First-trimester levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPP-A2) in the maternal circulation are elevated in pregnancies that subsequently develop preeclampsia.
ABSTRACT: Recent studies have consistently found pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPP-A2) to be upregulated in preeclamptic placentae at term. We tested whether first-trimester circulating PAPP-A2 levels differed between complicated and uncomplicated pregnancies. We measured maternal PAPP-A2 levels at 10 to 14 weeks of gestational age in 17 pregnancies resulting in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, 6 which developed preeclampsia (PE), 1 which developed PE and resulted in an SGA infant, and 37 gestational age-matched controls. The concentration of the PAPP-A2 isoform corresponding to the full-length protein was significantly higher in pregnancies that developed PE (35 ng/mL) compared with those that did not (23 ng/mL; P < .044). In contrast, we found no difference in PAPP-A2 levels between pregnancies that did or did not result in an SGA infant. The upregulation of PAPP-A2 that has previously been observed in PE at term appears to begin early in pregnancy, well before the symptoms develop.
Project description:Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein A2 (PAPP-A2) is a pregnancy related insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) protease, known to be elevated in preeclampsia. As the insulin-like growth factors are important in human implantation and placentation, we sought to determine the expression pattern of PAPP-A2 over human gestation in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies to evaluate its role in placental development and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.Placental basal plate and chorionic villi samples, maternal and fetal cord blood sera were obtained from preeclamptic and control pregnancies. Formalin-fixed tissue sections from across gestation were stained for cytokeratin-7, HLA-G, and PAPP-A2. PAPP-A2 immunoblot analysis was also performed on protein lysates and sera.PAPP-A2 expression is predominately expressed by differentiated trophoblasts and fetal endothelium. Chorionic villi show strong expression in the first trimester, followed by a progressive decrease in the second trimester, which returns in the third trimester. PAPP-A2 expression is not impacted by labor. PAPP-A2 is increased in the basal plate, chorionic villi and maternal sera in preeclampsia compared to controls, but is not detectable in cord blood.PAPP-A2 is differentially expressed in different trophoblast populations and shows strong down regulation in the mid second trimester in chorionic villous samples. Both maternal sera and placental tissue from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia show increased levels of PAPP-A2. PAPP-A2 levels are not altered by labor. Additionally, PAPP-A2 cannot be detected in cord blood demonstrating that the alterations in maternal and placental PAPP-A2 are not recapitulated in the fetal circulation.
Project description:Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 (PAPP-A2) is consistently upregulated in the placentae of pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. The causes and significance of this upregulation remain unknown, but it has been hypothesized that it is a compensatory response to improve placental growth and development. We predicted that, if the upregulation of PAPP-A2 in pregnancy complications reflects a compensatory response, then deletion of Pappa2 in mice would exacerbate the effects of a gene deletion previously reported to impair placental development: deficiency of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9).We crossed mice carrying deletions in Pappa2 and Mmp9 to produce pregnancies deficient in one, both, or neither of these genes. We measured pregnancy rates, number of conceptuses, fetal and placental growth, and the histological structure of the placenta.We found no evidence of reduced fertility, increased pregnancy loss, or increased fetal demise in Mmp9 -/- females. In pregnancies segregating for Mmp9, Mmp9 -/- fetuses were lighter than their siblings with a functional Mmp9 allele. However, deletion of Pappa2 did not exacerbate or reveal any effects of Mmp9 deficiency. We observed some effects of Pappa2 deletion on placental structure that were independent of Mmp9 deficiency, but no effects on fetal growth. At G16, male fetuses were heavier than female fetuses and had heavier placentae with larger junctional zones and smaller labyrinths.Effects of Mmp9 deficiency were not exacerbated by the deletion of Pappa2. Our results do not provide evidence that upregulation of placental PAPP-A2 represents a mechanism to compensate for impaired fetal growth.
Project description:In an effort to improve prenatal screening for Trisomy 21, we evaluated pregnancy associated plasma protein-A2 (PAPP-A2) as a potential novel second trimester biomarker for Trisomy 21.Trisomy 21 and normal control mid-trimester placental samples were subjected to quantitative rt PCR analysis of seven genes we had previously found to be differentially expressed in Trisomy 21 placentae. The localization and differential expression of PAPP-A2 in second trimester placentae from normal and Trisomy 21 pregnancies was determined by immunohistochemistry. PAPP-A2 maternal serum protein levels in ten Trisomy 21 and ten diploid pregnancies were compared by Western blotting. Maternal serum PAPP-A2 levels were measured in 30 Down syndrome cases and 142 normal controls, using ELISA. Regression analysis was used to determine the correlation of PAPP-A2 with other existing markers of Trisomy 21.PAPP-A2 (aka PLAC 3) mRNA and protein expression were both increased in Down syndrome placentae as compared to diploid placentae. PAPP-A2 was also increased in maternal serum from Down syndrome pregnancies as compared to diploid pregnancies. PAPP-A2 expression correlated weakly with established markers.This work takes advantage of our previously performed systematic approach to the discovery of novel maternal serum biomarkers for Trisomy 21, using cDNA microarray analysis. Beginning with the validation of the microarray results, we have tracked PAPP-A2 overexpression in Down syndrome from placental mRNA to maternal serum protein.PAPP-A2 could serve as an additional maternal serum marker in prenatal screening for Trisomy 21.
Project description:Objective:Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 (PAPP-A2) is a metalloproteinase that cleaves IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5. Human mutations in PAPPA2 result in short stature with a low percentage of free IGF-I. Little is known about PAPP-A2 levels and the regulation of free IGF-I throughout childhood. We examined PAPP-A2 and intact IGFBP-3 levels in childhood and explored associations between PAPP-A2, free and total IGF-I, and total and intact IGFBP-3 and their relationship to the percentage of free to total IGF-I and anthropometric factors. Design:Cross-sectional study at a single center. Methods:PAPP-A2, free IGF-I, and intact IGFBP-3 levels were measured in childhood (3-18 years old) and an evaluation of the relationship between these proteins and anthropometric factors. Results:In 838 children, PAPP-A2 consistently decreased throughout childhood. In contrast, free IGF-I increased. A pubertal peak in free IGF-I was present in females but was less evident in males. Intact and total IGFBP-3 increased throughout childhood; however, intact IGFBP-3 had a more marked rise than total IGFBP-3. Percent free IGF-I decreased with no distinct pubertal peak. PAPP-A2 levels positively correlated with the percent free IGF-I (Male, Female; r = 0.18, 0.38; P < 0.001) and negatively with intact IGFBP-3 (Male, Female; r = -0.58, -0.65; P < 0.0001). Conclusions:This is the first study to describe serum PAPP-A2 and intact IGFBP-3 in children between 3 and 18 years of age. Our correlative findings suggest that PAPP-A2 is an important regulator of the percent free IGF-I which can be a marker of perturbations in the GH/IGF-I axis.
Project description:Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and its homolog PAPP-A2 are enzymes that modulate the availability and mitogenic activity of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). PAPP-A has been implicated in numerous cancers but reports on PAPP-A2 in malignancy are non-existent. In a prospective observational study of 689 patients under suspicion of lung cancer, we examined levels of PAPP-A and PAPP-A2 and their relationship with mortality. Serum PAPP-A and PAPP-A2 concentrations were determined in pre-diagnostic blood samples using ELISA, and immunohistochemical staining of PAPP-A and PAPP-A2 was performed in malignant tissue from five operable patients. A total of 144 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer, whereas the diagnosis was rejected in 545 subjects, who served as a control group. PAPP-A2 concentrations were higher in patients with lung cancer [median (IQR): 0.33 (0.21-0.56) ng/mL] than in controls [0.27 (0.17-0.39) ng/mL], p < 0.001, whereas PAPP-A levels did not differ. Presence of PAPP-A and PAPP-A2 were confirmed in tumor specimens, and staining occurred in a heterogeneous pattern. Patients were observed for a median (range) of 7 (6; 8) years, during which 114 patients (79.2%) died. Patient mortality differed according to PAPP-A2 tertile (p < 0.001). PAPP-A2 was associated with mortality with an unadjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) per doubling in protein concentration of 1.30 (1.12; 1.53), p = 0.001. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, sex, and BMI, PAPP-A2 remained predictive of the endpoint with a hazard ratio per doubling in protein concentration of 1.25 (1.05; 1.48), p = 0.013. Collectively, PAPP-A2, but not PAPP-A, is elevated in patients with lung cancer and associated with mortality. This novel role of PAPP-A2 in cancer warrants further functional studies as well as validation in external cohorts.
Project description:Small for gestational age (SGA) newborns are often born from hypertensive pregnancies. This study aimed to compare the systemic metabolism of cortisol (F) in pregnancies with SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants, considering both the normotensive (NT) and hypertensive patients. We hypothesized that the disturbances in systemic metabolism of F in pre-eclampsia (PE) might be attributed not to hypertension only, but to SGA. The study included 117 pregnants in the third trimester, divided into groups: NT pregnancy and SGA neonate (SGA-NT); NT pregnancy and AGA neonate (AGA-NT; controls), and respective groups with PE: SGA-PE and AGA-PE. We assessed the glucocorticoid balance with the function of enzymes involved in systemic metabolism of F: 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and 2 (11?-HSD1 and 11?-HSD2), 5?- and 5?-reductase. The enzymes' functions were estimated with the levels of F, cortisone (E), and their metabolites in plasma or urine, which we measured with HPLC-FLD and HPLC-MS/MS. The plasma F/E and urinary free F/E (UFF/UFE) ratios correlated significantly only in patients with the normal function of 5?- and 5?-reductase. The increased function of 11?-HSD2 was noted in all pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Increased function of 5?- and 5?-reductase was specific only for SGA-PE pregnancies, and the function of 5?-reductase was dependent on fetal sex. The SGA-NT pregnancies with male fetuses trended towards the higher function of renal 11?-HSD2 and 5?-reductase; SGA-NT pregnancies with female fetuses lacked any systemic glucocorticoid imbalance. In conclusion, systemic metabolism of F is the most intensive in pre-eclamptic pregnancies complicated by SGA with female fetuses. Our study supports the hypothesis about the different origins of PE and idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction and suggests the sex-specific mechanisms responsible for fetal growth restriction.
Project description:The pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPP-A2) cleaves insulinlike growth factor binding proteins 3 and 5, releasing free insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Homozygous mutations in PAPP-A2 result in growth failure with elevated total but low free IGF-1.To determine the 24-hour pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of free and total IGF-1 after a dose of recombinant human insulinlike growth factor 1 (rhIGF-1). We describe the growth response and effects on glucose metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) after 1 year of rhIGF-1 therapy.Three affected siblings, their heterozygous parents, and two healthy controls participated. The subjects received a dose of rhIGF-1, followed by serial blood samples collected over 24 hours. The two younger siblings were started on rhIGF-1 treatment. An oral glucose tolerance test and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were obtained at baseline and after 1 year of treatment.Subcutaneous administration of rhIGF-1 increased the concentration of free and total IGF-1 in patients with PAPP-A2 deficiency. The PK profile was comparable in all participants. At baseline, all three subjects demonstrated insulin resistance and below-average BMD. Treatment with rhIGF-1 is ongoing in the youngest patient but was discontinued in his brother because of the development of pseudotumor cerebri. The treated patient had an increase in height velocity from 3.0 to 6.2 cm/y, resolution of insulin resistance, and an increase in total body BMD.rhIGF-1 at standard dosages resulted in similar PK characteristics in patients with PAPP-A2 deficiency, heterozygous relatives, and healthy controls. The youngest affected patient experienced a modest growth response to therapy with rhIGF-1, as well as beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and bone mass.
Project description:Background:Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and -A2 (PAPP-A and -A2) are principally expressed in placental trophoblasts and play a critical role in the regulation of fetal and placental growth. PAPP-A2 shares 45% amino acid similarity with PAPP-A. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of real-time detection of PAPP-A and PAPP-A2 using a novel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on graphene oxide (GO). Methods:Traditional SPR and GO-based SPR chips were fabricated to measure PAPP-A and PAPP-A2 concentrations. We compared SPR response curves of PAPP-A and PAPP-A2 between traditional SPR and GO-SPR biosensors. We also performed interference tests and specificity analyses among PAPP-A, PAPP-A2, and mixed interference proteins. Results:The time to detect PAPP-A and PAPP-A2 was about 150 seconds with both traditional SPR and GO-SPR biosensors. Approximately double SPR angle shifts were noted with the GO-SPR biosensor compared to the traditional SPR biosensor at a PAPP-A and PAPP-A2 concentration of 5 ?g/mL. The limit of detection of the GO-SPR biosensor was as low as 0.5 ng/mL for both PAPP-A and PAPP-A2. Interference testing revealed that almost all of the protein bonded on the GO-SPR biosensor with anti-PAPP-A from the mixture of proteins was PAPP-A, and that almost no other proteins were captured except for PAPP-A2. However, the SPR signal of PAPP-A2 (5.75 mdeg) was much smaller than that of PAPP-A (13.76 mdeg). Similar results were noted with anti-PAPP-A2, where almost all of the protein bonded on the GO-SPR biosensor was PAPP-A2. The SPR signal of PAPP-A (5.17 mdeg) was much smaller than that of PAPP-A2 (13.94 mdeg). Conclusion:The GO-SPR biosensor could distinguish PAPP-A and PAPP-A2 from various mixed interference proteins with high sensitivity and specificity. It could potentially be used to measure PAPP-A and PAPP-A2 in clinical blood samples during pregnancy.
Project description:Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is one of the major causes of child disability and early osteoarthritis. Genetic factors play an important role, but which still remain unclear. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 (PAPP-A2), a special hydrolase of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5), has been confirmed to be associated with DDH by previous studies. The aim of this study was firstly, to investigate the expression of PAPP-A2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway-related proteins in normal rat's hip joints; secondly, to compare the variations of those proteins between DDH model rats and normal ones. The DDH model was established by swaddling the rat's hind legs in hip adduction and extension position. The hip joints were collected for expression study of fetal rats, normal newborn rats, and DDH model rats. Positive expression of PAPP-A2 and IGF pathway-related proteins was observed in all the hip joints of growing-stage rats. Ultimately, IGF1 was downregulated; insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) showed an opposite trend in DDH rats when compared with normal group. The PAPP-A2 and IGF pathway-associated proteins may also be involved in the development of the rat's hip joint, which bring the foundation for further revealing the pathogenic mechanism of DDH.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Accumulating evidence suggests that an imbalance between pro-angiogenic (i.e., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF)) and anti-angiogenic factors (i.e., soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1, also referred to as sFlt1)) is involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE). Endoglin is a protein that regulates the pro-angiogenic effects of transforming growth factor beta, and its soluble form has recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of PE. The objective of this study was to determine if changes in maternal plasma concentration of these angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors differ prior to development of disease among patients with normal pregnancies and those destined to develop PE (preterm and term) or to deliver a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate. METHODS:This longitudinal nested case-control study included 144 singleton pregnancies in the following groups: (1) patients with uncomplicated pregnancies who delivered appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates (n = 46); (2) patients who delivered an SGA neonate but did not develop PE (n = 56); and (3) patients who developed PE (n = 42). Longitudinal samples were collected at each prenatal visit, scheduled at 4-week intervals from the first or early second trimester until delivery. Plasma concentrations of soluble endoglin (s-Eng), sVEGFR-1, and PlGF were determined by specific and sensitive ELISA. RESULTS:(1) Patients destined to deliver an SGA neonate had higher plasma concentrations of s-Eng throughout gestation than those with normal pregnancies; (2) patients destined to develop preterm PE and term PE had significantly higher concentrations of s-Eng than those with normal pregnancies at 23 and 30 weeks, respectively (for preterm PE: p < 0.036 and for term PE: p = 0.002); (3) patients destined to develop PE (term or preterm) and those who delivered an SGA neonate had lower plasma concentrations of PlGF than those with a normal pregnancy throughout gestation, and the maternal plasma concentration of this analyte became detectable later among patients with pregnancy complications, compared to normal pregnant women; (4) there were no significant differences in the plasma concentrations of sVEGFR-1 between patients destined to deliver an SGA neonate and those with normal pregnancies; (5) patients destined to develop preterm and term PE had a significantly higher plasma concentration of sVEGFR-1 at 26 and 29 weeks of gestation than controls (p = 0.009 and p = 0.0199, respectively); and (6) there was no significant difference in the increment of sVEGFR-1 between control patients and those who delivered an SGA neonate (p = 0.147 at 25 weeks and p = 0.8285 at 40 weeks). CONCLUSIONS:(1) Changes in the maternal plasma concentration of s-Eng, sVEGFR-1, and PlGF precede the clinical presentation of PE, but only changes in s-Eng and PlGF precede the delivery of an SGA neonate; and (2) differences in the profile of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic response to intrauterine insults may determine whether a patient will deliver an SGA neonate, develop PE, or both.