels, respectively, for single nanodrugs and dual and triple nanodrug cocktails. Nanogel conjugate of lamivudine was the most effective single nanodrug (EC90 2 ?M). Nanodrugs showed a more favorable pharmacokinetics compared to free NRTIs. Infrequent iv injections of PEGylated CEPL-sAZT alone could efficiently suppress HIV-1 RT activity to background level in humanized mouse (hu-PBL) HIV model.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We and others have shown that subtype C HIV-1 isolates from patients failing on a regimen containing stavudine (d4T) or zidovudine (AZT) exhibit thymidine-associated mutations (TAMs) and K65R which can impair the efficacy of Tenofovir (TDF) at second line. Depending on the various studies, the prevalence of K65R substitution as determined by the Sanger method ranges from 4 to 30%. Our aim was to determine whether ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) could provide more information than the Sanger method about selection of K65R in this population of patients. METHODS: 27 subtype C HIV-1 isolates from treated patients failing on a regimen with d4T or AZT plus lamivudine (3TC) plus nevirapine (NVP) or efavirenz (EFV) and who had been sequenced by Sanger were investigated by UDPS at codon 65 of the reverse transcriptase (RT). 18 isolates from naïve patients and dilutions of a control K65R plasmid were analysed by Sanger plus UDPS. RESULTS: Analysis of Sanger sequences of subtype C HIV-1 isolates from naïve patients exhibited expected polymorphic substitutions compared to subtype B but no drug resistance mutations (DRMs). Quantitation of K65R variants by UDPS ranged from <0.4% to 3.08%. Sanger sequences of viral isolates from patients at failure of d4T or AZT plus 3TC plus NVP or EFV showed numerous DRMs to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) including M184V, thymidine-associated mutations (TAMs) plus DRMs to non- nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Two K65R were observed by Sanger in this series of 27 samples with UDPS percentages of 27 and 87%. Other samples without K65R by Sanger exhibited quantities of K65R variants ranging from <0.4% to 0.80%, which were below the values observed in isolates from naïve patients. CONCLUSIONS: While Sanger sequencing of subtype C isolates from treated patients at failure of d4T or AZT plus 3TC plus NVP or EFV exhibited numerous mutations including TAMs and 8% K65R, UDPS quantitation of K65R variants in the same series did not provide any more information than Sanger.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Cardiovascular disease associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has become a major clinical challenge for HIV-positive patients. However, the role of ART in blood vessel growth is largely unknown. Here, we examined an integral component of ART, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and investigated their effects on key microvascular functions, including angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:The angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis capability of endothelial cells (ECs) was evaluated using migration, proliferation and tube formation assays in vitro, and mouse ear and Matrigel plug assays in vivo. Expressions of signalling molecules and mitochondrial antioxidant catalases were determined using Western blotting. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) internalization and endocytosis were examined using flow cytometry and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy respectively. Mitochondrial DNA copy number and ROS were determined using quantitative real-time PCR and MitoSOX staining respectively. KEY RESULTS:Pharmaceutical doses of NRTIs [azidothymidine (AZT), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and lamivudine (3TC)] inhibited angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis both in vivo and in vitro by affecting the proliferation and migration of ECs. Correspondingly, NRTIs selectively attenuated the activation and transduction of endothelial RTK signals, VEGFR2 and FGFR1 pathways, in vascular ECs and the VEGFR3 pathway in lymphatic ECs. Both TDF and 3TC restrained RTKs' endocytosis into early endosomes but not internalization, while AZT blocked the protein maturation of RTKs. Excessive ROS levels were detected in NRTI-treated ECs, and the MnSOD mimic MnTMPyP alleviated the angiogenic/lymphangiogenic defects induced by NRTIs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:NRTIs negatively regulate angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis by inducing mitochondrial oxidative stress and subsequently impairing RTK signalling in ECs. LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on Spotlight on Small Molecules in Cardiovascular Diseases. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.8/issuetoc.